Results for 'Arthur B. Markman'

(not author) ( search as author name )
998 found
Order:
  1. In defense of representation.Arthur B. Markman & Eric Dietrich - 2000 - Cognitive Psychology 40 (2):138--171.
    The computational paradigm, which has dominated psychology and artificial intelligence since the cognitive revolution, has been a source of intense debate. Recently, several cognitive scientists have argued against this paradigm, not by objecting to computation, but rather by objecting to the notion of representation. Our analysis of these objections reveals that it is not the notion of representation per se that is causing the problem, but rather specific properties of representations as they are used in various psychological theories. Our analysis (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   36 citations  
  2. Whither structured representation?Arthur B. Markman & Eric Dietrich - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):626-627.
    The perceptual symbol system view assumes that perceptual representations have a role-argument structure. A role-argument structure is often incorporated into amodal symbol systems in order to explain conceptual functions like abstraction and rule use. The power of perceptual symbol systems to support conceptual functions is likewise rooted in its use of structure. On Barsalou's account, this capacity to use structure (in the form of frames) must be innate.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3. The Prepared Mind: The Role of Representational Change in Chance Discovery.Eric Dietrich, Arthur B. Markman & Michael Winkley - 2003 - In Yukio Ohsawa Peter McBurney (ed.), Chance Discovery by Machines. Springer-Verlag, pp. 208-230..
    Analogical reminding in humans and machines is a great source for chance discoveries because analogical reminding can produce representational change and thereby produce insights. Here, we present a new kind of representational change associated with analogical reminding called packing. We derived the algorithm in part from human data we have on packing. Here, we explain packing and its role in analogy making, and then present a computer model of packing in a micro-domain. We conclude that packing is likely used in (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  4. Discrete thoughts: Why cognition must use discrete representations.Eric Dietrich & Arthur B. Markman - 2003 - Mind and Language 18 (1):95-119.
    Advocates of dynamic systems have suggested that higher mental processes are based on continuous representations. In order to evaluate this claim, we first define the concept of representation, and rigorously distinguish between discrete representations and continuous representations. We also explore two important bases of representational content. Then, we present seven arguments that discrete representations are necessary for any system that must discriminate between two or more states. It follows that higher mental processes require discrete representations. We also argue that discrete (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   32 citations  
  5. The Knowledge of Good: Critique of Axiological Reason.Robert S. Hartman, Arthur R. Ellis & Rem B. Edwards (eds.) - 2002 - BRILL.
    This book presents Robert S. Hartman’s formal theory of value and critically examines many other twentieth century value theorists in its light, including A.J. Ayer, Kurt Baier, Brand Blanshard, Paul Edwards, Albert Einstein, William K. Frankena, R.M. Hare, Nicolai Hartmann, Martin Heidegger, G.E. Moore, P.H. Nowell-Smith, Jose Ortega y Gasset, Charles Stevenson, Paul W. Taylor, Stephen E. Toulmin, and J.O. Urmson.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  6. The Impact of Perceived Control on the Imagination of Better and Worse Possible Worlds.Keith Markman, Igor Gavanski, Steven Sherman & Matthew McMullen - 1995 - Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 21 (6):588-595.
    Effects of perceived control and close alternative outcomes were examined. Subjects played a computer-simulated "wheel-of-fortune" game with another player in which two wheels spun simultaneously. Subjects had either control over spinning the wheel or control over which wheel would determine their outcome and which would determine the other player's outcome. Results showed that (a) subjects generated counterfactuals about the aspect of the game that they controlled, (b) the direction of these counterfactuals corresponded to the close outcome associated with the aspect (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  7. Accountability and Close-Call Counterfactuals: The Loser Who Nearly Won and the Winner Who Nearly Lost.Keith Markman & Philip Tetlock - 2000 - Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26 (10):1213-1224.
    This article links recent work on assimilative and contrastive counterfactual thinking with research on the impact of accountability on judgment and choice. Relative to participants who felt accountable solely for bottom-line performance outcomes, participants who were accountable for their decision-making process (a) had more pronounced differential reactions to clearly winning versus (winning but) nearly losing and to clearly losing versus (losing but) nearly winning; (b) were less satisfied with the quality of their decisions when they nearly lost and more satisfied (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  8. Ontological accounting and aboutness: on Asay’s A Theory of Truthmaking.Arthur Schipper - 2021 - Asian Journal of Philosophy 1 (1):1-8.
