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Immanuel Kant (3,548 | 258)
Kant: Metaphysics and Epistemology (1,280 | 74)

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  1. Reflexiones sobre la eventual actualidad teórico-política del romanticismo e idealismo alemanes.Hector Ferreiro - 2024 - In Naim Garnica & Agustín Lucas Prestifilippo (eds.), Fragmentos de Jena. Escritos sobre las raíces de la filosofía clásica alemana en tiempos de indigencia. Madrid: Ediciones sequitur. pp. 227-263.
    Liberados el romanticismo y el idealismo del lastre secular de su vínculo imaginario con la “catástrofe alemana” deviene una vez más posible recurrir a ellos para repensar los problemas teóricos y prácticos del presente y localizar nuevos instrumentos conceptuales para su solución. En este contexto recobran interés numerosos temas que fueron objetos privilegiados de reflexión por parte de los pensadores románticos e idealistas. El romanticismo exaltó la Revolución Francesa como un acontecimiento epocal de reivindicación de los derechos de los individuos (...)
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  2. Reseña de Engadiner Gedanken-Gänge: Friedrich Nietzsche, der Wanderer und sein Schatten, de T. Boehm y P. Villwock, Göttingen: Wallstein, 2021, 215 pp. [REVIEW]Osman Choque-Aliaga - 2024 - Open Insight 33:173-180.
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  3. Lore Knapp. Empirismus und Ästhetik: Zur deutschsprachigen Rezeption von Hume, Hutcheson, Home und Burke im 18. Jahrhundert. [REVIEW]Michael Walschots - forthcoming - Austrian History Yearbook.
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  4. SYMPHILOSOPHIE 3 (2021) - Science and Early German Romanticism.Laure Cahen-Maurel, Leif Weatherby, Giulia Valpione, David Wood, Cody Staton, Manja Kisner, Gesa Wellmann & Marie-Michèle Blondin (eds.) - 2021 - SYMPHILOSOPHIE: International Journal of Philosophical Romanticism.
    This third 2021 issue of "SYMPHILOSOPHIE: International Journal of Philosophical Romanticism" contains a main dossier of new research articles guest edited by Leif Weatherby (New York University) and devoted to the topic of early German romanticism and science. In addition to the papers of this main section issue number 3 of SYMPHILOSOPHIE includes translations of primary sources and book reviews. All contents are freely available online.
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  5. Philosophical Paths: The Legacy of Hemsterhuis’ Dialogues in the Age of German Romanticism.Laure Cahen-Maurel - 2022 - In The Edinburgh Edition of the Complete Philosophical Works of François Hemsterhuis, vol. 2: The Dialogues of Francois Hemsterhuis, 1778-1787. Edinburgh:
    Introduction to: "The Edinburgh Edition of the Complete Philosophical Works of François Hemsterhuis", vol. 2: "The Dialogues of Francois Hemsterhuis, 1778-1787", edited and translated by Jacob van Sluis, Daniel Whistler (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2022), pp. 22-41.
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  6. যুক্তিবিদ্যা বিষয়ক হেগেলের সংজ্ঞা: একটি পর্যালোচনা.Kazi A. S. M. Nurul Huda - 2022 - Dorshon o Progoti 39 (1-2):67-85.
    হেগেল তাঁর “লজিক এজ মেটাফিজিক্স” নামক গ্রন্থাংশের শুরুতেই অল্প ব্যবধানে যুক্তিবিদ্যার দৃশ্যত দুটি ভিন্ন সংজ্ঞা প্রদান করেন। এ দুটি সংজ্ঞানুযায়ী, যুক্তিবিদ্যা বিশুদ্ধ ধারণার বিজ্ঞান হলেও এটিকে চিন্তার বিজ্ঞান হিসেবেও আখ্যায়িত করা যেতে পারে। কিন্তু প্রশ্ন হলো, হেগেল একই গ্রন্থাংশে অল্প ব্যবধানে যুক্তিবিদ্যার এ যে দুটি ভিন্ন সংজ্ঞা প্রদান করলেন, তার কারণ কী? বা এ দুটি সংজ্ঞার মধ্যে সম্পর্কই বা কী? তারা কি একে অপরকে সমর্থন করে? বা তারা কি আসলেই ভিন্ন দুটি সংজ্ঞা? নাকি একই বক্তব্যের দুটি ভিন্ন প্রকাশ? এ প্রশ্নগুলোর (...)
