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  1. Redefining and Extending the Public Use of Reason: Republic and Reform in Kant’s Conflict of the Faculties.Roberta Pasquarè - manuscript
    With An Answer to the Question: What Is Enlightenment? (1784) and What Does It Mean to Orient Oneself in Thinking? (1786), Kant presents the concept of public use of reason and defines its requirements, scope, and function. In outline, the public use of reason consists in sharing one’s thoughts with “the entire public of the world of readers” (8:37). As for its requirements, to the extent that someone communicates in their own person, i.e. not in the exercise of their function (...)
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  2. Conspiracy Theories and Rational Critique: A Kantian Procedural Approach.Janis David Schaab - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    This paper develops a new kind of approach to conspiracy theories – a procedural approach. This approach promises to establish that belief in conspiracy theories is rationally criticisable in general. Unlike most philosophical approaches, a procedural approach does not purport to condemn conspiracy theorists directly on the basis of features of their theories. Instead, it focuses on the patterns of thought involved in forming and sustaining belief in such theories. Yet, unlike psychological approaches, a procedural approach provides a rational critique (...)
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  3. A Critical Examination on the Religious Argument for God's Existence.Juyong Kim - 2020 - 신학과 학문 (Theology and Other Disciplines) 1 (22):107-123.
    In this article, I critically examine the religious argument for the existence of God, which Palmquist formulated from Kant’s Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason. After showing the structure of the argument, I point the problematic point of the argument and focus on the concept of Gesinnung. The privateness of Gesinnung is problematized in the analysis of it, and I briefly suggest that an alternative account of the Gesinnung is possible. Yet I emphasize the advantage that this argument has (...)
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  4. Die Idee des "ewigen Friedens" in der bürgerlich-demokratischen Publizistik Friedrich Schlegels und Joseph Görres'.Stahl Jürgen - 1985 - In Erhard Lange (ed.), Collegium philosophicum jenense Nr. 6 Philosophie und Frieden. Beiträge zum Friedensgedanken in der Deutschen Klassik. Weimar: Hermann Böhlau Nachfolger. pp. 155-169.
    Sowohl Friedrich Schlegel als auch Joseph Görres reagieren mit ihren Einlassungen auf die Idee des "Ewigen Friedens", wie sie vor allem durch Kant vorgetragen und um 1800 durch eine Vielzahl von Autoren im Angesicht einer stürmischen und kriegerischen Zeitenwende diskutiert wurden -/- With their statements, both Friedrich Schlegel and Joseph Görres react to the idea of "eternal peace", as it was primarily put forward by Kant and discussed by a large number of authors around 1800 in the face of a (...)
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  5. Kant on Property.Helga Varden - forthcoming - In Oxford Handbook of Kant.
    This paper provides an entrance into central discussions regarding Kant’s account of property. The first section shows how Kant engages and transforms important, related proposals from Hobbes and Locke as well as how the ‘libertarian’ and ‘liberal republican’ interpretive traditions differ in their readings on these points. Since Kantian theories for a long time didn’t focus on Kant’s Doctrine of Right but instead followed Rawls’s lead by developing Kantian theories grounded on Kant’s (meta-) ethical writings, the second section focuses on (...)
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  6. Reply to Critics (Sex, Love, and Gender: A Kantian Theory).Helga Varden - 2021 - SGIR Review 4 (1-2):78-100.
    hese are replies to my critics at at Society for German Idealism and Romanticism (SGIR) Author-Meets-Critics session, Pacific APA 2021. -/- Published version of the full symposium is available on SGIR Review's homepage.
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  7. Kant, Coercion, and the Legitimation of Inequality.Benjamin L. McKean - 2022 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 25 (4):528-550.
    Immanuel Kant’s political philosophy has enjoyed renewed attention as an egalitarian alternative to contemporary inequality since it seems to uncompromisingly reassert the primacy of the state over the economy, enabling it to defend the modern welfare state against encroaching neoliberal markets. However, I argue that, when understood as a free-standing approach to politics, Kant’s doctrine of right shares essential features with the prevailing theories that legitimate really existing economic inequality. Like Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman, Kant understands the state’s function (...)
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  8. Non-State Peoples and Cosmopolitan Exit From the State of Nature.Stefano Lo Re - 2020 - Estudos Kantianos 1 (8):111-129.
    Non-state peoples cannot be subjects of Kant’s international law, which accordingly affords them no protection against external interference. They might also lack the dynamic of private law at the basis of the duty of state entrance. Prima facie, this compels Kant to allow that their lands be appropriated and that they be forced out of the state of nature. But this conclusion is at odds with his cosmopolitanism, particularly its anti-imperialistic commitments: non-state peoples are protected against annexation, under Kant’s cosmopolitan (...)
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  9. Immanuel Kant - Racist and Colonialist?Vadim Chaly - 2020 - Kantian Journal 39 (2):94-98.