    In this paper, I first present an overview of Asay’s _A Theory of Truthmaking_, highlighting what I take to be some of its most attractive features, especially his re-invigoration of the ontological understanding of truthmaking and his defence of ontology-first truthmaking over explanation-first truthmaking. Then, I articulate what I take to be a puzzling potential inconsistency: (a) he appeals to considerations to do with aboutness in criticising how well ontological views account for truth while (b) ruling out aboutness from the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  9. Historically contested concepts: A conceptual history of philanthropy in France, 1712-1914.Arthur Gautier - 2019 - Theory and Society 48 (1):95-129.
    Since W. B. Gallie introduced the notion of essentially contested concepts (ECCs) in 1956, social science scholars have increasingly used his framework to analyze key concepts drawing “endless disputes” from contestant users. Despite its merits, the ECC framework has been limited by a neglect of social, cultural, and political contexts, the invisibility of actors, and its ahistorical character. To understand how ECCs evolve and change over time, I use a conceptual history approach to study the concept of philanthropy, recently labeled (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10. Tense and the psychology of relief.Christoph Hoerl - 2015 - Topoi 34 (1):217-231.
    At the centre of Arthur Prior’s ‘Thank goodness’ argument for the A-theory of time is a particular form of relief. Time must objectively pass, Prior argues, or else the relief felt when a painful experience has ended is not intelligible. In this paper, I offer a detailed analysis of the type of relief at issue in this argument, which I call temporal relief, and distinguish it from another form of relief, which I refer to as counterfactual relief. I also (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  11.  26
    Mind as an Experimental Object: On the Behaviorism of Edgar A. Singer Jr.David Dennen - 2022 - Behavior and Philosophy 50:1-19.
    Edgar A. Singer Jr. is largely forgotten. Yet in the early twentieth century he was one of the most persistent proponents for a theory of "mind as behavior." This essay explores Singer's theory of mind as a form of experimentally-definable behavior. This interpretation of mind is derived from Singer's "philosophy of experiment," which delimits the forms of questions that can have meaningful answers. Valid questions, according to Singer's theory, must appeal to phenomena that are public in some sense and which (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12. Mad Speculation and Absolute Inhumanism: Lovecraft, Ligotti, and the Weirding of Philosophy.Ben Woodard - 2011 - Continent 1 (1):3-13.
    continent. 1.1 : 3-13. / 0/ – Introduction I want to propose, as a trajectory into the philosophically weird, an absurd theoretical claim and pursue it, or perhaps more accurately, construct it as I point to it, collecting the ground work behind me like the Perpetual Train from China Mieville's Iron Council which puts down track as it moves reclaiming it along the way. The strange trajectory is the following: Kant's critical philosophy and much of continental philosophy which has followed, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  13. Creencias conceptuales generales: entre dogmatismo esporádico y patológico. Notas sobre disonancia y autoengaño en construcciones intelectuales distorsionadas (General conceptual beliefs: between sporadic and pathological dogmatism. Notes on dissonance and self-deception in distorted intellectual constructs).Pietro Montanari - 2022 - In Dario Armando Flores Sorias & José Alejandro Fuerte (eds.), Filosofia y espiritualidad. Reflexiones desde la tradición filosofica en diálogo con el presente. Universidad de Guadalajara UDG. pp. 171-203.
    Ideologies, worldviews, or simply personal theories, often acquire a distorted and pathological character, and become a factor of alienation rather than an epistemic resource and an aid for personal existence. This paper attempts to better define the limits and characteristics of this experience, which we call distorted intellectual beliefs, or general conceptual beliefs (GB), while trying to highlight both its sometimes dramatic background and its personal and social consequences, which are no less potentially deleterious. We believe that such experiences should (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14. Creencias conceptuales generales: entre dogmatismo esporádico y patológico. Notas sobre disonancia y autoengaño en construcciones intelectuales distorsionadas (General conceptual beliefs: between sporadic and pathological dogmatism. Notes on dissonance and self-deception in distorted intellectual constructs).Pietro Montanari - 2022 - In Dario Armando Flores Soria & José Alejandro Fuerte (eds.), Filosofia y espiritualidad. Reflexiones desde la tradición filosofica en diálogo con el presente. Guadalajara: Universidad de Guadalajara. pp. 171-203.
