Results for 'Z. G. ma'

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  1.  91
    Plasma Brain Dynamics (PBD): A Mechanism for EEG Waves Under Human Consciousness.Z. G. ma - 2017 - Cosmos and History 13 (2):185-203.
    EEG signals are records of nonlinear solitary waves in human brains. The waves have several types (e.g., α, β, γ, θ, δ) in response to different (...)levels of consciousness. They are classified into two groups: Group-1 consists of complex storm-like waves (α, β, and γ); Group-2 is composed of simple quasilinear waves (θ and δ). In order to elucidate the mechanism of EEG wave formation and propagation, this paper extends the Vlasov-Maxwell equations of Plasma Brain Dynamics (PBD) to a set of two-fluid, self-similar, nonlinear solitary wave equations. Numerical simulations are performed for different EEG signals. Main results include: (1) The excitation and propagation of the EEG wave packets are dependent of electric and magnetic fields, brain aqua-ions, electron and ion temperatures, masses, and their initial fluid speeds; (2) Group-1 complex waves contain three ingredients: the high-frequency ion-acoustic (IA) mode, the intermediate-frequency lower-hybrid (LH) mode, and, the low-frequency ion-cyclotron (IC) mode; (3) Group-2 simple waves fall within the IA band, featured by one or a combination of the three envelopes: sinusoidal, sawtooth, and spiky/bipolar. The study proposes an alternative model to Quantum Brain Dynamics (QBD) by suggesting that the formation and propagation of the nonlinear solitary EEG waves in the brain have the same mechanism as that of the waves in space plasmas. (shrink)
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  2. Review: The Powers of the Universe by Brian Swimme.Z. G. ma - 2018 - Asian Research Journal of Arts and Social Sciences 5 (2):01-08.
    This essay presents a review on Brian Swimmes 3-DVD set of lecture series in the interdisciplinary field of philosophy, cosmology and consciousness. In the eleven 45 (...)-minute episodes of a systematic 9-hour immersive program, a set of 12 intercorrelated cosmological powers is proposed on the basis of modern scientific theory. A positive and life-affirming vision of human potential is attained together with a new level of ecological responsibility and relatedness. The interwoven cosmological paradigm compromises with two ancient eastern wisdoms. (shrink)
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  3. Hegel's Eurocentric Triads of Dialectics and its Transformation to Kelly's Planetary Paradigm.Z. G. ma - 2018 - Asian Research Journal of Arts and Social Sciences 5 (1):01-12.
    This article introduces Hegel's Eurocentric philosophy of dialectics in the 19th century and its transformation to Kellys planetary paradigm at the turn of the 20th-21st (...)
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  4. Color Realism: True or Not?Z. G. ma - 2017 - Asian Research Journal of Arts and Social Sciences 4 (4):01-05.
    Color realism refers to that things are colored, or colors are real. Although the view goes in a minority opinion, Byrne & Hilbert defend it based on the (...) physical properties of color and the peculiarly assumed hue-magnitudes. However, hues are mind-dependent and cannot be used as a measure of the physical properties of things. As a result, the defense fails to justify the proposition of color realism. (shrink)
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  5. Plasma Brain Dynamics (PBD): II. Quantum Effects on Consciousness.John Z. G. Ma - 2018 - Cosmos and History 14 (1):91-104.
    This article studies the quantum effect of the brain neuronal system on both normal and abnormal conscious states. It develops Plasma Brain Dynamics (PBD) to obtain a (...)
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  6. Trickster-Like Teachings in Tibetan Buddhism: Shortcuts Towards Destroying Illusions.Z. ma - 2018 - Asian Research Journal of Arts and Social Sciences 5 (1):01-09.
    Trickster-like Dharma teachings in Tibetan Buddhism behave as a kind of shortcuts in the approach to leading people along the path of enlightenment. This essay collects (...)three such teachings of different levels towards destroying illusions, i.e., Buddhas silence, Gurus paradox, and Egos kleshas. They are necessary asan ace up the sleevefor Buddha to destruct disciplesmetaphysical quagmire, for Guru to lead community toward perfect transcendence, and for individuals to attain self-consciousness. (shrink)
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  7.  7
    ANNOTATED LITURGY OF CEREMONIAL REPENTANCE AND PENITENCE BEFORE 88 BUDDHAS.Z. ma (ed.) - 2020 - Montreal, Canada: Pāramitā Publishing Studio.
    There are seven Chapters in the Liturgy (or Sastra), including Praise; Refuge; Aspiration; Worship; Prostration; Repentance, Penance, and Devotion; and, Great Transference. Annotations are given at the (...)
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  8. In der Gegenwart der Anderen. Norbert Elias über Leben und Sterben in der modernen Gesellschaft.Małgorzata Bogaczyk-Vormayr - 2013 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 3 (2):429-444.
    Artykuł w głównej mierze poświęcony jest analizie późnego eseju Norberta Eliasa Über die Einsamkeit der Sterbenden in unseren Tagen (1982). W pierwszej części autorka rozpatruje socjologiczne refleksje (...)
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  9. Ins Ohr des Allwissenden schreit auch der letzte Krampf des zertretenen Wurms“. Luise Millerin und der Secretarius Wurm in Friedrich Schillers Kabale und Liebe zwischen christlich-bürgerlichen Wertvorstellungen, Antisemitismus und jüdischer Emanzipation.Frank Michael Schuster - 2010 - Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Germanica 6:195-224.
    Friedrich Schiller wielokrotnie angażował się w walkę o wolność, co wpłynęło na jego wielką popularność wśród Żydów z Europy Środkowej. Pod koniec lat osiemdziesiątych XVIII w., gdy (...)
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  10. Quantum Filozofi.Ismet Sahin (ed.) - 2018 - Ankara, Turkey: Praksis.
    Bu çalışma kitap olmayan bir kitaptır. Okur klasik kitaplarda alıştığı tamamlanmış metinler, çözümlenmiş bilimsel ve felsefi problemler beklemesin bu çalışmada. Sunduğum şey üzerinde çalıştığım konular ve o (...)
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  11. The Form is Not a Proper Part in Aristotles Metaphysics Z.17, 1041b1133.Liva Rotkale - 2018 - Metaphysics 1 (1):75-87.
    When Aristotle argues at the Metaphysics Z.17, 1041b1133 that a whole, which is not a heap, containssomething else’, i.e. the form, besides the elements, (...)
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  12. H.-G. Gadamer, Idea dobra w dyskusji między Platonem a Arystotelesem, przełożył Zbigniew Nerczuk, Wydawnictwo Antyk, Kęty 2002, s. 143 (H.-G. Gadamer, Die Idee des guten zwischen Platon und Aristoteles).Zbigniew Nerczuk (ed.) - 2002 - Kęty: Wydawnictwo Antyk.
    Jest to wybór z pracy Gadamera "Idea dobra..." Zawiera Przedmowę, Zakres problemu, Rozdział I (Sokratejska wiedza i niewiedza) oraz Posłowie tłumacza. This is the opening part (...) of the Polish translation of Gadamers' The idea of the good... with the Translator's afterword. (shrink)
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  13.  70
    Evrensel İlkeler Işığında Yerel Değerlerin Anlamlandırılması Olanaklı Mıdır? Kantın Ahlâk İlkesinin Uygulanmasına Dair Öneriler.İsmail Serin - 2009 - In Türkiye ve Ortadoğu Amme İdaresi Enstitüsü (TODAİE) Kamu Etiği Sempozyumu, Sempozyum Bildirileri Kitabı. Ankara, Turkey: pp. 235-238.