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  7. Teaching and Learning Guide for: Mind‐Body Commerce: Occasional Causation and Mental Representation in Anton Wilhelm Amo.Peter West - 2023 - Philosophy Compass.
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  8. The Course of Human Development: 19th-century Comparative Linguistics from Schlegel to Schleicher.Jennifer Mensch - 2019 - International Yearbook for Hermeneutics 18 (1):140-154.
    The investigation that I am going to pursue here is part of a larger effort on my part to understand the relationship between Kant’s so-called “philosophical anthropology” and the development of early German anthropology since it is my sense that Kant had a determinate, if indirect, effect on the history of that separate field. For now this larger project has three main foci: an account of Kant’s philosophical anthropology in all its parts, an inquiry into Kant’s relationship to the theories (...)
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  9. Politics of the Turkish Republic.Mehmet Karabela - 2021 - In Islamic Thought Through Protestant Eyes. New York: Routledge. pp. 243-253.
    Michael Wendeler’s disputation on the Turkish republic is a discussion of Ottoman history, political philosophy, and the concept of monarchy and tyranny. Half of his disputation concerns the identification of the Turks with the little horn which arises on the head of the fourth beast in the prophet’s vision described in the Book of Daniel 7:1–28. Giving copious historical references, Wendeler explains that this little horn cannot be referring to Christ as the Jews believe, nor to the Seleucid monarch Antiochos (...)
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  10. Kant, Revolution, and Climate: Individual and Political Responsibility.Zachary Vereb - 2021 - Public Reason 13 (1):67-82.
    There has been a revived interest in the relevance of Kant's philosophy for contemporary global issues. This paper investigates the extent to which Kant's philosophy can provide grounds for addressing the global issue of climate change, despite his seemingly conservative defense of reform over revolution. First, I argue that Kant's account of societal progress as metamorphosis is compatible with the conception of a green revolution understood as restructuring society toward sustainability. Second, I claim that Kant's evolutionary model of political change (...)
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  11. Islamic Thought Through Protestant Eyes.Mehmet Karabela - 2021 - New York: Routledge.
    Early modern Protestant scholars closely engaged with Islamic thought in more ways than is usually recognized. Among Protestants, Lutheran scholars distinguished themselves as the most invested in the study of Islam and Muslim culture. Mehmet Karabela brings the neglected voices of post-Reformation theologians, primarily German Lutherans, into focus and reveals their rigorous engagement with Islamic thought. Inspired by a global history approach to religious thought, Islamic Thought Through Protestant Eyes offers new sources to broaden the conventional interpretation of the Reformation (...)
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  12. Dignity and Credibility in the Age of Information.Joshua Duclos - 2020 - The Principal Post.
    Self-authorship is fundamental to respecting the dignity of persons, and epistemic credibility depends upon impartial review. While these claims may seem obviously true, they arguments for them are rarely given. In a supposedly "post-truth" world in which respect for individual rights is under attack, the obvious must be argued for and reiterated. To that end, I mine sources from the European Enlightenment (Bacon, Hume, Kant, and Mill) to make the case for self-authorship and impartial review.
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  13. Lambert über die Moral und den moralischen Schein.Michael Walschots - 2022 - In Hans-Peter Nowitzki, Enrico Pasini, Paola Rumore & Gideon Stiening (eds.), Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728–1777): Wege Zur Mathematisierung der Aufklärung. De Gruyter. pp. 289-300.
    This chapter illustrates that Lambert’s works focus not only on mathematical and scientific topics but include reflections on issues in practical philosophy as well. I illustrate, first, that Lamber conceives of moral science [Moral] as the theory of moral judgement and, second, that an important part of this science illustrates how we are to distinguish moral truth from moral illusion.