    Ideologies, worldviews, or simply personal theories, often acquire a distorted and pathological character, and become a factor of alienation rather than an epistemic resource and an aid for personal existence. This paper attempts to better define the limits and characteristics of this experience, which we call distorted intellectual beliefs, or general conceptual beliefs (GB), while trying to highlight both its sometimes dramatic background and its personal and social consequences, which are no less potentially deleterious. We believe that such experiences should (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15. A (Limited) Defence of Priorianism.Daniel Deasy - 2023 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 66 (10):2037-2062.
    This paper defends Priorianism, a theory in the philosophy of time which combines three theses: first, that there is a metaphysical distinction between the present time and non-present times; second, that there are temporary propositions, that is, propositions that change in truth-value simpliciter over time; and third, that there is change over time only if there are temporary propositions. Priorianism is accepted by many Presentists, Growing Block Theorists, and Moving Spotlight Theorists. However, it is difficult to defend the view without (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  16. Friendship for the Flawed: A Cynical and Pessimistic Theory of Friendship.Glenn Trujillo - 2020 - Southwest Philosophy Review 36 (1):199-209.
    When considering the value of friendship, most philosophers ignore the negatives. Most assume that humans need friends to flourish, and some argue that friendships can be good, no matter the risks entailed. This makes conversations about the value of friendship one-sided. Here, I argue that Cynics and Pessimists have an important view on friendship, despite it being ignored. They hold that: (a) friendship is unnecessary for flourishing, and (b) friendship presents ethical risks, especially to one’s own self-sufficiency. I defend these (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  17. Death - Cultural, philosophical and religious aspects.Nicolae Sfetcu - 2016 - Drobeta Turnu Severin: MultiMedia Publishing.
    About death, grief, mourning, life after death and immortality. Why should we die like humans to survive as a species. -/- "No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don't want to die to get there. And yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the single best invention of Life. It is Life's change agent. It clears (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  18. An Education for “Practical” Conceptual Analysis in the Practice of “Philosophy for Children”.Arthur Wolf - 2018 - Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis 39 (1):73-88.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  19. I ❤️ ♦️ S.Steven F. Savitt - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 50:19-24.
    Richard Arthur and I proposed that the present in Minkowski spacetime should be thought of as a small causal diamond. That is, given two timelike separated events p and q, with p earlier than q, they suggested that the present is the set I+ ∩ I-. Mauro Dorato presents three criticisms of this proposal. I rebut all three and then offer two more plausible criticisms of the Arthur/Savitt proposal. I argue that these criticisms also fail.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  20. What is History for? Johann Gustav Droysen and the Functions of Historiography.Arthur Alfaix Assis - 2014 - New York, USA: Berghahn Books.
    A scholar of Hellenistic and Prussian history, Droysen developed a historical theory that at the time was unprecedented in range and depth, and which remains to the present day a valuable key for understanding history as both an idea and a professional practice. Arthur Alfaix Assis interprets Droysen’s theoretical project as an attempt to redefine the function of historiography within the context of a rising criticism of exemplar theories of history, and focuses on Droysen’s claim that the goal underlying (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  21. Mme de Staël's Philosophy of Imagination.Arthur Krieger - 2023 - Cahiers Staëliens 73:77-100.
    In "De l’Allemagne", Mme de Staël develops a sophisticated philosophical psychology that centers not on reason, but imagination. She does this by bringing French Enlightenment philosophy, particularly Rousseau and Diderot, into dialogue with German thinkers, including Kant and Herder. For Mme de Staël, imagination transcends the epistemic limits of sensibility and reason by incorporating sentiment.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22. Torturous withdrawal: Emotional compulsion in addiction.Arthur Krieger - 2024 - European Journal of Philosophy:1-17.
    Withdrawal involves emotional pain that motivates much addictive behavior. In this paper, I argue that the emotional pain of withdrawal compels much addictive behavior. Researchers have noticed this possibility but it is widely underappreciated. Among philosophers, only Hanna Pickard has discussed emotional compulsion in addiction, and the emotional aspect of withdrawal has been almost completely neglected. Accounts of emotional compulsion in the philosophical literature (from Tappolet, Elster, and Furrow) probably do not capture how the distress of withdrawal compels, so I (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23. Plural Pasts: Historiography between Events and Structures.Arthur Alfaix Assis - 2023 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    What is history about? This Element shows that answers centred on the keyword 'past events' are incomplete, even if they are not simply wrong. Interweaving theoretical and historical perspectives, it provides an abstract overview of the thematic plurality that characterizes contemporary academic historiography. The reflection on different sorts of pasts that can be at focus in historical research and writing encompasses events as well as non-events, especially recursive social structures and cultural webs. Some consequences of such plurality for discussions concerning (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  24. The Mental Simulation of Better and Worse Possible Worlds.Keith Markman, Igor Gavanski, Steven Sherman & Matthew McMullen - 1993 - Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 29 (1):87-109.
