> RTQq`0&bjbjqPqP:L::6666\4-2-------$.h21=-=-R-eee:-e-eer(T)V63^))-h-0-7)>2X>2))f>2;*L6e3,_=-=-|-DRRThe Point or the Primary Geometric Object
Fathi ZERARI, Professor Assistant, Rank A
University Centre Chrif Messadia, Algeria
Amirouche St., Nr. 16, Algeria
Courriel41000yahoo.fr
The Point or the Primary Geometric Object
Abstract
The definition of a point in geometry is primordial in order to understand the different elements of this branch of mathematics ( line, surface, solids). This paper aims at shedding fresh light on the concept to demonstrate that it is related to another one named, here, the Primary Geometric Object; both concepts concur to understand the multiplicity of geometries and to provide hints as concerns a new understanding of some concepts in physics such as time, energy, mass
Key words: point, velocity, time, mass, energy
Introduction
Leopold Kronecker once said that God has given us entire numbers and all the rest is our work ( Jean-Pierre [ 1996 ], p. 89 ).
The basic and tiniest element in geometry is that mysterious point. This paper tries to clarify this concept as well as some of its implications, notably those concerning the existence of non-Euclidean geometries. Some concepts, in physics, such as: time, magnitude, velocity, mass, energycould also converge with this concept in the way that will be explained below.
A multitude of definitions of geometry can be considered; one of the simplest is that of Jean Michel Kantor who defines it as the field of mathematics that studies figures and space (Jean-Michel [unpublished]).
Within the field of geometry, this paper asks a question and tries to answer it concisely.
1. What is a point ?
Mathematicians give different definitions or views on the point; for example, Euclid sees a point as being '' that which has no parts ( Euclid [ 1956 ], p. 153 ).'' As for Leibniz, he views it as an entity without any parts and having a certain position (Gilles Gaston [1994], p. 215).
Formulating definitions necessitates defining the parts of the definition first; this can lead to an unattainable infinite process; therefore, many mathematicians avoid explicit definitions. Nevertheless, this paper endeavors to give a different conception of the point, but before that, it should point out that the above ones contain a contradiction; on one hand, they acknowledge that the point makes part of the world of geometry; whereas, they consider it dimensionless . This may be the fruit of a certain reasoning made on the basis that geometric objects are three-dimensional (solids), two-dimensional (surfaces) or one-dimensional (lines); hence, the point should follow this logic and be non-dimensional since it is an elementary element. But, how can a non-dimensional object be part of a world of dimensions- Geometry?
1.1. The Primary Geometric Object
This paper proposes the primary geometric object as the fundamental unit in building geometric objects. This proposition is built upon the fact that since complex geometric objects are conceivable, there should exist a smallest unit that is indivisible and dimensional with which they are built.
As a result, this concept, the Primary Geometric Object -PGO- is an indivisible magnitude that constitutes the fundamental unit of any geometric object.
1.2. Does the point exist in geometry ?
It can be said that the PGO is the same as the point as conceived by Euclid and Leibniz with the sole difference which is that of dimensionality. This unique difference is enough to make of them different concepts, but can the PGO be called a point with a new meaning? In fact, there is no objection, but a point is used here with a different meaning than the PGO or the above mentioned conceptions. A point is seen as an object that contradicts the PGO; i.e., a point does not make part of the world of geometric objects though it has an undeniable effect on the world of geometry in conceiving quantity and shape. To illustrate this, let us imagine the PGO as a dot of light used to draw figures; the point would be the dark moment between two blinks or the two dark moments preceding and succeeding a blink; this can lead us to think that a segment of line, for example, is made up of a series of points; whereas, it is made up of a definite series of PGO; the dark does not constitute light but it serves to distinguish the number of blinks-quantity- and relation between blinks- shapes; thus, the point delimitates the PGO in number and shape; this makes us think that the PGO and the point are one thing; i.e., the fundamental unit of geometry.
From the above, we can say that the difficulty of conceiving the point derives from the impossibility to deny its effect in geometry to make distinction between quantities and shapes, on one hand, and confusing this effect with the necessity of a primary geometric object to construct quantified shapes, on the other hand.
2. The Shape of the PGO
The PGO is perceived, here, as the fundamental unit in building complex geometric objects, but can it have a shape that can be perceived as the primary shape? Nobody can assume that a certain shape is the primary shape for that can't be demonstrated; therefore, the shape of the PGO is the field of postulates.
For instance, a Euclidean conception of the shape of the straight line, according to the first postulate (Euclid [1956], p. 12), is different from Lobatchevski, Poincar and Riemann's (Eric E. [1985], pp. 85-102). It seems that the PGO is an ideal entity whose assumed shape is to be magnified at a much bigger scale to propose a certain geometry. For instance, no geometry can have a definition of a straight line because that would require clarifying the notion of straightness which is not primary but related to external elements which would require being defined in their turn and so on; hence, any definition would face a vicious circle. Therefore, conceiving a geometry is conceiving a harmonious quantifiable world of shapes that imitates the PGO in its unity and harmony. In fact, the possibility of measurement in geometry finds its basis in the existence of the PGO as a consistent unit that allows quantitative relations between geometric objects for they are, simply, made of it.
3. Some Implications of the PGO in Physics
Taking into account the concept of the PGO as the smallest theoretical magnitude and assuming that matter follows this logic and is constituted of a Primary Physical Object-PPO- would lead to consider that:
The smallest theoretical lapse of time is that corresponding to the move of the PPO from a PGO to an adjacent PGO; i.e., the disappearance of that object from an initial PGO and its appearance in the adjacent PGO because there is not an intermediate position between two PGOs.
The largest theoretical velocity is that of a PPO which equals, at least, the velocity of light in space because at the PPO scale, mass and energy are the same.
Conclusion
This paper is an attempt to shed fresh light on a tiny, yet important, entity which is the point so as to differentiate it from a close, yet contradictory, object which is the Primary Geometric Object. This would give some explanation about the reason behind multiplicity, yet consistent, geometries and could provide some guidance to more precise measurements and new understanding of already known notions of time, space, velocity, mass and energy.
References
Eric E. [1985]: Ferdinand Gonseth, Lausanne.
Euclid [1956]: The Thirteen Books of Euclid's Elements, translated with introduction and commentary by Sir Thomas L. Heath, Vol. 1. (Books I and II), New York, Dover Publications.
Gilles Gaston G. [1994]: Formes Oprations, Objets, Paris, Vrin.
Jean-Michel, K. [unpublished] : ' Qu'est ce qu'un point ?',
Jean-Pierre, B. [ 1996 ]: La notion de nombre chez Dedekind, Cantor; Frege, Paris, Vrin.
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