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  14. Garve's Eudaimonism.Michael Walschots - 2020 - In Udo Roth & Gideon Stiening (eds.), Christian Garve (1742–1798) Philosoph und Philologe der Aufklärung. De Gruyter. pp. 171-182.
    In this chapter I evaluate whether Garve was a ‘eudaimonist’, as Kant famously alleged he was. In the first sections of the paper I clarify that eudaimonism can mean either that happiness is the final end of creation, or that human beings are always motived by the desire for happiness, and I discuss Garve’s engagement with Aristotle’s understanding of eudaimonia. I then provide an account of Garve’s understanding of happiness and discuss his theory of motivation before arguing that Garve believes (...)
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  15. Система знания — от каталогизации к генетизации. Об историческом контексте формирования аналитически-синтетического метода у Фихте.Stahl Jürgen - 2019 - Esse Studies in Philosphy and Theology 2 (4):65 - 97.
    В развитии своего аналитико-синтетического метода Фихте восходил к диэрезису, методически отраженному со времен Платона. Если Платон несомненно указывает на историческое происхождение диэрезис, то у Фихте нет прямого указания на его концептуальную дифференциацию. Таким образом, в эссе исследуется, какие современные научные и философские проблемы привели к возобновлению и новому формированию диэрезиса. Далее показано, как Фихте развил диэрезис в особый трансцендентально-философский метод и таким образом обозначил решающий поворот в философии. Разнообразные методологические и гносеологические размышления о понимании единства и многообразия явлений природы и (...)
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  16. Perspektivwechsel: Konstruktion - Antizipation und gestaltende Fähigkeit des Subjekts. Zur Veränderung des Begriffsverständnis zwischen Aufklärung und Moderne.Stahl Jürgen - 2012 - Internet-Zeitschrift des Leibniz-Instituts Für Interdisziplinäre Studien E.V.
    Der Konstruktionsbegriff erfuhr er unter dem Eindruck technischer Fortschritte wie soziokultureller Veränderungen vor allem im 19. Jahrhundert wesentliche Wandlungen. Mit dessen selbstverständlich erscheinender Nutzung ergibt sich die Frage nach seinem Bedeutungsfeld: Ist Konstruieren ein Prozess, der sich auf das Entwerfen, die Präsentation der äußerlichen Gestalt des zu erzeugenden Gegenstandes konzentriert oder sind in ihm wesentlich mehr Aspekte impliziert? Im 17./18. Jahrhundert war Konstruktion verbunden mit dem Maschinenbegriff und vom Anspruch getragen, das geschlossene Ganze der Maschine als Objekt zu erfassen. Im (...)
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  17. Socialno-ekonomitscheskie vozzrenija J.G. Fichte kak osnova konstitutivnogo ponjatija spravedlivosti.Stahl Jürgen - 2008 - In Socialno-ekonomitscheskie vozzrenija J.G. Fichte kak osnova konstitutivnogo ponjatija spravedlivosti. In: Filosofskaja mysl i filosofija jazyka i istorii i sovremennosti. Sbornik nautschnych statej. Vostotschnyj universitet. (Perevod: M.A. Puschkarevoj. R. Ufa, Baschkortostan, Russland: pp. 5 - 24.
    В статье автор исследует, как Фихте разработал социально-политическую концепцию действия, основанную как на опыте, так и на современных идеях, в его работе «Закрытое коммерческое состояниеt». Кроме того, рассматривается, чем его социально-экономические теоремы отличаются от камеристских и феодально-консервативных рассуждений. Применительно к сегодняшнему дню идея о том, что люди являются не объектом или средством социальных отношений, а скорее их субъектом и целью, представляется особенно актуальной. С этой целью Фихте разработал концепцию справедливости, которая была конститутивной для его концепции общества: демократия, направленная на посягательство (...)
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  18. Le concezioni socioeconomiche di Johann Gottlieb Fichte come banco di prova della filosofia trascendentale.Stahl Jürgen - 1992 - Rinascita Della Scuola. Nouva Serie. Bimestrale Internazionale di Cultura, Scienza, Educazione 1 (XVI):3 - 22.