    Counterfactual thinking involves the imagination of non-factual alternatives to reality. We investigated the spontaneous generation of both upward counterfactuals, which improve on reality, and downward counterfactuals, which worsen reality. All subjects gained $5 playing a computer-simulated blackjack game. However, this outcome was framed to be perceived as either a win, a neutral event, or a loss. "Loss" frames produced more upward and fewer downward counterfactuals than did either "win" or "neutral" frames, but the overall prevalence of counterfactual thinking did not (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   18 citations  
  25. A Reflection and Evaluation Model of Comparative Thinking.Keith Markman & Matthew McMullen - 2003 - Personality and Social Psychology Review 7 (3):244-267.
    This article reviews research on counterfactual, social, and temporal comparisons and proposes a Reflection and Evaluation Model (REM) as an organizing framework. At the heart of the model is the assertion that 2 psychologically distinct modes of mental simulation operate during comparative thinking: reflection, an experiential (“as if”) mode of thinking characterized by vividly simulating that information about the comparison standard is true of, or part of, the self; and evaluation, an evaluative mode of thinking characterized by the use of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  26. Multiple Explanation: A Consider-an-Alternative Strategy for Debiasing Judgments.Keith Markman & Edward Hirt - 1995 - Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69 (6):1069-1086.
    Previous research has suggested that an effective strategy for debiasing judgments is to have participants "consider the opposite." The present research proposes that considering any plausible alternative outcome for an event, not just the opposite outcome, leads participants to simulate multiple alternatives, resulting in debiased judgments. Three experiments tested this hypothesis using an explanation task paradigm. Participants in all studies were asked to explain either 1 hypothetical outcome (single explanation conditions) or 2 hypothetical outcomes (multiple explanation conditions) to an event; (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  27. Counterfactual Thinking: Function and Dysfunction.Keith Markman, Figen Karadogan, Matthew Lindberg & Ethan Zell - 2009 - In Keith Markman, William Klein & Julie Suhr (eds.), Handbook of Imagination and Mental Simulation. New York City, New York, USA: Psychology Press. pp. 175-194.
    Counterfactual thinking—the capacity to reflect on what would, could, or should have been if events had transpired differently—is a pervasive, yet seemingly paradoxical human tendency. On the one hand, counterfactual thoughts can be comforting and inspiring (Carroll & Shepperd, Chapter 28), but on the other they can be anxiety provoking and depressing (Zeelenberg & Pieters, Chapter 27). Likewise, such thoughts can illuminate pathways toward better future outcomes (Wong, Galinsky, & Kray, Chapter 11), yet they can also promote confusion and lead (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  28. Reflective and Evaluative Modes of Mental Simulation.Keith D. Markman & Matthew N. McMullen - 2005 - In David R. Mandel, Denis J. Hilton & Patrizia Catellani (eds.), The Psychology of Counterfactual Thinking. London: Routledge. pp. 77--93.
    A number of researchers have focused on the distinction between upward counterfactuals that simulate a better reality and downward counterfactuals that simulate a worse reality. In this chapter the authors will discuss the important aspects of a model (Markman and McMullen 2003) that attempts to explain how the very same counterfactual can engender dramatically different affective reactions. According to the model, the consequences of simulation direction are moderated by what we have termed simulation mode--relatively stronger tendencies to engage in (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  29.  44
    Historicism, Enlightenment, and ‘the Two Eyes of Wisdom’ [Review Essay on Modern Historiography in the Making. The German Sense of the Past, 1700–1900, by Kasper Risbjerg Eskildsen, London, Bloomsbury, 2023, 186 pp].Arthur Alfaix Assis - 2024 - Global Intellectual History 10.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30. Implications of Counterfactual Structure for Creative Generation and Analytical Problem Solving.Keith Markman, Matthew Lindberg, Laura Kray & Adam Galinsky - 2007 - Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 33 (3):312-324.
