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Cancer
  1. Standard Aberration: Cancer Biology and the Modeling Account of Normal Function.Seth Goldwasser - 2023 - Biology and Philosophy 38 (1):(4) 1-33.
    Cancer biology features the ascription of normal functions to parts of cancers. At least some ascriptions of function in cancer biology track local normality of parts within the global abnormality of the aberration to which those parts belong. That is, cancer biologists identify as functions activities that, in some sense, parts of cancers are supposed to perform, despite cancers themselves having no purpose. The present paper provides a theory to accommodate these normal function ascriptions—I call it the Modeling Account of (...)
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  2. Conceptual Engineering of Medical Concepts.Elisabetta Lalumera - forthcoming - In Manuel Gustavo Isaac & Kevin Scharp (eds.), New Perspectives on Conceptual Engineering.
    There is a lot of conceptual engineering going on in medical research. I substantiate this claim with two examples, the medical debate about cancer classification and about obesity as a disease I also argue that the proper target of conceptual engineering in medical research are experts’ conceptions. These are explicitly written down in documents and guidelines, and they bear on research and policies. In the second part of the chapter, I propose an externalist framework in which conceptions have both the (...)
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  3. Costa, cancer and coronavirus: contractualism as a guide to the ethics of lockdown.Stephen David John & Emma J. Curran - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (9):643-650.
    Lockdown measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic involve placing huge burdens on some members of society for the sake of benefiting other members of society. How should we decide when these policies are permissible? Many writers propose we should address this question using cost-benefit analysis, a broadly consequentialist approach. We argue for an alternative non-consequentialist approach, grounded in contractualist moral theorising. The first section sets up key issues in the ethics of lockdown, and sketches the apparent appeal of addressing (...)
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  4. ANN for Lung Cancer Detection.Nassar AlIbrahim & Murshidy Suheil - 2020 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 3 (3):17-21.
    In this paper, we developed an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for detect the absence or presence of lung cancer in human body. Symptoms were used to diagnose the lung cancer, these symptoms such as Yellow fingers, Anxiety, Chronic Disease, Fatigue, Allergy, Wheezing, Coughing, Shortness of Breath, Swallowing Difficulty and Chest pain. They were used and other information about the person as input variables for our ANN. Our ANN established, trained, and validated using data set, which its title is “survey lung (...)
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  5. Relation of common ABL kinase domain mutations with resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibiters in patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Middle Euphrates of Iraq.Mohammed Sadeq Mahdi Al- Musawi - 2020 - International Journal of Scientific Research and Management (IJSRM) 8 (02).
    Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic stem cell disease, associated with a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and chromosome 22, lead to the formation of the BCRABL fusion gene (Philadelphia chromosome). This fusion gene is believed to play golden role in the initial development of CML with constitutive tyrosine kinase activation. Successful use of tyrosine kinase inhibiters (TKIs) play a role in improve survival and increase prevalence of CML, but un fortunately mutations in the BCR-ABL kinase domain may (...)
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  6. Lung Cancer Detection Using Artificial Neural Network.Ibrahim M. Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 3 (3):17-23.
    In this paper, we developed an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for detect the absence or presence of lung cancer in human body. Symptoms were used to diagnose the lung cancer, these symptoms such as Yellow fingers, Anxiety, Chronic Disease, Fatigue, Allergy, Wheezing, Coughing, Shortness of Breath, Swallowing Difficulty and Chest pain. They were used and other information about the person as input variables for our ANN. Our ANN established, trained, and validated using data set, which its title is “survey lung (...)
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  7. Ethical issues in pre-cancer testing: the parallel with Huntington's disease.Donna L. Dickenson - 2002 - In Bill Fulford, Donna Dickenson & Thomas Murray Murray (eds.), Healthcare Ethics and Human Values: An Introductory Text with Readings and Case Studies. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 97-100.
    This chapter considers ethical issues involved in genetic testing and screening for susceptibility to various forms of cancer.