    The essay deals with the question whether Fichte’s socio-economic model which based both on the experiences and ideas of his time. Additionally, it explores how his socio-economic theorems stood out against cameralistic and feudal-conservative discussions and to what extent they can be described as an early critique of capitalism. Is the essence of Fichte’s socio-economic ideas to be seen in his model of state regulation or rather in his methodological claim of genetically developing the phenomena by showing their mediating links? (...)
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  19. Die Französische Revolution - Ursprung philosophischer Konzeptionsbildung bei Johann Gottlieb Fichte.Stahl Jürgen - 1989 - In Collegium philosophicum Jenense Nr. 8 Französische Revolution und Deutsche Klassik. Weimar, Deutschland: Hermann Böhlaus Nachfolger. pp. 189 - 205.
    Der Aufsatz analysiert Fichtes Verhältnis zu dem durch die Französische Revolution eingeleiteten Epochenumbruch und der damit verbundenen philosophischen Positionsbildung The essay analyzes Fichte's relationship to the epochal upheaval initiated by the French Revolution and the associated formation of philosophical positions. El ensayo analiza la relación de Fichte con el cambio de época iniciado por la Revolución Francesa y la formación asociada de posiciones filosóficas. В эссе анализируется отношение Фихте к эпохальным потрясениям, инициированным Французской революцией, и связанное с этим формирование философских (...)
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  20. Fichtes Beitrag zur Ausbildung einer dialektischen Naturbetrachtung.Stahl Jürgen - 1985 - In Erhard Lange (ed.), Collegium philosophicum Jenense Nr 5. Philosophie und Natur. Beiträge zur Naturphilosophie der deutschen Klassik. Weimar, Deutschland: Hermann Böhlau Nachfolger. pp. 146 -155.
    Der Artikel verfolgt, in welcher Weise Johann Gottlieb Fichte mit seiner Wissenschaftslehre die Diskussion um das Wesen der Natur in ihrem Verhältnis zum Subjekt beeinflusst. Dabei wird besonders sein Ansatz zur Fassung der Subjektivität und der Dialektisierung der Erkenntnisbeziehung zwischen Subjekt und Objekt herausgearbeitet. Dabei wird Fichtes Beitrag zur Entwicklung einer modernen dialektischen Methode gewürdigt. -/- The article follows the way in which Johann Gottlieb Fichte influences the discussion about the essence of nature in its relationship to the subject with (...)
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  21. The birth of ontology.Barry Smith - 2022 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 3 (1):57-66.
    This review focuses on the Ogdoas scholastica by Jacob Lorhard, published in 1606. The importance of this document turns on the fact that it contains what is almost certainly the first published occurrence of the term “ontology.” The body of the work consists in a series of diagrams called “diagraphs.” Relevant features of this compendium of diagraphs are: 1. that it does not in fact contain the word “ontology,” and 2. that Lorhard himself was not responsible for its content.
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  22. Philosophy of Religion in Modern European Thought 1600-1800.Brendan Kolb & Andrew Chignell - 2021 - The Encyclopedia of the Philosophy of Religion.
    The early modern period (roughly, 1600–1800 ce) in Europe brought tremendous changes in intellectual, political, and cultural life. It was a period in which philosophical debates were inevitably bound up with questions about the nature and sources of religious truth. A chronological examination of some of the period’s major thinkers highlights two issues that were central to the development of philosophy of religion in the period. The first concerns the relations between God, the soul, and the body; the other concerns (...)
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  23. Nostri perpetuo memor. Per la storia editoriale delle opere di Marco Aurelio Severino.Oreste Trabucco - 2019 - Noctua 6 (1–2):451-471.
    Many of Marco Aurelio Severino’s works were published in Germany, thanks to the intercession of his pupils. The prestigious Nürnberg physician Johann Georg Volkamer was Severino’s closest pupil. A relevant manuscript letter of Severino to Volkamer sheds new light on the context of the edition of Severino’s Zootomia democritaea. The correspondence between Severino and Volkamer was firstly studied by Luigi Amabile in the Ninteenth-century, and it was fully exploited by Maurizio Torrini about a century later.
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  24. How a Kantian Ideal Can Be Practical.Alexander T. Englert - 2022 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 65.