    İlk kez derli toplu bir biçimde Aydınlanma Çağının en önemli ve etkili filozofu İmmanuel Kantın dillendirdiği evrensel ahlâk yasası uyarınca insan öyle eylemelidir ki, davranışıyla insanı (...)araç haline getirmesin. Kültürden, toplumun koşullarından, geleneklerden ve dinsel etkilerden arındırılmış bu ilkenin buyurganlığı herhangi bir koşul ya da sınır tanımamasıyla ünlüdür. Oysa insanlar, hem bireysel hem de toplumsal gerekçelerle bu formel ilkeyle kendilerini her zaman bir çekişme içinde bulurlar. Kantın ahlâk anlayışı açısından etik değerlerin herhangi bir kültürel, toplumsal ya da siyasal baskı ya da ilgi içerisinde anlaşılmaması gerekir. Bu ilke(ler) evrenseldir; ulusal ya da yerel çerçeveyle sınırlı görülemezler. Oysa özellikle ulusal sınırlarla belirlenmiş topraklarda yaşayan toplumlann kendi kültürlerinden geleneklerinden süzülerek gelen değerler her zaman bu evrensel ilkelerle uyum içinde değildirler. Aralarında gerilim arttığında genellikle evrensel ilkeler lehinde çözüme gidilmek istenir. Yani yerel değerler yeniden anlamlandırılır. Toplumlann örgütlenmesinde rol oynayan faktörlerin pek çoğunun devredışı bırakılmasının nedeni bunlann, sorunlan çözmekten ziyade artırdığının apaçık olmasıdır. Söz gelişi Ortaçağ boyunca Avrupada yaşanmış mezhep çatışmalan, ahlâk ilkelerininin dinsel değerler tarafından tanımlanmasının önündeki en büyük engeldir. Kantm ahlâk felsefesinin Hıristiyanlık idealleri üzerine kurulmadığı apaçıktır, lyinin kökeninde günah/sevap ya da kutsal metinlerin buyurganlığı yoktur. Bunun böyle olmasının bir nedeni de ortaçağlar boyunca Avrupada yaşanmış olduğunu gözlemlediğimiz dinsel çatışmalann ahlâk ilkelerinin evrenselleşmesini önlemesidir. İyi ya da doğrunun belirli bir inanç sisteminin önceliklerine terk edilmesi fanatizmi azaltacağına güçlendirmiştir. Yani iyi bir Hıristiyan olmak iyi ahlâklı bir insan olmaktan önce gelmesi eleştirilmektedir. Kısacası ahlâkın temeline dinsel bir dayanak yerleştirmektense, aklı koyan bir yaklaşım söz konusudur. Dinsel çatışmalar bu tercihin yapılmasını kolaylaştırmıştır. Bu noktada ulusal değerler çok daha büyük güçlükler doğurmaktadır; çünkü tarihin kaydettiği olaylar, homojen bir değerler bütünlüğü olmadığım düşündürmektedir. Sonuç olarak, evrensel bir ahlâk ilkesine duyulan ihtiyaç ile içinde yaşadığımız çağın gerçekleri arasındaki makasın açılması tepeden dayatma tehlikesini artırırken, makasın kapanması toplumsal ilerlemenin ve gelişmenin meşruluğuna katkıda bulunmaktadır. Bu bildiride evrensel ilkelerin yerel değerleri anlamlandırmasının olanaklılığı, Kantın ahlâk felsefesi model alınarak sorgulanacaktır. (shrink)
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  14.  45
    Św. Tomasz z Akwinu, Traktat o Bogu.Zbigniew Nerczuk, G. Kurylewicz & M. Olszewski (eds.) - 1999 - Kraków, Polska: Wydawnictwo Znak.
    Jest to fragment traktatu "O Bogu" z "Summy Teologii" św. Tomasza z Akwinu - zawiera on Wstęp, Wprowadzenie i przekład ksiąg VII - X. ks. VII (...) - "O nieskończoności Boga" ks. VIII - "O byciu Boga w rzeczach" ks. IX - "O niezmienności Boga" ks. X - "O wieczności Boga". (shrink)
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  15. Fasi e momenti della speculazione hegeliana.Stefano Ulliana (ed.) - 2012 - www.simplicissimus.it.
    Questo breve volumetto cerca di descrivere in modo abbastanza rapido, ma nello stesso tempo preciso ed articolato, la struttura in divenire del pensiero di G.F.W. Hegel (...). Dalla sua prima fase, animata dagli ideali giacobini e rivoluzionari, alla sua conclusione, quando il pensiero hegeliano sembrava prestarsi bene - come strumento ideologico - al movimento di restituzione regressiva ed autoritaria del potere, imposto dallle sconfitte di Napoleone e dal Congresso di Vienna. Il testo è stato prodotto come tesina per il superamento dell'esame finale For.Com nell'anno accademico 2010-2011. (shrink)
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  16. Bilimsel Bilginin Sosyolojisi ve Keşif-Gerekçelendirme Ayrımı Üzerine.Alper Bilgehan Yardımcı - 2019 - FLSF (Felsefe Ve Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi) 1 (28):387-403.
    Bilime ve bilimsel bilgiye yönelik yaygın görüş, bilimin objektif bir faaliyet olduğudur. Bu görüş bilimsel bilginin elde edilmesinde, bilim insanlarının nesnel bir tavır sergilediğini ve onların sosyal (...)
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  17. Eksperci i narcyzm kulturowy - próba analizy wzajemnych relacji.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2011 - In Jacek Sieradzan (ed.), Narcyzm: Jednostka--Społeczeństwo--Kultura. Uwb. pp. 218--255.
    At the beginning of the XXI century, human societies are entering a period of "late modernity" characterized by new forms of trust and risk, untransparent social (...) situations and economic, political and cultural globalization. These processes are associated with the presence of abstract systems that surround people and which require support of people with expertise in the fields which include transport, telecommunications, finance, security, media, energy. At the same time, it is noted that the expertise cult is born and specialists not only meet the identified needs, but also produce new, thus contributing to the development of a culture of narcissism. Article aims to explain the characteristics of expert systems and cultural narcissism, experts role as a participant in social change, model types and kinds of experts with their arcane in to ontological and epistemological structures of the social world. I also highlight the problems associated with the suppression of restrictions in to the access of expertise knowledge. ** Wraz z początkiem XXI wieku społeczeństwa ludzkie wchodzą w okrespóźnej nowoczesnościcechujący się nowymi formami zaufania i ryzyka, nieprzejrzystością sytuacji społecznych oraz postępującą globalizacją ekonomiczną, polityczną i kulturową. Procesy te wiążą się z obecnością systemów abstrakcyjnych, które otaczają ludzi i do funkcjonowania wymagają wsparcia osób z wiedzą specjalistyczną z zakresu m.in. transportu, telekomunikacji, finansów, bezpieczeństwa, mediów, energetyki. Jednocześnie zauważa się, rodzi się kult ekspertyzy a specjaliści nie tylko zaspokajają rozpoznane potrzeby, ale też wytwarzają nowe, przyczyniając się tym samym do rozwoju kultury narcyzmu. Artykuł ma na celu przybliżenie specyfiki systemów eksperckich i narcyzmu kulturowego, roli eksperta jako uczestnika przemian społecznych, modelowych typów ekspertów i rodzajów ich wtajemniczeń w struktury ontologiczne i epistemologiczne świata społecznego oraz zwrócenie uwagi na problemy związane ze znoszeniem ograniczeń dostępu do wiedzy specjalistycznej. -/- . (shrink)
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  18. Foucault'da Özne, İktidar ve Şiddet İlişkisi.Metehan Karakurt & Adem Çelik - 2020 - In Atıl Cem Çi̇çek & Cengiz Ergün (eds.), Ulusal Si̇yaset Bi̇li̇mi̇ Ve Kamu Yöneti̇mi̇ Kongresi̇ Bi̇ldi̇ri̇ Özetleri̇ Ki̇tabi. Kars, Kars Merkez/Kars, Türkiye: pp. 34.