    In the present research, the authors hypothesized that additive counterfactual thinking mind-sets, activated by adding new antecedent elements to reconstruct reality, promote an expansive processing style that broadens conceptual attention and facilitates performance on creative generation tasks, whereas subtractive counterfactual thinking mind-sets, activated by removing antecedent elements to reconstruct reality, promote a relational processing style that enhances tendencies to consider relationships and associations and facilitates performance on analytical problem-solving tasks. A reanalysis of a published data set suggested that the counterfactual (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  31. "It Was Meant to Be:” Retrospective Meaning Construction through Mental Simulation.Keith Markman, Matthew Lindberg & Hyeman Choi - 2013 - In Keith Douglas Markman, Travis Proulx & Matthew J. Lindberg (eds.), The Psychology of Meaning. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. pp. 339-355.
    The goal of the current chapter is to discuss how counterfactual thinking serves a more general sense-making function and to delineate the mechanisms by which this may occur. To demonstrate the meaning as sense-making function of counterfactual thinking, we (Lindberg & Markman, 2012) selected a historical event that was likely to be compelling to most student participants, yet not one with which most students would be familiar. This allowed for the manipulation of event details for the purpose of examining (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  32. Counterfactual Thinking, Persistence, and Performance: A Test of the Reflection and Evaluation Model.Keith Markman, Matthew McMullen & Ronald Elizaga - 2008 - Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44 (2):421-428.
    The present research extends previous functional accounts of counterfactual thinking by incorporating the notion of reflective and evaluative processing. Participants generated counterfactuals about their anagram performance, after which their persistence and performance on a second set of anagrams was measured. Evaluative processing of upward counterfactuals elicited a larger increase in persistence and better performance than did reflective processing of upward counterfactuals, whereas reflective processing of downward counterfactuals elicited a larger increase in persistence and better performance than did evaluative processing of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  33. Downward Counterfactuals and Motivation: The Wake-Up Call and the Pangloss Effect.Keith Markman & Matthew McMullen - 2000 - Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26 (5):575-584.
    Three studies examined the motivational implications of thinking about how things could have been worse. It was hypothesized that when these downward counterfactuals yield negative affect, through consideration of the possibility of a negative outcome, motivation to change and improve would be increased (the wake-up call). When downward counterfactuals yield positive affect, through diminishing the impact of a potentially negative outcome, motivation to change and improve should be reduced (the Pangloss effect). Results from three studies supported these hypotheses. Studies 1 (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  34. What We Regret Most Are Lost Opportunities: A Theory of Regret Intensity.Keith Markman, Denise Beike & Figen Karadogan - 2009 - Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 35 (3):385-397.
    A recent theory (Roese & Summerville, 2005) has suggested that regret is intensified by perceptions of future opportunity. In this work, however, it is proposed that feelings of regret are more likely elicited by perceptions of lost opportunity: People regret outcomes that could have been changed in the past but can no longer be changed and for which people experience low psychological closure. Consistent with the lost opportunity principle, Study 1 revealed that regretted experiences in the most commonly regretted life (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  35. "I Couldn't Have Known": Accountability, Foreseeability, and Counterfactual Denials of Responsibility.Keith Markman & Philip Tetlock - 2000 - British Journal of Social Psychology 39:313-325.
    This article explores situational determinants and psychological consequences of counterfactual excuse-making - denying responsibility by declaring `I couldn’t have known.’ Participants who were made accountable for a stock investment decision that resulted in an outcome caused by unforeseeable circumstances were particularly likely to generate counterfactual excuses and, as a result, to deny responsibility for the outcome of their choices and minimize their perceptions of control over the decision process. The article discusses the implications of these findings for structuring accountability reporting (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  36. Deconstructing Self-Blame Following Sexual Assault: The Critical Roles of Cognitive Content and Process.Keith Markman, Audrey Miller, Ian Handley & Janel Miller - 2010 - Violence Against Women 16 (10):1120-1137.
    As part of a larger study, predictors of self-blame were investigated in a sample of 149 undergraduate sexual assault survivors. Each participant completed questionnaires regarding their preassault, peritraumatic, and post assault experiences and participated in an individual interview. Results confirmed the central hypothesis that, although several established correlates independently relate to self-blame, only cognitive content and process variables—negative self-cognitions and counterfactual-preventability cognitions—uniquely predict self-blame in a multivariate model.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  37. Activating a Mental Simulation Mind-Set through Generation of Alternatives: Implications for Debiasing in Related and Unrelated Domains.Keith Markman, Edward Hirt & Frank Kardes - 2004 - Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 40 (3):374-383.