    In the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant states that ideas give us the rule for organizing experience and ideals serve as archetypes or standards against which one can measure copies. Further, he states that ideas and ideals can be practical. Understanding how precisely these concepts should function presents a challenging and understudied philosophical puzzle. I offer a reconstruction of how ideas and ideals might be practical in order to uphold, to my mind, a conceptually worthy distinction. A practical idea, I (...)
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  25. On Some Presumed Gaps in Kant's Refutation of Idealism.Jacqueline Marina - 2004 - In Udo Rameil (ed.), Metaphysik und Kritik. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 153-166.
    Kant’s aim in the Refutation of Idealism is to show that the temporal determination of inner experience presupposes outer experience. Commentators have rightly noted the extraordinarily compressed character of Kant's argument, and numerous gaps in the argument have been pointed out. In this paper I focus on two of these gaps and provide a reconstruction of Kant's argument that closes them.
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  26. Theoretical virtues in eighteenth-century debates on animal cognition.Hein van den Berg - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (3):1-35.
    Within eighteenth-century debates on animal cognition we can distinguish at least three main theoretical positions: (i) Buffon’s mechanism, (ii) Reimarus’ theory of instincts, and (iii) the sensationalism of Condillac and Leroy. In this paper, I adopt a philosophical perspective on this debate and argue that in order to fully understand the justification Buffon, Reimarus, Condillac, and Leroy gave for their respective theories, we must pay special attention to the theoretical virtues these naturalists alluded to while justifying their position. These theoretical (...)
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  27. Kant’s Account of Sensible Concepts in the Inaugural Dissertation and the Critique of Pure Reason.Karin de Boer - 2018 - In Violetta L. Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Natur und Freiheit. Akten des XII. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. De Gruyter. pp. 1015-1022.
    The present paper aims to trace back Kant’s account of the schematism of the pure understanding in the Critique of Pure Reason to the Dissertation. I do so by discussing Kant’s understanding of sensible cognition in view of his assessment of metaphysics. I argue, first, that Kant in both texts aims to defend metaphysics against skeptical attacks by discarding those of its elements he considers unwarranted and, second, that this undertaking hinges on his account of concepts that function as the (...)
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  28. Mechanical Philosophy: Reductionism and Foundationalism.Tzuchien Tho - 2020 - Encyclopedia of Early Modern Philosophy and the Sciences.
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  29. Sapienti os in corde, stulto cor in ore esse – Johann Gottlieb Heineccius on natural duties concerning free thought and free speech.Katerina Mihaylova - forthcoming - In Frank Grunert & Knud Haakonssen (eds.), Love as the Principle of Natural Law. The Natural Law Theory of Johann Gottlieb Heineccius and its Contexts. Leiden, Niederlande:
    In his "Elementa Iuris Naturae et Gentium" Johann Gottlieb Heineccius presents a unique account of love as the principle of natural law, referring to the main concern of early modern protestant theories of natural law: the importance of securing subjective rights by a law. Heineccius accepts the universal character of subjective rights derived from human nature, claiming their protection as natural duties required by a law. This chapter provides an attempt to explain the specific ways in which Heineccius deals with (...)
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  30. Vielfalt-Individualität-Gesetz: Wilhelm von Humboldts politische Theorie.Roberta Pasquarè - 2009 - SOLon-Line.
    Der Kerngedanke der politischen Theorie des Wilhelm von Humboldt ist äußerst schlicht und übersichtlich: In seinen "Ideen zu einem Versuch, die Gränzen der Wirksamkeit des Staats zu bestimmen" heißt es, dass die Funktion des Staats auf die Erhaltung der inneren und auswärtigen Sicherheit beschränkt werden soll. Diese Staatsauffassung findet ihre Begründung in einer Anthropologie, die dem Menschen das Recht und zugleich die Aufgabe zuweist, durch das spontane Zusammenwirken mit den anderen seine Potenzialitäten zur Entfaltung zu bringen. Schlicht und übersichtlich wie (...)