    Michel Foucaultnun çalışmalarının merkezi noktalarından birisini, Batı kültüründe insanların, özneye dönüştürülmesinin tarihini ortaya çıkarmak oluşturmaktadır. Diğerini ise, özneye dönüştürme tekniklerine karşı verilen mücadeleler, çeşitli iktidar tekniklerinin (...)dayattığı bireysellik ve kimlikten kurtulmanın, özgürleşmenin imkânı oluşturmaktadır. İnsanları, öznelere dönüştüren süreçleri bir bütün olarak ele almak yerine, çeşitli nesneleştirme kipleri üzerinden incelemenin daha akıllıca bir yol olduğunu düşünen Foucault, çalışmalarında insanı özneye dönüştüren üç ayrı nesneleştirme kipine yoğunlaşır. Bunlar; kendilerine bilim statüsü kazandırmaya çalışan filoloji gibi araştırma kipleri, deli ile akıllı, hasta ile sağlıklı, suçlular ileiyi çocuklargibibölücü pratiklerolarak adlandırılan pratiklerde ortaya çıkan nesneleştirilme kipleri ve son olarak cinsellik gibi alanlarda bir insanın kendini özneye dönüştürme biçimindeki nesneleştirme kipleridir. İnsan, özneye dönüştürme süreçlerine girerken, iktidar ilişkilerine de dâhil olur. Çünkü bireyleri özne yapan iktidar teknikleridir. Özne sözcüğünün taşıdığı bütün anlamlar, boyun eğdiren ve tabi kılan bir iktidar biçimi telkin etmektedir. Bundan dolayı, özneye dönüşme süreçlerine karşı mücadeleler söz konusudur. Özne, iktidar ve şiddet arasındaki ilişkinin nasıl kurulduğuna dair düşünen Foucault, öznesi olarak tanıtıldığımız deneyimlerin kurulmasını gerçekleştiren bir iktidar alanı olduğunu, şiddetin de modern iktidarın kurumsal ağı içerisinde gelişen öznellik deneyimleri çerçevesinde her yere sirayet ettiğini belirtmektedir. İktidarın kurumsal düzeyde, düzenleyici ve denetleyici mekanizmalar sayesinde toplumsal ağın en yerlerine kadar sirayet etmesiyle birlikte şiddet, normlar, tüzükler ve prosedürler aracılığıyla belirli bir kapatma içinde gelişmektedir. Ancak, Foucault, şiddetin, iktidarın etkili bir aracı olduğunu kabul etse de, iktidarın esasını oluşturmadığını belirtmektedir. Bu çalışmada, Foucaultnun kuramsal çözümlemelerinden hareketle, özne, iktidar ve şiddet arasındaki ilişkiyi nasıl ele aldığı tartışılacak, onun düşünsel serüveni açısından önemli olan bu kavramların kendi tarih anlayışı bağlamında bir çözümlemesi yapılacaktır. Ayrıca, modern iktidar ilişkilerinin dayatmış olduğu öznellik deneyimlerine ve inceltilmiş şiddet araçlarına karşı verilecek direnişin imkânları sorgulanacaktır. -/- . (shrink)
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  19. Klauzula limitacyjna a nienaruszalność praw i godności [Limitation Clause and the Inviolability of Rights and Dignity].Marek Piechowiak - 2009 - Przegląd Sejmowy 17 (2 (91)):55-77.
    The author examines the arguments for applicability of the limitation clause which specifies the requirements for limitation of constitutional freedoms and rights (Article 31 para. 3 of (...)
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  20.  47
    Politikayı Hannah Arendt'le Birlikte Yeniden Düşünmek.Metehan Karakurt & Adem Çelik - manuscript
    Modern politika tanımlarında hâkim kavramlardan söz etmek olasıdır. Bu kavramlar arasında; iktidar, şiddet, hiyerarşi, güvenlik, kaynak dağıtımı öne çıkanlardır. Politika, birçoklarına göre, iktidarın ve gücün nasıl dağıtıldığı (...)
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  21.  23
    Decyzje w sytuacjach niepewności normatywnej.Tomasz Żuradzki - forthcoming - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria.
    Etycy nie poświęcali dotąd wiele uwagi niepewności, koncentrując się często na skrajnie wyidealizowanych hipotetycznych sytuacjach, w których zarówno kwestie empiryczne (np. stan świata, spektrum możliwych decyzji oraz (...)
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  22. Freud Ve Ahlak Düşüncesi Freud And Moral Reflection.Richard Rorty - 2010 - Ethos: Dialogues in Philosophy and Social Sciences 3 (2).
    Freud, kendini Kopernik ve Darwinin de dahil olduğu merkezsizleştirici düşünce hareketi içinde görmekteydi. Ünlü bir pasajında, psikanalizin, “egoya kendi evinin bile efendisi olmadığını, ancak aklında, bilinçten (...)uzak bir biçimde olup bitenlerin kıt bilgisi ile yetinmesi gerektiğini kanıtlamaya çabaladığınısöyler. Kendimizin önemli olduğu hissi veya özdenetim duygumuz, gerçekten kendimize karşı şeffaf olduğumuz inancına dayanmaktadır? Bilinç dışının keşfi neden arzularımızın keşfine değersizlik eklemek zorundadır?Freud thought of himself as part of the samedecenteringmovement of thought to which Copernicus and Darwin belonged. In a famous passage, he says that psychoanalysisseeks to prove to the ego that it is not even master in its own house, but must content itself with scanty information of what is going on unconsciously in its mind.” Does our sense of our importance, or our capacity for self-control, really depend on the belief that we are transparent to ourselves? Why should the discovery of the unconscious add humiliation to the discovery of the passions? (shrink)
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  23. Arthur Kaufmannhermeneutyka prawnicza [Arthur KaufmannLegal Hermeneutics].Marek Piechowiak - 2008 - In Jerzy Zajadło (ed.), Przyszłość dziedzictwa. Robert Alexy, Ralf Dreier, Jürgen Habermas, Otfried Höffe, Arthur Kaufmann, Niklas Luhmann, Otta Weinberger: portrety filozofów prawa. Arche. pp. 135-167.
    Arthura Kaufmanna filozofia prawa wyrasta przede wszystkim z neokantyzmu aksjologicznego reprezentowanego przezpóźnegoGustava Radbrucha, którego uważał on za najważniejszego ze swych nauczycieli, oraz z hermeneutyki filozoficznej (...)
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  24. Elementy prawnonaturalne w stosowaniu Konstytucji RP [Natural-Law Elements in Application of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland].Marek Piechowiak - 2009 - Przegląd Sejmowy 17 (5 (94)):71-90.
    Recognizing inherent and inalienable nature of dignity and universality of certain values, the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, introduces to the foundations of Polish legal system (...)
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  25. Sprawiedliwość a prawo w nauczaniu Jana Pawła II [Justice and Law in the Teaching of John Paul II].Marek Piechowiak - 2014 - Przegląd Tomistyczny 20:209-237.
    The contribution focuses on philosophical issues of justice of positive law in the light of the social teaching of John Paul II. The analyses start with consideration (...)
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  26. Koniec kryzysu, początek dramatuMarcel Gauchet o kondycji współczesnej polityki.Paulina Karbownik - 2011 - Hybris. Revista de Filosofía 13.
    Marcel Gauchet to mało znany w Polsce historyk i filozof francuski. Żadna z jego książek nie została do tej pory przetłumaczona na język polski. Dostępny w tym (...)