    Encouraging people to consider multiple alternatives appears to be a useful debiasing technique for reducing many biases (explanation, hindsight, and overconfidence), if the generation of alternatives is experienced as easy. The present research tests whether these alternative generation procedures induce a mental simulation mind-set (cf. Galinsky & Moskowitz, 2000), such that debiasing in one domain transfers to debias judgments in unrelated domains. The results indeed demonstrated that easy alternative generation tasks not only debiased judgments in the same domain but also (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  38. Affective Impact of Close Counterfactuals: Implications of Possible Futures for Possible Pasts.Keith Markman & Matthew McMullen - 2002 - Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 38:64-70.
    Three studies examined the motivational implications of thinking about how things could have been worse. It was hypothesized that when these downward counterfactuals yield negative affect, through consideration of the possibility of a negative outcome, motivation to change and improve would be increased (the wake-up call). When downward counterfactuals yield positive affect, through diminishing the impact of a potentially negative outcome, motivation to change and improve should be reduced (the Pangloss effect). Results from three studies supported these hypotheses. Studies 1 (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  39. Peers and Performance: How In-Group and Out-Group Comparisons Moderate Stereotype Threat Effects.Keith Markman & Ronald Elizaga - 2008 - Current Psychology 27:290-300.
    The present study examined how exposure to the performance of in-group and out-group members can both exacerbate and minimize the negative effects of stereotype threat. Female participants learned that they would be taking a math test that was either diagnostic or nondiagnostic of their math ability. Prior to taking the test, participants interacted with either an in-group peer (a female college student) or an out-group peer (a male college student) who had just taken the test and learned that the student (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  40. Depression, Control, and Counterfactual Thinking: Functional for Whom?Keith Markman & Audrey Miller - 2006 - Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 25 (2):210-227.
    The present study examined relationships among counterfactual thinking, perceived control, and depressive symptoms. Undergraduate participants, grouped according to nondepressed, mild–to–moderately depressed, and severely depressed symptom categories, described potentially repeatable negative academic events and then made upward counterfactuals about those events. Whereas participants endorsing mild–to–moderate depressive symptom levels generated more counterfactuals about controllable than uncontrollable aspects of the events they described, participants endorsing severe levels of depressive symptoms generated counterfactuals that were less controllable, less reasonable, and more characterological in nature. Furthermore, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  41. Authority and Coercion.Arthur Ripstein - 2004 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 32 (1):2-35.
    I am grateful to Donald Ainslie, Lisa Austin, Michael Blake, Abraham Drassinower, David Dyzenhaus, George Fletcher, Robert Gibbs, Louis-Philippe Hodgson, Sari Kisilevsky, Dennis Klimchuk, Christopher Morris, Scott Shapiro, Horacio Spector, Sergio Tenenbaum, Malcolm Thorburn, Ernest Weinrib, Karen Weisman, and the Editors of Philosophy & Public Affairs for comments, and audiences in the UCLA Philosophy Department and Columbia Law School for their questions.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   69 citations  
  42. Counterfactual Thinking and Regulatory Fit.Keith Markman, Matthew McMullen, Ronald Elizaga & Nobuko Mizoguchi - 2006 - Judgment and Decision Making 1 (2):98-107.
    According to regulatory fit theory (Higgins, 2000), when people make decisions with strategies that sustain their regulatory focus orientation, they “feel right” about what they are doing, and this “feeling-right” experience then transfers to subsequent choices, decisions, and evaluations. The present research was designed to link the concept of regulatory fit to functional accounts of counterfactual thinking. In the present study, participants generated counterfactuals about their anagram performance, after which persistence on a second set of anagrams was measured. Under promotion (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  43. Psychological Momentum: The Phenomenology of Goal Pursuit.Keith Markman & Walid Briki - 2018 - Social and Personality Psychology Compass 12 (9):e12412.