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  31. L'individuo, lo Stato, la storia: il progresso nel pensiero politico di Wilhelm von Humboldt.Roberta Pasquarè - 2007 - Rivista Della Scuola Superiore Dell'economia E Delle Finanze.
    This article was originally published in January 2007 on the online version of the journal “Rivista della scuola superiore dell'economia e delle finanze”. Since the journal’s webpage does not exist anymore, I have uploaded a PDF of the article as it was published in January 2007. In questo articolo esamino l'idea humboldtiana di progresso. Più precisamente, ricostruisco come Wilhelm von Humboldt teorizzi il progresso del singolo individuo, del cittadino e del genere umano. Secondo la mia ricostruzione, l’idea humboldtiana di progresso (...)
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  32. Vernunft und Vertrag. Die konservative Wende des Wilhelm von Humboldt.Roberta Pasquare - 2012 - Würzburg, Deutschland: Königshausen & Neumann.
    Im politischen Denken des Wilhelm von Humboldt findet eine konservative Wende statt: Von den radikalen Freiheitsansprüchen der Frühschriften bleibt in den Denkschriften des späten Staatsmannes kaum noch etwas erhalten. In diesem Band wird Humboldts konservative Wende textimmanent freigelegt, historisch situiert und systematisch ergründet. Insbesondere wird Humboldts Konservatismus auf seine zunehmende Angst vor der Demokratie zurückgeführt, was nach seinem Verständnis das schädliche Ergebnis der neuzeitlichen Vernunftrechts- und Vertragslehre darstellt. Aus diesem Grund wird Humboldts konservative Wende letzthin durch seine bereits in der (...)
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  33. Logikdiagramme und Logikmaschinen aus der Zittauer Schule um Christian Weise.Jens Lemanski - 2019 - Neues Lausitzische Magazin 141 (1):39-57.
    A particularly promising trail on the search for forgotten logic diagrams leads to Upper Lusatia in the 17th century, more precisely to Christian Weise and his students. Samuel Grosser, who later became rector in Görlitz, and Johann Christian Lange, who later became professor of logic at the University of Gießen, are the most prominent to have published remarkable logic diagrams. Even more remarkable, however, is the fact that Lange's interest in these diagrams ultimately gave rise to the idea of building (...)
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  34. Observaciones preliminares sobre la función de la imaginación en la filosofía ética Kantiana.María Carolina Álvarez Puerta - 2008 - Episteme NS: Revista Del Instituto de Filosofía de la Universidad Central de Venezuela 28 (2):119-128.
    En el presente trabajo se pretende reconstruir la noción de imaginación expuesta por Kant en la "Crítica de la razón pura", en su primera edición, y en la "Crítica del juicio" con el fin de poder dilucidar un posible papel de este concepto en el marco de la ética kantiana. -/- .
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  35. Understanding affinity: Locke on generation and the task of classification.Jennifer Mensch - 2011 - Locke Studies 11:49-71.
    John Locke’s theory of classification is a subject that has long received scholarly attention. Little notice has been taken, however, of the problems that were posed for taxonomy by its inability to account for organic processes. Classification, designed originally as an exercise in logic, becomes complicated once it turns to organic life and the aims of taxonomy become entangled with processes of generation, variation, and inheritance. Locke’s experience with organisms—experience garnered through his work in botany and medicine—suggested to him both (...)
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  36. System und Methode.Jürgen Stahl - 1997 - Fichte-Studien 10:99-113.
    Der Autor analysiert die methodologische Grundlegung der Transzendentalphilosophie durch Fichte. Als entscheidenden Punkt arbeitet er den durch Fichte vollzogenen Paradigmenwechsel heraus Danach kommt der Systembegründung nicht mehr ein vorwissenschaftlicher Status zu, sondern diese wird Moment der Systemkonstitution und Systemkonstruktion. Das erlaubt Fichte, die philosophische Methode in ihrer Strenge von der Methode der Mathematik abzuheben. -/- The author analyzes the methodological basis of Fichte's transcendental philosophy. As a decisive point, he works out the paradigm shift that Fichte carried out. According to (...)