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  27. W sprawie aksjologicznej spójności Konstytucji RP. Dobro wspólne czy godność człowieka? [Axiological Consistency of the Polish Constitution: Common Good or Human Dignity?].Marek Piechowiak - 2011 - In Stanisław Leszek Stadniczeńko (ed.), Jednolitość aksjologiczna systemu prawa w rozwijających się państwach demokratycznych Europy. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Opolskiego. pp. 111-124.
    The author poses a question: which of the two fundamental, constitutional valuescommon good or human dignitycan be considered to be the cornerstone, the unifying (...)value in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland from 1997. The paper shows the crucial reasons for accepting each of these values as primary and also presents the underlying relationships between these values . The prominence of a given value for defining the aim of the constitution and the legal order based on it was accepted as the most important aspect for determining the order of primacy. In respect of the direct aims of activities of public authorities and more broadlyof the aims of subjects whose activities are defined by the constitutionthe primary value should be common good understood as certain social conditions of life which support human development. It defines the space in which other constitutional values, also human dignity, are integrated. Human dignity, however, the primary value defining human being, gives the reason why human development is a first and autonomous aim of the constitutional order. In this respect dignity has priority before common good. -/- Autor stawia pytanie o to, którą z fundamentalnych wartości konstytucyjnychdobro wspólne czy godność człowiekamożna uznać za wartość pierwszą i stanowiącą podstawę spójności aksjologicznej Konstytucji RP z 2 kwietnia 1997 roku. Wskazane zasadnicze racje przemawiające za uznaniem każdej z tych wartości za wartość pierwszą i identyfikowane zasadnicze relacje zachodzące między tymi wartościami. Za aspekt najistotniejszy dla ustalenia pierwszeństwa którejś z tych wartości uznana jest doniosłość danej wartości dla określenia celu konstytucji i opartego na niej porządku prawnego. Z punktu widzenia bezpośredniego celu działań władzy publicznej i szerzejpodmiotów, których działanie wyznaczone jest porządkiem konstytucyjnym, wartością jest dobro wspólne wyznaczające przestrzeń, w której integrowane inne wartości konstytucyjne, z godnością włącznie. Dobro wspólne jest celem porządku konstytucyjnego ze względu na godność człowieka, która czyni jego rozwój pierwszym i szczególnymautotelicznym dobrem. W tej perspektywie godność ma pierwszeństwo przed dobrem wspólnym. (shrink)
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  28. Desiring to Desire: Russell, Lewis and G.E.Moore.Charles Pigden - 2007 - In Susana Nuccetelli & Gary Seay (eds.), Themes from G.E.Moore. Oxford University Press. pp. 244-260.
    I have two aims in this paper. In §§2-4 I contend that Moore has two arguments (not one) for the view that thatgooddenotes a (...)non-natural property not to be identified with the naturalistic properties of science and common sense (or, for that matter, the more exotic properties posited by metaphysicians and theologians). The first argument, the Barren Tautology Argument (or the BTA), is derived, via Sidgwick, from a long tradition of anti-naturalist polemic. But the second argument, the Open Question Argument proper (or the OQA), seems to have been Moores own invention and was probably devised to deal with naturalistic theories, such as Russells, which are immune to the Barren Tautology Argument. The OQA is valid and not (as Frankena (1939) has alleged) question-begging. Moreover, if its premises were true, it would have disposed of the desire-to-desire theory. But as I explain in §5, from 1970 onwards, two key premises of the OQA were successively called into question, the one because philosophers came to believe in synthetic identities between properties and the other because it led to the Paradox of Analysis. By 1989 a philosopher like Lewis could put forward precisely the kind of theory that Moore professed to have refuted with a clean intellectual conscience. However, in §§6-8 I shall argue that all is not lost for the OQA. I first press an objection to the desire-to-desire theory derived from Kripkes famous epistemic argument. On reflection this argument looks uncannily like the OQA. But the premise on which it relies is weaker than the one that betrayed Moore by leading to the Paradox of Analysis. This suggests three conclusions: 1) that the desire-to-desire theory is false; 2) that the OQA can be revived, albeit in a modified form; and 3) that the revived OQA poses a serious threat to what might be called semantic naturalism. (shrink)
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  29. Jay-Z, Phenomenology, & Hip-Hop.Harry Nethery - 2012 - APA Newsletter on Philosophy and the Black Experience 11 (1).
    This essay undertakes a phenomenological inquiry into theexperiential structure of hip-hop’ – a structure that hip-hop artist Jay-Z (Shawn Carter) gestures towards in his text (...) Decoded. In this book, Jay-Z argues that hip-hop has a particular power to act as the vehicle for the communication of a specific type of experience, i.e. contradictory experiences, or those which do not seem possible under the principle of non-contradiction. For instance, Tupac Shakur says of his mom that “…even as a crack fiend, mama / You always was a Black Queen, mama.” The way in which hip-hop is a powerful vehicle for this communication lies, according to Jay-Z, in its very structure, which he describes using two sets of terms: rhythm/flow and music/rhyme. Using Jay-Zs general outline, this essay attempts to complete a phenomenological analysis of hip-hop, in the effort to (1) isolate the experiential structure of hip-hop and (2) isolate, within this structure, the way in which hip-hop is able to communicate contradictory experiences. In the final analysis, the author isolates the experiential structure of hip-hop and shows how its multiple layers work to draw listeners in and induce them to experience-with the artist. (shrink)
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  30.  61
    Kierkegaard'ın umutsuzluk kavramını Higgins'ın Benlik Uyuşmazlıkları Kuramı üzerinden okumak [An investigation on Kierkegaards concept of hopelessness and Higgins self-discrepancy theory].Duygu Dincer - manuscript
    Ölümcül Hastalık Umutsuzluk adlı eserinde umutsuzluğu, benin bir hastalığı ve kendine yönelen bir ilişkinin sonucu olarak ele alan Danimarkalı filozof Søren Aabye Kierkegaard, bu hastalığın kişide (...)üç farklı şekilde görülebileceğini öne sürmüştür: “(a) bir beni olduğunun farkında olmayan umutsuz kişi, (b) kendisi olmak isteyen umutsuz kişi ve (c) kendisi olmak istemeyen umutsuz kişi.” Kierkegaarda göre kendi benininden kurtulmak isteyen kişi, “olmak istediği benhâline gelemediği için olduğu benine katlanamamakta ve bu nedenle umutsuzluk yaşamaktadır. Bu çalışma kapsamında Kierkegaardın benlik ve umutsuzluk ilişkisi üzerine yaptığı bu tespitin, sosyal psikoloji alanının önde gelen araştırmacılarından biri olan Edward Tory Higginsın Benlik Uyuşmazlıkları Kuramı üzerinden okunabileceği öngörülmektedir. Higgins, geliştirdiği kuramda çoklu bir benlik ayrımına gitmekte ve benliği gerçek benlik, ideal benlik ve olması gereken benlik olmak üzere üç alana ayırmaktadır. Bu ayrıma göre gerçek benlik, kişinin sahip olduğunu düşündüğü özelliklerin; ideal benlik, kişinin kendisi olmak için idealde sahip olmayı arzu ettiği özelliklerin; olması gereken benlik ise kişinin taşımak zorunda olduğunu düşündüğü özelliklerin bir bütününü temsil etmektedir. Söz konusu özellikler, kişinin kendi kişisel bakış açısına dayalı olabileceği gibi başkalarının bakış açısından da kaynaklanabilmektedir. Higginsa göre ikili benlik durumları arasındaki uyuşmazlık (örneğin gerçek benlik-ideal benlik ya da gerçek benlik-olması gereken benlik) kişide, kendi beklentilerini ya da başkalarının beklentilerini karşılamada yetersiz kaldığı yönünde negatif duyuşlar yaratmaktadır. Bu duyuşlar arasında depresyonun bir parçası olan umutsuzluk da yer almaktadır. Şimdiki çalışma Kierkegaardın tasvir ettiğiolmak istediği ben hâline gelemediği için olduğu benine katlanamayıp umutsuzluğa yakalanankişinin içinde bulunduğu durumu, Higginsın öne sürdüğügerçek benlik-ideal benlik uyuşmazlığının depresyonla (dolayısıyla umutsuzlukla) ilişkili olabileceğiargümanıyla ilişkili bir biçimde ele almayı ve bu yolla benlik ve umutsuzluk ilişkisini felsefe ve psikoloji disiplinlerinin kesişiminde incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. (shrink)
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  31. Zarządzanie Zasobami Ludzkimi W Redakcji Internetowego Serwisu o Grach Komputerowych.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2012 - E-Wydawnictwo:1--20.