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  8. Randomized Controlled Trials for Diagnostic Imaging: Conceptual and Pratical Problems.Elisabetta Lalumera & Stefano Fanti - 2019 - Topoi 38 (2):395-400.
    We raise a problem of applicability of RCTs to validate nuclear diagnostic imaging tests. In spite of the wide application of PET and other similar techniques that use radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes, RCT-based evidence on their validity is sparse. We claim that this is due to a general conceptual problem that we call Prevalence of Treatment, which arises in connection with designing RCTs for testing any diagnostic procedure in the present context of medical research, and is particularly apparent in this (...)
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  9. Breast Cancer Knowledge Based System.Suheir H. Almurshidi & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2018 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 2 (12):7-22.
    The Knowledge Based System for Diagnosing Breast Cancer is used to assist medical students to improve their education on diagnosis and counseling the process of analyzing the biopsy image of the microscope, determining the type of tumor and the treatment method for each case and identifying the disease related questions. According to the Ministry of Health in its annual report in Gaza, between 2009 and 2014 there are 7069 cases of breast cancer, and in 2014 there are 1502 cases of (...)
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  10. Diagnosing Breast Cancer Using Expert System.Suheir H. Almurshidi - 2018 - Dissertation, Al-Azhar University, Gaza
    The “Expert System for Diagnosing Breast Cancer" is used to assist medical students to improve their education on diagnosis and counseling the process of analyzing the biopsy image of the microscope, determining the type of tumor and the treatment method for each case and identifying the disease related questions. According to the Ministry of Health in its annual report in Gaza, between 2009 and 2014 there are 7069 cases of breast cancer, and in 2014 there are 1502 cases of breast (...)
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  11. Transoral laser surgery for laryngeal carcinoma: has Steiner achieved a genuine paradigm shift in oncological surgery?A. T. Harris, Attila Tanyi, R. D. Hart, J. Trites, M. H. Rigby, J. Lancaster, A. Nicolaides & S. M. Taylor - 2018 - Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 100 (1):2-5.
    Transoral laser microsurgery applies to the piecemeal removal of malignant tumours of the upper aerodigestive tract using the CO2 laser under the operating microscope. This method of surgery is being increasingly popularised as a single modality treatment of choice in early laryngeal cancers (T1 and T2) and occasionally in the more advanced forms of the disease (T3 and T4), predomi- nantly within the supraglottis. Thomas Kuhn, the American physicist turned philosopher and historian of science, coined the phrase ‘paradigm shift’ in (...)
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  12. Applications of the ACGT Master Ontology on Cancer.Mathias Brochhausen, Gabriele Weiler, Luis Martín, Cristian Cocos, Holger Stenzhorn, Norbert Graf, Martin Dörr, Manolis Tsiknakis & Barry Smith - 2008 - In R. Meersman & P. Herrero (eds.), Proceedings of 4th International IFIP Workshop On Semantic Web and Web Semantics (OTM 2008: Workshops), LNCS 5333. pp. 1046–1055.
    In this paper we present applications of the ACGT Master Ontology (MO) which is a new terminology resource for a transnational network providing data exchange in oncology, emphasizing the integration of both clinical and molecular data. The development of a new ontology was necessary due to problems with existing biomedical ontologies in oncology. The ACGT MO is a test case for the application of best practices in ontology development. This paper provides an overview of the application of the ontology within (...)
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  13. Small Tumors as Risk Factors not Disease.Peter H. Schwartz - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):986-998.
    I argue that ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the tumor most commonly diagnosed by breast mammography, cannot be confidently classified as cancer, that is, as pathological. This is because there may not be dysfunction present in DCIS—as I argue based on its high prevalence and the small amount of risk it conveys—and thus DCIS may not count as a disease by dysfunction-requiring approaches, such as Boorse’s biostatistical theory and Wakefield’s harmful dysfunction account. Patients should decide about treatment for DCIS based (...)