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  37. Dialectic as the 'Self-Fulfillment' of Logic.Dieter Wandschneider - 2010 - In Nektarios Limnatis (ed.), The Dimensions of Hegel's Dialectic. London, New York: Continuum. pp. 31–54.
    The scope of my considerations here is defined along two lines, which seem to me of essential relevance for a theory of dialectic. On the one hand, the form of negation that – as self-referring antinomical negation – gains a quasi-semantic expulsory force [Sprengkraft] and therewith a forwarding [weiterverweisenden] character; on the other hand, the notion that every logical category is defective insofar as the explicit meaning of a category does not express everything that is already implicitly presupposed for its (...)
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Alexander Baumgarten
  1. Kant and Stoic Ethics.Melissa Merritt (ed.) - forthcoming - Cambridge University Press.
    The volume brings together ancient-philosophy specialists and Kant scholars to advance our understanding of the significance of Stoicism for Immanuel Kant's ethical thought. Kant and Stoic Ethics -/- Contents: -/- Introduction -/- 1 Ethical Formulae in Ancient Stoicism — Brad Inwood -/- 2 Duties and Permissible Actions in the Early Stoics and Kant — Iakovos Vasiliou -/- 3 The Stoics and Kant on the Motive of Duty — Jacob Klein -/- 4 Kant on the Unity and Plurality of the Virtues (...)
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  2. Morality as Both Objective and Subjective: 
Baumgarten’s Way to Moral Realism and Its Impact on Kant.Stefano Bacin - 2024 - In Courtney D. Fugate & John Hymers (eds.), Baumgarten and Kant on the Foundations of Practical Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    In § 37 of his "Elements of First Practical Philosophy", Baumgarten provides important qualifications to the controversial notion of ‘objective morality’, which had long been at the centre of the dispute between realists like Wolff and his adversaries. The chapter shall examine how he construes his view of morality in §§ 36-38 with a specific focus on the central § 37. I shall analyse that section, first considering how Baumgarten understands the key notion of ‘objective morality’ and how he argues (...)
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  3. Wolff and the First Fifty Years of German Metaphysics.Corey W. Dyck - forthcoming - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Table of Contents: Chapter 1: Wolff and the Refinement of the Mathematical Method / Chapter 2: Wolff’s Emendation of Ontology / Chapter 3: Soul, World, and God: Wolff’s Metaphysics / Chapter 4: Women and the Wolffian Philosophy / Chapter 5: The Abuse of Philosophy: Pietism and the Metaphysics of Freedom / Chapter 6: Reason beyond Proof: Debating the Use and Limits of the PSR / Chapter 7: The Paradoxes of Sensation/ Chapter 8: G. F. Meier on the Fate of the (...)
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  4. Incentives of the Mind: Kant and Baumgarten on the Impelling Causes of Desire.Michael Walschots - forthcoming - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie.
    In this paper I propose to shed new light on the role of feeling in Kant’s psychology of moral motivation by focusing on the concept of an incentive (Triebfeder), a term he borrowed from one of his most important rationalist predecessors, Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten. I argue that, similar to Baumgarten, Kant understands an incentive to refer to the ground of desire and that feelings function as a specific kind of ground within Kant’s psychology of moral action, namely as the ‘impelling (...)
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  5. Three Models of Natural Right: Baumgarten, Achenwall and Kant.Fiorella Tomassini - 2024 - In Courtney D. Fugate & John Hymers (eds.), Baumgarten and Kant on the Foundations of Practical Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    I argue that by considering Kant’s engagement with previous theorists of natural right, we can gain a clearer understanding of how he transformed the discipline from its foundations. To do this, I focus my analysis on Kant’s (critical) reception of two models of natural right with which he was very familiar: one from Alexander Baumgarten’s Elements of First Practical Philosophy [Initia philosophiae practicae primae], the other from Gottfried Achenwall’s Natural Law [Ius naturae]. The Initia served as a basis for Kant’s (...)
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  6. Forme della certezza. Genesi e implicazioni del Fürwahrhalten in Kant.Lorenzo Mileti Nardo - 2021 - Pisa PI, Italia: Edizioni ETS.