    Dziennikarstwo branżowe ma istotne znaczenie dla tworzenia i użytkowania gier komputerowych (wideo), które stanowią podstawę jednego z przemysłów kształtującej się na początku XXI wieku gospodarki kreatywnej. Przedstawiciele (...)
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  32. Platońskie widziadło sprawiedliwości [Plato's Semblance of Justice].Marek Piechowiak - 2013 - Themis Polska Nova (1 (4)):5-18.
    Platon w dialogu "Państwo" sam określił mianem widziadła model sprawiedliwości oparty na konstrukcji "państwa idealnego", w oczywisty sposób dystansując się do tego modelu. Jedynie (...)widziadłem sprawiedliwości jest zatem to, że każdy ma się zajmować czymś jednym, że "człowiek, który jest szewcem z natury, najlepiej zrobi, jeżeli zostanie przy swoim kopycie i nic innego nie będzie próbował"; jedynie widziadłem jest także to, że jednostka jest dla państwa a nie państwo dla jednostki. Argumentuje się, że - zdaniem Platona - jeden i ten sam człowiek sprawiedliwy, zatem człowiek doskonały, zajmuje się w swoim życiu nie tylko polityką (rządzeniem państwem, filozofią), ale i ćwiczeniem ciała, aby być zdolnym do walki, i zdobywaniem majątku. Tekst należy do tej współczesnej tradycji refleksji nad Platonem, w której obecne jest przekonanie, że wykładu o Platona koncepcji sprawiedliwości nie powinno opierać się na lekturze Karla Poppera "Społeczeństwa otwartego". (shrink)
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  33. Konstytucja wobec wykluczenia społecznego [The Constitution and Social Exclusion].Marek Piechowiak - 2009 - In Zdzisław Kędzia & Antoni Rost (eds.), Współczesne wyzwania wobec praw człowieka w świetle polskiego prawa konstytucyjnego. Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM. pp. 125-145.
    Choć samo zjawisko wykluczenia społecznego nie jest nowe, to jego waga, zwłaszcza w perspektywie praw człowieka, została doceniona stosunkowo niedawno. „Wykluczenie społecznenie jest kategorią konstytucyjną. Celem (...)
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  34. "Nec laudibus nec timore". Inhaltlich-Kontextuelle Analyse der Predigt Kardinals Clemens August Graf von Galen vom 3. August 1941.Marcin Gołaszewski - 2009 - Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Germanica 5:319-349.
    Pojęcie eutanazji ma w kręgu kultury europejskiej nie tylko znaczenie historyczne. Odnosząc się do historii, filozofii, medycyny, etyki czy literatury, nabrało ono także charakteru instytucjonalnego w okresie (...)
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  35.  58
    Racje wewnętrzne i zewnętrzne.Bernard Williams & Tomasz Żuradzki - 2019 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 67 (1):231-246.
    Artykuł, opublikowany po raz pierwszy w 1979 r., jest jednym z najczęściej cytowanych tekstów filozoficznych z drugiej połowy XX wieku. Tekst Bernarda Williamsa zainicjował kilka ważnych debat, (...)
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  36. Aktywność Ekonomiczna Ludzi Starych W Kontekście Badań Nad Kapitałem Społecznym Na Przykładzie Mieszkańców Białegostoku.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2011 - In Stefański Marian (ed.), Wȩzły Gordyjskie Rozwoju Polski Wschodniej. Innovatio Press. pp. 289--311.
    Work of elderly is a controversial problem. The introduction of protection of old age in form of pensions and retirement caused shaping in modern societies qualitatively new (...)
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  37. Podejście Umiarkowane W Sporze o Możliwość I Użyteczność Moraln¸a Kodyfikacji Norm Etycznych.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2014 - Annales. Ethics in Economic Life 17 (1):47--59.
    Popularyzacja tworzenia kodeksów zaadresowanych do różnych grup społecznych jest jedn¸a} z cech współczesnego świata. Wśród badaczy tego zjawiska nie ma jednak pełnej zgody na zasadność i (...)użyteczność moraln¸a} tej działalności. Artykuł przybliża przegl¸a}d literatury przedmiotu w zakresie dotycz¸a}cym argumentów za stworzeniem umiarkowanego stanowiska na rzecz kodyfikacji norm etycznych. Przybliżono główne pojȩcia dotycz¸ace kodeksów etycznych i stanowiska za ich przyjȩciem i odrzuceniem. Zwrócono uwagȩ na sposoby zwiȩkszania skuteczności kodeksów oraz procedurȩ podejmowania decyzji etycznych w sposób godz¸acy podejścia zwolenników i przeciwników kodyfikacji. * The popularisation of code elaboration addressed to various social groups is one of the features of the modern world. However, among researchers of this phenomenon a full consensus on the moral validity and usefulness of this activity does not exist. The article closely reviews the literature with regard to the reasons for the creation of a moderate position on the codification of ethical standards. The essay brings closer the main concepts of ethical codes and positions for their adoption and rejection. Attention is paid to ways of increasing the effectiveness of codes and the ethical decision-making procedure in a manner that undermines supporters and opponents of codification approaches. (shrink)
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  38. "Semantic primitives" und die Fertigkeit "Definieren" im Fremdsprachenunterricht.Yvonne Kohl - 2009 - Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Germanica 5:91-115.
    W niniejszym tekście, poświęconym definiowaniu m. in. słów i zwrotów frazeologicznych podczas nauczania języków, autorka opisuje lingwistyczną teorię Anny Wierzbickiej, dotyczącą Natural Semantic Metalanguage i w adaptacyjnej (...)
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  39. Die Polarität der Rechts- und Gemeinsprache als Gegenstand der sprachwissenschaftlichen Forschung.Agnieszka Stawikowska-Marcinkowska - 2009 - Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Germanica 5:117-125.
    W językoznawstwie wiele miejsca poświęca się w ostatnim czasie językom fachowym. Językoznawcy najczęściej podejmują badania dotyczące języka medycyny, ekonomii czy w ostatnim czasie Unii Europejskiej. Rzadziej, choć (...)
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  40. Maimonides and Spinoza on the Knowledge of Good and Evil: A Reappraisal of W.Z. Harvey.James Elliott - 2017 - Iyyun 66 (3):258-269.