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  14. Working for the Cure: Challenging Pink Ribbon Activism [Book Chapter].Maya J. Goldenberg - 2010 - In Roma Harris, Nadine Wathen & Sally Wyatt (eds.), [Book] Configuring Health Consumers: Health Work and the Imperative of Personal Responsibility. Eds. R. Harris, N. Wathen, S. Wyatt. Amsterdam: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    In accordance with the critical women’s health literature recounting the ways that women are encouraged to submit themselves to various sorts of health “imperatives”, I investigate the messages tacitly conveyed to women in “campaigns for the cure” and breast cancer awareness efforts, which, I argue, overemphasizes a “positive attitude”, healthy lifestyle, and cure rather than prevention of this life-threatening disease. I challenge that the message of hope pervading breast cancer discourse silences the despair felt by many women, furthers a tacit (...)
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Chronic Pain
  1. The meaning of pain expressions and pain communication.Emma Borg, Tim Salomons & Nat Hansen - 2019 - In Simon van Rysewyk (ed.), Meanings of Pain. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 261-282.
    Both patients and clinicians frequently report problems around communicating and assessing pain. Patients express dissatisfaction with their doctors and doctors often find exchanges with chronic pain patients difficult and frustrating. This chapter thus asks how we could improve pain communication and thereby enhance outcomes for chronic pain patients. We argue that improving matters will require a better appreciation of the complex meaning of pain terms and of the variability and flexibility in how individuals think about pain. We start by examining (...)
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  2. The World of Chronic Pain.Martin Kusch & Matthew Ratcliffe - 2018 - In Kevin Aho (ed.), Existential Medicine: Essays on Health and Illness. London, New York: Rowman and Littlefield. pp. 61-80.
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  3. Positive messages may reduce patient pain: A meta-analysis.Jeremy Howick & Alexander Mebius - 2017 - European Journal of Integrative Medicine 11:31-38.
    Introduction Current treatments for pain have limited benefits and worrying side effects. Some studies suggest that pain is reduced when clinicians deliver positive messages. However, the effects of positive messages are heterogeneous and have not been subject to meta-analysis. We aimed to estimate the efficacy of positive messages for pain reduction. -/- Methods We included randomized trials of the effects of positive messages in a subset of the studies included in a recent systematic review of context factors for treating pain. (...)
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  4. Neuropsychiatric diseases among chronic low back pain patients.Tanjimul Islam & Rubab Tarannum Islam - 2016 - International Journal of Sciences and Applied Research 3 (2):83-88.
    Introduction: The incidence of chronic low back pain (LBP) is very high in Bangladesh. There is a high prevalence of psychiatric diseases among chronic low back pain patients. But primary care physicians and specialists do not screen this association. The aims of this study were to evaluate the incidence and pattern of psychiatric diseases in chronic low back pain patients. Materials and methods: A prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study of 135 chronic low back pain patients using simple, direct, standardized questionnaire including (...)
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  5. Pain, competency and consent.William R. C. Harvey, George C. Webster & Derek L. Jones - 1993 - HEC Forum 5 (3):205-211.
    The paper is written in response to those who fail to recognize the relation between a patient's mental competency and her state of pain. Some clinicians claim that a proper diagnosis can only be made in the absent of analgesia. Rather, the patient's state of pain directly affects her mental competency and thus her ability to give valid consent. Clinicians should rethink their approach to diagnosis when the patient is in pain.
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Diabetes
  1. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Associated With Diabetic Foot Prevention Among Rural Adults With Diabetes in North China.Huimin Jia, Xiaocheng Wang & Jingmin Cheng - 2022 - Frontiers in Public Health 10:876105.
    The diabetic foot is a global threat to public health because it can result in infection and amputation, as well as cause the patient to experience considerable pain and incur financial costs. The condition of patients with diabetic foot in North China is distinguished by more severe local ulcers, a worse prognosis, and a longer duration of disease than that of patients with diabetic foot in the south. Through appropriate preventive measures, the diabetic foot can be effectively avoided. This study (...)