    Psychological momentum (PM) is thought to be a force that influences judgment, emotion, and performance. Based on a review of the extant literature, we elucidate two distinct approaches that researchers have adopted in their study of PM: the input-centered approach and the output-centered approach. Consistent with the input-centered approach, we conceptualize PM as a process whereby temporal and contextual PM-like stimuli (i.e., perceptual velocity, perceptual mass, perceptual historicity, and perceptually interconnected timescales)—initially perceived as an impetus—are extrapolated to imagined future outcomes (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44. Nostalgia and Temporal Self-Appraisal: Divergent Evaluations of Past and Present Selves.Keith Markman, Hannah Osborn & Jennifer Howell - 2022 - Self and Identity 21 (2):163-184.
    The present research examined how nostalgia influences temporal self-appraisals and whether those appraisals relate to current mood. Across two studies, participants recalled either an ordinary or nostalgic memory and provided appraisals of their present and past selves. Participants who recalled nostalgic memories evaluated their past selves more positively than their present selves, whereas the reverse occurred for those who recalled ordinary memories. Those who recalled a positive future event also evaluated their future selves more positively than their present selves. Nostalgia (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45. Living in neither the Best nor Worst of All Possible Worlds: Antecedents and Consequences of Upward and Downward Counterfactual Thinking.Keith Markman, Matthew McMullen & Igor Gavanski - 1995 - In Neal Roese & James Olson (eds.), What Might Have Been: Social Psychological Perspectives on Counterfactual Thinking. Erlbaum. pp. 133-167.
    As the opening line of Dickens' classic novel suggests, it is very often the case that people can imagine both better and worse alternatives to their present reality. Although Dickens was writing about events that occurred over two centuries ago, it remains just as true today that we clearly live in neither the best nor the worst of possible worlds. For instance, we can wish for the amelioration of present difficulties in the Middle East yet still take comfort in the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  46. Depression, Regulatory Focus, and Motivation.Keith Markman - 2007 - Personality and Individual Differences 43:427-436.
    The present study examined relationships between chronic regulatory focus and motivation to improve upon academic outcomes in a sample of individuals varying in degree of hopelessness depression (HD) symptoms. Participants recalled a recent negative academic outcome, completed a measure of regulatory focus, reported their subsequent motivation to improve upon future academic outcomes, and then indicated whether their grades on examinations, assignments, and their GPAs had improved or worsened since the described outcome. Results indicate that degree of HD symptoms positively relates (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47. Psychotherapy and the Restoration of Meaning: Existential Philosophy in Clinical Practice.Keith Markman, Peter Zafirides, Travis Proulx & Matthew Lindberg - 2013 - In Keith Douglas Markman, Travis Proulx & Matthew J. Lindberg (eds.), The Psychology of Meaning. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. pp. 465-477.
    In this chapter, we explore how themes of existential philosophy have been used to develop a formal orientation of psychotherapy, and we discuss the main principles of existential psychotherapy and their application in practice. We also draw upon case examples to specifically illustrate how the approach of existential psychotherapy is utilized in clinical practice. In the case examples, each patient's identify has been disguised to maintain confidentiality. The new science of meaning, represented by the chapters in this volume, not only (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48. Social Prediction and the "Allegiance Bias".Keith Markman & Edward Hirt - 2002 - Social Cognition 20 (1):58-86.
    Two studies examined the allegiance bias – the rendering of biased predictions by individuals who are psychologically invested in a desired outcome. In Study 1, fans of either Notre Dame or University of Miami college football read information about an upcoming game between the two teams and then explained a hypothetical victory either by Notre Dame or Miami. Although explaining a hypothetical victory biased the judgments of controls (i.e., fans of neither team) in the direction of the team explained, the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  49. Belief and Probability: A General Theory of Probability Cores.Arthur Paul Pedersen & Horacio Arlo-Costa - 2012 - International Journal of Approximate Reasoning 53 (3).
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  50. Control Motivation, Depression, and Counterfactual Thought.Keith Markman & Gifford Weary - 1998 - In Miroslav Kofta (ed.), Personal Control in Action. Springer. pp. 363-390.
    The notion that there exists a fundamental need to exert control over or to influence one’s environment has enjoyed a long history in psychology (e.g., DeCharms, 1968; Heider, 1958) and has stimulated considerable theoretical work. Such a need has been characterized by theorists at multiple levels of analysis. Control motivation, for example, has been characterized broadly in terms of proactive (White, 1959) or reactive (e.g., Abramson, Seligman, & Teasdale, 1978; Brehm, 1966; Brehm & Brehm, 1981) strivings for control over general (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 998