    In an unsung yet excellent paper, W.Z. Harvey set out to explain how both Maimonides and Spinoza have similarly problematic views on the nature of the (...)knowledge of good and evil. In it, he proposed an answer to solving the problem. In the many decades since, debates surrounding this topic have flourished. A recent paper by Joshua Parens, his conclusions mark a distinction between Spinoza and Maimonides that threaten to undermine Harveys solution to the problem. I will argue that, although Parensdistinction forces us to revise Harveys contention, Harveys argument is still generally valid. (shrink)
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  41. Metaaksiologiczna legitymizacja procedur a Konstytucja RP [Mataaxiological Legitimisations of Procedures and the Polish Constitution]. Piechowiak - 2014 - In Małgorzata Masternak-Kubiak, Anna Młynarska-Sobaczewska & Artur Preisner (eds.), Prawowitość władzy państwowej. beta-druk. pp. 129-146.
    W niniejszym opracowaniu zmierzać będę do uzasadnienia tezy, że przyj­ mowane procedury prawotwórcze i interpretacyjne nie tylko, co oczywiste, legitymizowane wartościami typu formalnego, i co więcej, (...)
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  42.  48
    Współczesna Polityka Społeczna Wobec Niepełnosprawności I Osób Niepełnosprawnych.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2013 - Pogranicze. Studia Społeczne 22:185--200.
    Niepełnosprawność jest jedn¸a} z cech różnicuj¸a}cych jednostki i grupy we współczesnych społeczeństwach. Osoby o ograniczonej sprawności fizycznej, poznawczej i psychicznej s¸a} szczególnie narażone na (...)dyskryminacjȩ oraz wykluczenie społeczne, gospodarcze i polityczne. Co istotne kwestia socjalna osób niepełnosprawnych na pocz¸a}tku XXI wieku zmienia siȩ wchodz¸ac w relacjȩ z procesem starzenia siȩ ludności. Artykuł ma na celu przybliżenie wybranych teoretycznych koncepcji działań na rzecz poprawy wizerunku niepełnosprawności i ograniczania barier doświadczanych przez osoby niepełnosprawne w dostȩpie do różnego rodzaju zasobów, przestrzeni i szans. Krytyczna analiza literatury przedmiotu obejmuje wskazanie cech koncepcji polityki aktywizacji oraz zasad i celów polityki społecznej w holistycznym paradygmacie normalizacji. Podsumowanie zawiera możliwe dalsze kierunki badań i analiz. ** Disability is one of the features that differentiate individuals and groups in modern societies. People with reduced physical, cognitive and psychological efficiency are particularly exposed to discrimination and social, economic and political exclusion. Whats important social issue of people with disabilities in the early 21st century changes by entering into a relationship with the ageing of the population. Article aims to introduce some theoretical concepts efforts to improve the image of disability and reduce the barriers faced by persons with disabilities in access to different kinds of resources, spaces and opportunities. A critical analysis of the literature includes: description of the concept of activation policy as well as principles and objectives of social policy in a holistic paradigm of normalization. This summary contains possible future directions of research and analysis. (shrink)
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  43.  97
    O specyfice pracy tłumacza antycznej literatury filozoficznej (Some remarks on the translation of the texts of ancient philosophy).Zbigniew Nerczuk - 2016 - Studia Antyczne I Mediewistyczne 14 (49):13-19.
    Studium poświęcone jest specyfice warsztatu tłumacza antycznych tekstów filozoficznych. Wszelką pracę translatorską, o ile ma ona na celu rekonstrukcję kontekstu językowego i historycznego, muszą poprzedzać zrozumienie i (...)
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  44. María G. Navarro: Interpretar argumentando.José María García Gómez-Heras - 2011 - Isegoría 44:366-372.
    Escribir hoy en día un libro sobre hermenéutica, que tal hermenéutica se refiera a la desarrollada por G. Gadamer en su conocido Verdad y método y que (...)
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  45.  61
    Regionalne Obserwatorium Kultury W Województwie Podlaskim - Uwarunkowania I Planowane Kierunki Rozwoju.Andrzej Klimczuk & Katarzyna Sztop-Rutkowska - 2013 - Kultura I Edukacja 2:222--246.
    Na pocz¸a}tku XXI wieku zachodz¸a} istotne przemiany w relacjach pracy i czasu wolnego. Dostrzega siȩ też rozwój gospodarki kreatywnej wraz z wyłanianiem siȩ nowej stratyfikacji (...)
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  46. Gavagai Again.Robert Williams - 2008 - Synthese 164 (2):235 - 259.
    Quine (1960, "Word and object". Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, ch. 2) claims that there are a variety of equally good schemes for translating or interpreting ordinary (...) talk. 'Rabbit' might be taken to divide its reference over rabbits, over temporal slices of rabbits, or undetached parts of rabbits, without significantly affecting which sentences get classified as true and which as false. This is the basis of his famous 'argument from below' to the conclusion that there can be no fact of the matter as to how reference is to be divided. Putative counterexamples to Quine's claim have been put forward in the past (see especially Evans (1975, "Journal of Philosophy", LXXII(13), 343-362. Reprinted in McDowell (Ed.), "Gareth Evans: Collected papers." Oxford: Clarendon Press.), Fodor (1993, "The elm and the expert: Mentalese and its semantics." Cambridge, MA: Bradford)), and various patches have been suggested (e. g. Wright (1997, The indeterminacy of translation. In C. Wright & B. Hale (Eds.), "A companion to the philosophy of language" (pp. 397-426). Oxford: Blackwell)). One lacuna in this literature is that one does not find any detailed presentation of what exactly these interpretations are supposed to be. Drawing on contemporary literature on persistence, the present paper sets out detailed semantic treatments for fragments of English, whereby predicates such as 'rabbit' divide their reference over four-dimensional continuants (Quine's rabbits), instantaneous temporal slices of those continuants (Quine's rabbitslices) and the simple elements which compose those slices (undetached rabbit parts) respectively. Once we have the systematic interpretations on the table, we can get to work evaluating them. (shrink)
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  47.  80
    Meslekî Tükenmişlik İle Dindarlık Eğilimi Arasındaki İlişki Üzerine Ampirik Bir Araştırma (An Empirical Study On The Relationship Between Occupational Burnout And Tendency Of Religiosity) - Turkish.Abdullah DAĞCI & Saffet Kartopu - 2014 - Journal of Turkish Studies 9 (8):365-383.