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  2. Patient Views on Quality of Life and Hospital Care: Results From a Qualitative Study Among Vietnamese Patients With Diabetes.Mai Trong Tri, Nguyen Thy Khue, Vo Tuan Khoa & Aya Goto - 2022 - Frontiers in Communication 7:894435.
    Objectives: This study aimed to fill the gap between Vietnamese diabetic patients' needs and care through a qualitative study asking about their experiences with diabetes and quality of care. -/- Methods: Interviews with five diabetic patients were conducted at a tertiary general hospital located in southern Vietnam. The transcribed data were first subjected to quantitative text analysis using KH Coder to identify major categories of frequently used words, followed by a qualitative analysis of selected cases using the Steps for Coding (...)
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  3. Understanding misunderstandings. Presuppositions and presumptions in doctor-patient chronic care consultations.Fabrizio Macagno & Sarah Bigi - 2017 - Intercultural Pragmatics 1 (14):49–75.
    Pragmatic presupposition is analyzed in this paper as grounded on an implicit reasoning process based on a set of presumptions, which can define cultural differences. The basic condition for making a presupposition can be represented as a reasoning criterion, namely reasonableness. Presuppositions, on this view, need to be reasonable, namely as the conclusion of an underlying presumptive reasoning that does not or may not contain contradictions with other presumptions, including the ordering of the hierarchy of presumptions. Presumptions are in turn (...)
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  4. Knowledge Based System for Diabetes Diagnosis Using SL5 Object.Ibtesam M. Dheir, Alaa Soliman Abu Mettleq, Abeer A. Elsharif, Mohammed N. Abu Al-Qumboz & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 3 (4):1-10.
    Diabetes is a major public health issue that affects the nations of our time to a large extent and is described as a non-communicable epidemic. Diabetes mellitus is a common disease where there is too much sugar (glucose) floating around in your blood. This occurs because either the pancreas can’t produce enough insulin or the cells in body have become resistant to insulin. The concentration in this paper is on diagnosis diabetes by designing a proposed expert system. The main goal (...)
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Heart Disease
  1. Prediction of Heart Disease Using a Collection of Machine and Deep Learning Algorithms.Ali M. A. Barhoom, Abdelbaset Almasri, Bassem S. Abu-Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 6 (4):1-13.
    Abstract: Heart diseases are increasing daily at a rapid rate and it is alarming and vital to predict heart diseases early. The diagnosis of heart diseases is a challenging task i.e. it must be done accurately and proficiently. The aim of this study is to determine which patient is more likely to have heart disease based on a number of medical features. We organized a heart disease prediction model to identify whether the person is likely to be diagnosed with a (...)
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  2. Prediction of Heart Disease Using a Collection of Machine and Deep Learning Algorithms.Ali M. A. Barhoom, Abdelbaset Almasri, Bassem S. Abu-Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 6 (4):1-13.
    Abstract: Heart diseases are increasing daily at a rapid rate and it is alarming and vital to predict heart diseases early. The diagnosis of heart diseases is a challenging task i.e. it must be done accurately and proficiently. The aim of this study is to determine which patient is more likely to have heart disease based on a number of medical features. We organized a heart disease prediction model to identify whether the person is likely to be diagnosed with a (...)
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  3. Prognostic System for Heart Disease using Machine Learning: A Review.R. Senthilkumar - 2021 - Journal of Science Technology and Research (JSTAR) 2 (1):33-38.
    In today’s world it became difficult for daily routine check-up. The Heart disease system is an end user support and online consultation project. Here the motto behind it is to make a person to know about their heart related problem and according to it formulate them how much vital the disease is. It will be easy to access and keep track of their respective health. Thus, it’s important to predict the disease as earliest. Attributes such as Bp, Cholesterol, Diabetes are (...)
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  4. Exploring Machine Learning Techniques for Coronary Heart Disease Prediction.Hisham Khdair - 2021 - International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications 12 (5):28-36.