    Fürwahrhalten, or “holding-to-be-true”, is one of the most controversial concepts in Kant’s epistemology. Rarely mentioned in Kant’s edited works – where it is often used to describe moral faith – Fürwahrhalten has attracted the interest of Kant scholars only in recent years. The essay aims to shed light on some of the main issues that the notion of holding-to-be-true still rises, especially those concerning its origin and its theoretical function in the critical system. The book retraces the stages of Kant’s (...)
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  7. Incompatibilism and the Principle of Sufficient Reason in Kant’s Nova Dilucidatio.Aaron Wells - 2022 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 4 (1:3):1-20.
    The consensus is that in his 1755 Nova Dilucidatio, Kant endorsed broadly Leibnizian compatibilism, then switched to a strongly incompatibilist position in the early 1760s. I argue for an alternative, incompatibilist reading of the Nova Dilucidatio. On this reading, actions are partly grounded in indeterministic acts of volition, and partly in prior conative or cognitive motivations. Actions resulting from volitions are determined by volitions, but volitions themselves are not fully determined. This move, which was standard in medieval treatments of free (...)
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  8. Mendelssohn and Kant on Virtue as a Skill.Melissa McBay Merritt - 2020 - In Ellen Fridland & Carlotta Pavese (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Skill and Expertise. Routledge. pp. 88-99.
    The idea that virtue can be profitably conceived as a certain sort of skill has a long history. My aim is to examine a neglected episode in this history — one that focuses on the pivotal role that Moses Mendelssohn played in rehabilitating the skill model of virtue for the German rationalist tradition, and Immanuel Kant’s subsequent, yet significantly qualified, endorsement of the idea. Mendelssohn celebrates a certain automatism in the execution of skill, and takes this feature to be instrumental (...)
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  9. Alexander Baumgarten on the Principle of Sufficient Reason.Courtney D. Fugate - 2014 - Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (44):127-147.
    This paper defends the Principle of Sufficient Reason, taking Baumgarten as its guide. The primary aim is not to vindicate the principle, but rather to explore the kinds of resources Baumgarten originally thought sufficient to justify the PSR against its early opponents. The paper also considers Baumgarten’s possible responses to Kant’s pre-Critical objections to the proof of the PSR. The paper finds that Baumgarten possesses reasonable responses to all these objections. While the paper notes that in the absence of a (...)
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  10. Einzigartigkeit. Die Logik des Genuinen und ihre Genealogie aus der Logik.Stefan Färber - 2019 - In Unarten. Kleist und das Gesetz der Gattung. Bielefeld, Deutschland: pp. 71-92.
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  11. Lições de Ética - Immanuel Kant (Estudo Introdutório [extrato]).Bruno Cunha - 2018 - In Bruno Cunha & Charles Feldhaus (eds.), Lições de Ética - Immanuel Kant. pp. p.7-53.
    No centro da filosofia moral de Kant está sem dúvida sua doutrina do imperativo categórico. Por esse motivo não é de se surpreender que a Fundamentação da Metafísica dos Costumes (1785), na qual Kant explica, em detalhes, essa doutrina pela primeira vez, tenha sido o foco da atenção por décadas. Mas há alguns anos é observável uma significativa mudança na literatura que é univocamente bem vinda: ao lado da pesquisa das Doutrinas da Virtude e do Direito publicadas por Kant nos (...)
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  12. Was heißt Fortschritt im Wissen? Gnoseoto­pi­sche Überlegungen zur Auf­klä­rung und ihren Folgen.Hans Adler - 2018 - Kantian Journal 37 (1):40-61.
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  13. Über die Unsterblichkeit der Seele.Corey W. Dyck & Georg Friedrich Meier (eds.) - 2018 - Hildesheim: Olms.
    Meier’s Gedancken von dem Zustande der Seele nach dem Tode (Gedancken) deserves a prominent place among treatments of the immortality of the soul in 18th century German philosophy, both within and without the Wolffian tradition of rational psychology. It does not wilt next to Mendelssohn’s Phädon in its quality of expression, and might even be compared with Kant’s discussion in the Paralogisms chapter of his Kritik der reinen Vernunft in terms of the boldness of its argument and its philosophical rigour. (...)
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