    .........................Turkish ....................... Çalışmanın konusu dindarlık eğilimi ile meslekî tükenmişlik arasındaki ilişkidir. Dindarlık eğilimine göre meslekî tükenmişlik düzeyinde herhangi bir farklılık olup olmadığı ise çalışmanın temel problemini oluşturmuştur. Bu (...) bağlamda meslekî tükenmişlik düzeyini ve dindarlık eğilimini belirlemek için kolayda örnekleme yöntemiyle Gümüşhane il merkezindeki ilkokul, ortaokul ve liselerde görev yapan farklı branşlardaki öğretmenlerden bir örneklem grubu oluşturulmuştur. Elde edilen meslekî tükenmişlik ve dindarlık eğilimi verilerinden yola çıkarak bu iki değişkenin ilişkisi araştırılmıştır. Çalışmada Frekans, Bağımsız t-Testi, Tek Yönlü Varyans AnaliziANOVA testleri kullanılmıştır. Bunun yanında hesaplanan değerleri ve elde edilen verileri değerlendirmek için SPSS (16.0) istatistik paket programı kullanılmıştır. Araştırma iki bölümden oluşmuştur. İlk bölümde dindarlık eğilimi ile meslekî tükenmişlik ilişkisine teorik bir yaklaşım sunulmuştur; meslekî tükenmişlik ve dindarlık kavramı, meslekî tükenmişlikle ilgili yurt içinde ve yurt dışında yapılan araştırmalar ve son olarak da meslekî tükenmişlik ile dindarlık eğilimi arasındaki ilişkiden bahsedilmiştir. İkinci bölümde uygulama kısmı, çalışmanın problemi ve alt problemleri, hipotezler, evren ve örneklem, kullanılan ölçekle ilgili sınırlıklar, çalışma bulgularının analizi, bulguların tartışılması, sonuçlar ve çalışmanın önerileri sunulmuştur. Çalışmanın sonuçlarına göre meslekî tükenmişlik puanları cinsiyet değişkenine göre farklılaşmazken, sosyo-ekonomik durum değişkenine göre anlamlı farklılık göstermiştir. Bunun yanında dindarlık eğilimine yönelik anket maddeleri ile meslekî tükenmişlik puanları arasında anlamlı düzeyde farklılaşmalara ulaşılmıştır. Sonuç olarak dindarlık eğiliminin meslekî tükenmişliğe etki eden faktörlerden biri olduğu tespit edilmiştir. -/- ...................................English ...................... Subject of this study is correlation of occupational burnout with the tendency of religiosity. Our main problem consists of that whether to be any differences in occupational burnout level according to the tendency of religiosity. In this context, it has been propounded that the levels of occupational burnout and tendency of religiosity of a sample group which consists of teachers chosen convenience sampling method from primary schools, secondary schools and high schools in Gümüşhane province. Based on the resulting occupational burnout and tendency of religiosity, investigated the correlation between these two variables. In the study the Frequency, Independent t-Test and One Way Variance Analysis-ANOVA tests were used and the evaluation of data and finding calculated values, SPSS (16.0) statistics software package were used. According to the results of the survey, the occupational burnout scores a differentiation has not been shown according to gender when has been established a significant difference according to socioeconomic status variable as independent variables. Besides, have been established a significant difference between tendency of religiosity of items and occupational burnout scale scores. The study consists of two main parts. In the first part, to provide a theoretical approach to the relationship of occupational burnout and tendency of religiosity; the concept of occupational bornout, the studies made on occupational burnout in domestic and abroad, and finally the relation of occupational burnout and tendency of religiosity have been mentioned. In the second part, considered as part of practice, the problem of the study and sub problems, hypothesis, population and sample, limitations information about the scale used in the study, analyzing the findings of the study, discussing the findings and conclusions and recommendations of the study have been presented. (shrink)
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  48. Moderately Pluralistic Methodology.Paweł Kawalec - 2012 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 60 (4):233-247.
    The paper outlines and discusses the major tenets of moderately pluralistic methodology. The latter is juxtaposed to J. Życińskis principle of natural interdisciplinarity. It instantiates scientific (...)pluralism as a domain-specific agenda for research. The symbolic and causal understanding are integrated in this methodological conception by means of a specific kind of counterfactual reasoning, which is coined the delimiting counterfactual. It makes the moderately pluralistic methodology applicable to non-experimental research. -/- Streszczenie Tytuł: “Umiarkowanie pluralistyczna metodologia” -/- Artykuł prezentuje i omawia zasadnicze założenia koncepcji umiarkowanie pluralistycznej metodologii. Ta ostatnia jest zbieżna z J. Życińskiego zasadą naturalności interdyscyplinarnej. Reprezenuje ona szeroko rozumiany nurt pluralizmu naukowego w zakresie sposobu prowadzenia badań w danej dziedzinie. W tej koncepcji połączone dwa poziomy rozumienia symboliczny i przyczynowy za pomocą swoistego rodzaju wnioskowań kontrfaktycznych, określonych tu jako rozgraniczających wnioskowań kontrfaktycznych. Dzięki nim umiarkowanie pluralistyczna metodologia ma zastosowanie do badań nieeksperymentalnych. -/- Słowa kluczowe: pluralizm naukowy, Józef Życiński, Rudolf Carnap, wnioskowanie kontrfaktyczne . (shrink)
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  49.  47
    University StudentsPerceptions Regarding The Holy Quran: A Metaphorical Study On Muslim Turk Sample (Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Kur'an-I Kerim'E Yönelik Algıları: Müslüman-Türk Örneklem) - English.Abdullah DAĞCI & Saffet Kartopu - 2016 - Journal of Turkish Studies 11 (7):101-120.
    ................English....................... The purpose of this study is to reveal university studentsperceptions regarding Holy Quran through metaphors. The survey group of study consists of 194 participants (...)who were studying in Theology Department and Social Service Department at Gümüşhane University in the 2014-2015 academic terms. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used together. The studys data was collected through a form with the phraseThe Holy Quran is similar/like…, because...” and some demographical variables. The Content Analysis Technique was used to interpret data. Results of this study determined that 44 different metaphors regarding Holy Quran were given by participants. Theme of these metaphors were compiled as 9 categories consisting of directional, life source, explanatory, key, protective, curative, instructive, speech, and other categories. Top metaphors are in the directional, life source and explanatory categories. Key words are metaphor, perception, The Quran perception, religious concepts, and religious symbols. Getting data through comprehensive and in-dept analysis can help to have information about concepts of holy books in the human mind. The purpose of this study is to pick out perceptions of university students with regard to the Holy Quran through metaphors. For this reason, these questions are searched by researchers: 1) What are the metaphors which used by university students on description of perceptions regarding the Holy Quran? 2) How are the metaphors regarding the Holy Quran categorized in terms of common characteristics which produced by university students? 3) Are there any links between socio-demographic variables and composed metaphoric categories? One of the qualitative data collection technics, data collecting through metaphors method is used, and is asked open-ended question in the study. Picking up similarities and diversities under thematic topics is quite easy in the method. Therefore, this method has a functional feature in the sociology, psychology and anthropology, and it gives a wealthy and qualified image about matter, phenomenon, event and situation (Yıldırım & Şimşek 2005, 212). The target population of the study consists of students who were taking education at Gümüşhane University. Easily accessible and availability principles pursued in the sample choosing. In the distribution of participants according to the demographical features, females have 61.9 percent (n:120) and males have 38.1 percent (n:74) in terms of gender. Students who graduated from religious vocational high school is 61.3 percent (n:119), and others who from other high schools is 38.7 percent (n:75) in terms of graduated from different high schools. Students in theology department have 68.0 percent (n:132), and students who were educated in the social service department have 32.0 percent (n:62). Research data is gathered through survey form includesThe Holy Quran is like/similar to…, because…” sentence and demographical variabilities. Data, gathered from 194 survey forms, is transferred to the Excel and the SPSS program. In an attempt to reliability of study, gathered metaphors is examined by four area expert. Frequencies (f) and percentages (%) is taken into consideration in the process of replacing metaphors to the tables. Data analysis technique is used on the getting relationships and explaining gathered data, while content analysis technique is used on the interpreting of data. The SPSS program is used in the analysis of quantitative data. Obtained data from the surveys and composed categories is associated with