    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death nowadays. Prediction of the disease at an early stage is crucial for many health care providers to protect their patients and save lives and costly hospitalization resources. The use of machine learning in the prediction of serious disease events using routine medical records has been successful in recent years. In this paper, a comparative analysis of different machine learning techniques that can accurately predict the occurrence of CHD events (...)
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  5. A Conceptual Model: The Impact of Sociodemographic on Coronary Heart Disease.Aza Azlina Md Kassim, Juliza Mohamed & Zainal Azhar Zainal Azim - 2020 - International Journal of Scientific Research and Management (IJSRM) 8 (1).
    The paper aims to examine the conceptual model on the impact of sociodemographic towards coronary heart disease. There is still limited study on the association between cost of living particularly the cost of food and housing and its impact on coronary heart disease. Therefore, this study incorporates five essential sociodemographic attributes namely, cost of food, children education cost, housing cost, smoking habit and gender. The study provides greater understanding on how the cost of living and lifestyle may give impact to (...)
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  6. The Effect of Evoking Nostalgic Memories on the Homeostatic Variables (Mental and Physical) Among Cardiovascular Patients.Hossein Dabbagh - 2018 - Advances in Cognitive Science 19 (4):57-69.
    Nostalgia as one of the complex emotions has been challenged over the past few decades due to its psychological and physiological functions. The present experiment investigates the effect of recalling nostalgic memories on amelioration of homeostatic and health state of people with cardiovascular disease. Method: The participants were 30 patients who were hospitalized for angiography procedure. The research was based on an experimental design with randomized and post-test groups. The instruments used included a thermometer with ° C, a checkout manipulation (...)
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Chronic Diseases, Misc
  1. Conceptual Engineering of Medical Concepts.Elisabetta Lalumera - forthcoming - In Manuel Gustavo Isaac & Kevin Scharp (eds.), New Perspectives on Conceptual Engineering.
    There is a lot of conceptual engineering going on in medical research. I substantiate this claim with two examples, the medical debate about cancer classification and about obesity as a disease I also argue that the proper target of conceptual engineering in medical research are experts’ conceptions. These are explicitly written down in documents and guidelines, and they bear on research and policies. In the second part of the chapter, I propose an externalist framework in which conceptions have both the (...)
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  2. An Expert System for Arthritis Diseases Diagnosis Using SL5 Object.Hosni Qasim El-Mashharawi, Izzeddin A. Alshawwa, Mohammed Elkahlout & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 3 (4):28-35.
    Background: Arthritis is very common but is not well understood. Actually, “arthritis” is not a single disease; it is an informal way of referring to joint pain or joint disease. There are more than 100 different types of arthritis and related conditions. People of all ages, sexes and races can and do have arthritis, and it is the leading cause of disability in America. More than 50 million adults and 300,000 children have some type of arthritis. It is most common (...)
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  3. Representing disease courses: An application of the Neurological Disease Ontology to Multiple Sclerosis Typology.Mark Jensen, Alexander P. Cox, Barry Smith & Alexander Diehl - 2013 - In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO), CEUR, vol. 1060.
    The Neurological Disease Ontology (ND) is being developed to provide a comprehensive framework for the representation of neurological diseases (Diehl et al., 2013). ND utilizes the model established by the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) for the representation of entities in medicine and disease (Scheuermann et al., 2009). The goal of ND is to include information for each disease concerning its molecular, genetic, and environmental origins, the processes involved in its etiology and realization, as well as its clinical presentation (...)
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  4. Epistemic injustice in healthcare encounters: evidence from chronic fatigue syndrome.Havi Carel, Charlotte Blease & Keith Geraghty - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (8):549-557.
    Chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis remains a controversial illness category. This paper surveys the state of knowledge and attitudes about this illness and proposes that epistemic concerns about the testimonial credibility of patients can be articulated using Miranda Fricker’s concept of epistemic injustice. While there is consensus within mainstream medical guidelines that there is no known cause of CFS/ME, there is continued debate about how best to conceive of CFS/ME, including disagreement about how to interpret clinical studies of treatments. (...)
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  5. The Post-2015 Development Agenda: Keeping Our Focus On the Worst Off.D. Sharp - 2015 - American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 92 (6):1087-89.
    Non-communicable diseases now account for the majority of the global burden of disease and an international campaign has emerged to raise their priority on the post-2015 development agenda. We argue, to the contrary, that there remain strong reasons to prioritize maternal and child health. Policy-makers ought to assign highest priority to the health conditions that afflict the worst off. In virtue of how little healthy life they have had, children who die young are among the globally worst off. Moreover, many (...)
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  6. ADHD, Truth, and the Limits of Scientific Method.Gordon Tait - 2009 - Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 2 (2):50-51.
    This paper makes an important contribution to the ongoing debate over the validity of the psychological construct, ADHD. While not ruling out the possibility that something of value may lie at the core of this diagnosis, the authors articulate a clear set of problems with the research logic that forms the foundation of the disorder itself, reaching the conclusion that there appears to be insuffi cient, valid scientifi c evidence for the demarcation of a coherent and independent disease entity.
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  7. Daniel sennert on poisons, epilepsy, and subordinate forms.Andreas Blank - 2011 - Perspectives on Science 19 (2):192-211.
    As Peter Niebyl has documented, one of the issues in which the Wittenberg-based physician and philosopher Daniel Sennert (1572–1637) departed from Paracelsus and his followers was the concept of disease. Paracelsus and some of his followers regarded diseases as real beings—so-called “disease-entities” (entia morbis) that can enter into the body of a living being and thereafter possess a clearly defined location in the affected organism. 1 For Sennert, such a view is a dangerous confusion between disease and its causes. According (...)
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Parkinson's DIsease
  1. ANN for Parkinson’s Disease Prediction.Salah Sadek, Abdul Mohammed, Abdul Karim Abunbehan, Majed Abdul Ghattas & Mohamed Badawi - 2020 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 3 (1):1-7.
    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system. The symptoms generally come on slowly over time. Early in the disease, the most obvious are shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, and difficulty with walking. Doctors do not know what causes it and finds difficulty in early diagnosing the presence of Parkinson’s disease. An artificial neural network system with back propagation algorithm is presented in this paper for helping doctors in identifying (...)
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  2. Parkinson’s Disease Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network.Ramzi M. Sadek, Salah A. Mohammed, Abdul Rahman K. Abunbehan, Abdul Karim H. Abdul Ghattas, Majed R. Badawi, Mohamed N. Mortaja, Bassem S. Abu-Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 3 (1):1-8.
    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system. The symptoms generally come on slowly over time. Early in the disease, the most obvious are shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, and difficulty with walking. Doctors do not know what causes it and finds difficulty in early diagnosing the presence of Parkinson’s disease. An artificial neural network system with back propagation algorithm is presented in this paper for helping doctors in identifying (...)
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  3. A Shaky Walk Downhill : A Philosopher Moves into Parkinson's World.David Kolb - manuscript
    I am a philosopher with Parkinson’s Disease. Over the past several years I’ve been trying to write about my situation. I wrote about how I was forced to face the disease. I described how the disease twists and distorts my world. Then I asked myself, as a philosophy writer and teacher, whether I could say anything that might help myself or others facing life with Parkinson’s? I found ideas in the ancient Stoics and expanded them with ideas about time, coming (...)
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  4. Reduction in the Biomedical Sciences.Holly Andersen - 2016 - In Miriam Solomon, Jeremy Simon & Harold Kincaid (eds.), Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine. Routledge.
    This chapter discusses several kinds of reduction that are often found in the biomedical sciences, in contrast to reduction in fields such as physics. This includes reduction as a methodological assumption for how to investigate phenomena like complex diseases, and reduction as a conceptual tool for relating distinct models of the same phenomenon. The case of Parkinson’s disease illustrates a wide variety of ways in which reductionism is an important tool in medicine.
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