descriptive statements in the verses of the Holy Quran. In the composed categories demonstrate distribution of produced 44 different metaphors with regard to the Holy Quran as 9 categories. According to this, the sample is represented in the categories as 64.4 % (f:125) is in thedirectional’, 11.3 % (f:22) is in thelife source’, 7.7 % (f:15) is in theexplanatory’, 3.1 % (f:6) is in thekey’, 3.1 % (f:6) is in theprotective’, 2.1 % (f:4) is in thecurative’, 2.1 % (f:4) is in theinstructive’, 2.1 % (f:4) is in thespeechand 4.1 % (f:8) is in theothercategories. Distributions of composed categories are represented according to common characteristics as frequencies and percentages in the next tables. In the distribution of produced metaphors in thedirectionalcategory, university students produced 7 different metaphors (f:125). Frequencies of produced metaphors in the category are such that: guide (f:41), advisor (f:25), mentor (f:19), compass (f:16), road map (f:8), route (f:3) and other (f:13). According to the result, it is understood that aspects of guide, advisor, mentor and compass stood mostly out in the category. In thelife sourcecategory, 6 different metaphors (f:22) is developed by participants. Developed metaphorsfrequencies in the category are the following: life (f:4), lifeblood (f:4), weather (f:2), water (f:2), inheritance (f:2) and others (f:7). So, life and lifeblood aspects stood mostly out in the category. In theexplanatorycategory, 5 different metaphor (f:15) is developed by participants. Frequencies of produced metaphors in the category are such that: light (f:5), sun (f:3), flashlight (f:2), torch (f:2) and other (f:3). According to the result, it is understood that aspects of light and sun stood mostly out in the category In theprotectivecategory, 5 different metaphors (f:6) is developed by participants. Frequencies of produced metaphors in the category are such that: saver (f:2), lifeguard (f:1), hereafter-saving (f:1), escapeway (f:1) and branch to catch (f:1). According to the result, it is understood that aspect of saver stood mostly out in the category. In theinstructivecategory, 4 different metaphors (f:6) is developed by participants. Frequencies of produced metaphors in the category are such that: reference book (f:1), dictionary (f:1), priceless book (f:1) and life encyclopedia (f:1). In thespeechcategory, it is seen that 4 different metaphors (f:6) is developed by participants. Frequencies of produced metaphors in the category are such that: divine message (f:1), speaking truth (f:1), Allahs dialogue with us (f:1) and final word (f:1). In thekeycategory, 3 different metaphors (f:6) is developed by participants. Frequencies of produced metaphors in the category are such that: a key (f:4), the key of heaven (f:1) and the key of salvation (f:1). In thecurativecategory, 2 different metaphors (f:4) is developed by participants. Frequencies of produced metaphors in the category are such that: a pill (f:3) and doctor (f:1). In theotherscategory, 8 different metaphors (f:8) is developed by participants. Frequencies of produced metaphors in the category are such that: world (f:1), the friend of lonely passenger (f:1), the tree with fruit (f:1), hereafter (f:1), priceless treasure (f:1), miracle (f:1), philosophy (f:1) and mirror (f:1). Participants composed of 44 different metaphors regarding the Holy Quran. The metaphors were summed up in the 9 categories asdirectional’, ‘life source’, ‘explanatory’, ‘key’, ‘protective’, ‘curative’, ‘instructive’, ‘speechandotherTo results of the study; guide, advisor, mentor and compass aspects of the Quran came into prominence at most in thedirectionalcategory, when life and lifeblood aspects of the Quran came into prominence at most in thelife sourcecategory. Light and sunny aspects of the Quran came into prominence at most in theexplanatorycategory, while saver aspect of the Quran came into prominence at most in theprotectivecategory. Instructive aspect of the Quran came into prominence at most in theinstructivecategory. Speech aspect of the Quran came into prominence at most in thespeechcategory, while key aspect of the Quran came into prominence at most in thekeycategory. Moreover, pill aspect of the Quran came into prominence at most in thecurativecategory. Whatsoever world, friend of single traveler, tree with fruit, hereafter, priceless treasure, miracle, philosophy and mirror aspects of the Quran came into prominence at most in theothercategory. It is inferred that significant relationships between demographic variables and metaphor categories. In terms of major variable; theology students were composed of more metaphor in theexplanatoryandinstructivecategories, while social service students were composed of more metaphor in thelife sourcecategory. In terms of gender variable; females composed of more metaphor in thecurativeandothercategories, while males composed of more metaphor in thedirectional category. In terms of graduating high school variable, students who graduated from religious vocational high school composed of more metaphor in thekeyandspeechcategories, when students who graduated from other high school composed of more metaphor in thedirectionalcategory. Whatsoever, in terms of having the Quran education in their life status variable, had the Quran education in their life students composed of more metaphor in thecurativeandothercategories, while other group composed of more metaphor in thedirectional’. Moreover, in terms of perception of subjective religiousness, students who think themselves arereligiouscomposed of more metaphor in thekeyandothercategories, while students who think themselves areless religiouscomposed of more metaphor in theexplanatorycategory. In terms of perception of family religiousness, students who think own familyless religiouscomposed of more metaphor in thedirectionalandlife sourcecategories, when students who think own familyreligiouscomposed of more metaphor in thekeycategory. It can be suggested by the results of this study; perception of the Quran can be studied with the different study techniques, or it can be studied in the different research groups with the same technique. Muslimsperceptions regarding the Holy Quran can be examined with intercultural comparative studies. Perceptions regarding the Holy Quran can be researched through interviews. Membersperception regarding holy book that have different religious faith can be comparatively examined. Individualsperceptions regarding different religious concepts can be studied through metaphors. .................. Turkish...................Bu araştırmanın amacı üniversite öğrencilerinin Kuran-ı Kerime ilişkin algılarını metaforlar aracılığıyla ortaya çıkarmaktır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu, 2014-2015 eğitim öğretim yılında Gümüşhane Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi ve Sosyal Hizmetler bölümünde öğrenim gören 194 katılımcı oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada nitel ve nicel yöntemler birlikte kullanılmıştır. Araştırma verileri, “Kuran-ı Kerim……gibidir, çünkü……” cümlesini ve demografik değişkenleri içeren bir form aracılığıyla toplanmıştır. Verilerin analizi ve yorumlanmasında içerik analizi tekniği kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada Kurana ilişkin 44 farklı metafor geliştirildiği tespit edilmiştir. Bu metaforlardanyönlendirici’, ‘yaşam kaynağı’, ‘açıklayıcı’, ‘anahtar’, ‘koruyucu’, ‘öğretici’, ‘derman’, ‘kelamvediğerolmak üzere 9 farklı kategori oluşturulmuştur. Üretilen metaforlarınyönlendirici’, ‘yaşam kaynağıveaçıklayıcıkategorilerinde yoğunlaştığı görülmüştür. Demografik değişkenler ile metafor kategorileri arasındaki ilişkiyi ortaya çıkarmak araştırmanın ikincil amaçlarındandır ve bu yönüyle sonuçlar değerlendirildiğinde değişkenler ile kategoriler arasında anlamlı ilişkiler olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Demografik değişkenler ile kategori ilişkisinde fakülte değişkeni açısından ilahiyat öğrencileriaçıklayıcıveöğreticikategorilerinde daha fazla metafor üretirken sosyal hizmet öğrencileriyaşam kaynağıkategorisinde daha fazla metafor üretmiştir. Cinsiyet değişkeni açısından ise kız öğrencilerdermanvediğerkategorilerinde daha fazla metafor üretirken erkek öğrencileryönlendiricikategorisinde daha fazla metafor üretmiştir. Lise mezuniyeti açısından bakıldığında da İHLden mezun olanlaranahtarvekelamkategorilerinde daha fazla metafor üretirken diğer lise mezunlarıyönlendiricikategorisinde daha fazla metafor üretmiştir. Kuran Kursu eğitimi alma değişkeni açısından ise Kuran kursu eğitimi alanlardermanvediğerkategorilerinde daha fazla metafor üretirken Kuran Kursu eğitimi almayanlaryönlendiricikategorisinde daha fazla metafor üretmiştir. Ayrıca öznel dindarlık ve aile dindarlık algılarıyla metafor kategorileri arasında da anlamlı ilişkiler elde edilmiştir. (shrink)
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  50.  52
    Rola świadomości w decyzjach dotyczących zaprzestania podtrzymywania funkcji życiowych.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2011 - Rocznik Kognitywistyczny 5:191-198.
    Badania przy użyciu rezonansu magnetycznego sugerują, że przynajmniej niektórzy pacjenci w tzw. stanie wegetatywnym mogą być bardziejświadomi”, niż to się do tej pory wydawało. W artykule (...)
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