    A murder of an Afro-American detainee by a policeman at the end of May 2020 caused a public outrage in the United States, which led to a campaign against the monuments to historical figures whose reputation, according to the protesters, was marred by racism. Some German publicists, impressed by the campaign, initiated an analogous search for racists among the national thinkers and politicians of the past. Suddenly Kant emerged as a ‘scapegoat’. This statement is an attempt to assess such reactions (...)
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  10. On Kant’s Concept of the Public Use of Reason: A Rehabilitation of Orality.Roberta Pasquarè - 2020 - Estudos Kantianos 8 (1):101-110.
    With this paper I intend to rehabilitate the status of orality as medium of the public use of reason in the normative Kantian sense. As a first step, I reconstruct the reasons why Kant rejects the spoken word and designates the written word as the sole medium of public reasoning. As a second step, I argue for the possibility of employing the spoken word as medium of public reasoning while remaining within the normative framework of Kant’s concept of the public (...)
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  11. Plurality and the Potential for Agreement: Arendt, Kant, and the “Way of Thinking” of the World Citizen.Nicholas Dunn - 2020 - Constellations 27 (2):244-257.
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  12. Kantian Care.Helga Varden - forthcoming - In Amy Baehr & Asha Bhandary (eds.), Caring for Liberalism: Dependency and Political Theory. pp. 50-74.
    How do we care well for a human being: ourselves or another? Non-Kantian scholars rarely identify the philosophy of Kant as a particularly useful resource with which to understand the full complexity of human care. Kant’s philosophy is often taken to presuppose that a philosophical analysis of good human life needs to attend only to how autonomous, rational agents—sprung up like mushrooms out of nowhere, without a childhood, never sick, always independent—ought to act respectfully, and how they can be forced (...)
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  13. Myśl europejska w poszukiwaniu definicji obywatela. Rzecz o koncepcjach statusu jednostki w państwie przed przełomem rewolucji francuskiej. Kontekst historyczny, podobieństwa i różnice, znaczenie.Krzysztof Trzcinski - 2006 - Przegląd Humanistyczny 50 (3):59-81.
    Na długo przed rewolucją francuską oraz jej pierworodną Deklaracją Praw Człowieka i Obywatela w europejskiej myśli politycznej członek państwa przedzierzgnięty został z poddanego w obywatela. Ta fundamentalna zmiana w definiowaniu stanowiska jednostki w państwie korespondowała z humanistycznym postrzeganiem rozumu ludzkiego nie tylko jako instrumentu poznawania świata, ale też narzędzia głębokiej refleksji i krytycznej oceny mechanizmów światem rządzących. Siła rozumu kojarzona była przez oświeceniowych filozofów z porządkiem naturalnym, który jawił się przeciwwagą dla społecznych i politycznych realiów absolutnego władztwa monarszego. W XVIII (...)
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  14. Oxford Handbook of Kant.Andrew Stephenson & Anil Gomes (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
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  15. Moral Autonomy as Political Analogy: Self-Legislation in Kant's 'Groundwork' and the 'Feyerabend Lectures on Natural Law'.Pauline Kleingeld - 2019 - In Stefano Bacin & Oliver Sensen (eds.), The Emergence of Autonomy in Kant's Moral Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 158-175.
    'Autonomy' is originally a political notion. In this chapter, I argue that the political theory Kant defended while he was writing the _Groundwork_ sheds light on the difficulties that are commonly associated with his account of moral autonomy. I argue that Kant's account of the two-tiered structure of political legislation, in his _Feyerabend Lectures on Natural Law_, parallels his distinction between two levels of moral legislation, and that this helps to explain why Kant could regard the notion of 'autonomy' as (...)
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  16. Racism, Chauvinism and Prejudice in the History of Philosophy.Lloyd Strickland - 2019 - Institute of Arts and Ideas.
    This piece was originally titled "Racism, Chauvinism and Prejudice in the History of Philosophy" but was later retitled "How Western Philosophy Became Racist" by the publisher.
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  17. A Kantian Defense of Self‐Ownership.Robert S. Taylor - 2004 - Journal of Political Philosophy 12 (1):65-78.
    Many scholars, including G. A. Cohen, Daniel Attas, and George Brenkert, have denied that a Kantian defense of self-ownership is possible. Kant's ostensible hostility to self-ownership can be resolved, however, upon reexamination of the Groundwork and the Metaphysics of Morals. Moreover, two novel Kantian defenses of self-ownership (narrowly construed) can be devised. The first shows that maxims of exploitation and paternalism that violate self-ownership cannot be universalized, as this leads to contradictions in conception. The second shows that physical coercion against (...)
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  18. Cultivating Virtue: Moral Progress and the Kantian State.Chris W. Surprenant - 2007 - Kantian Review 12 (1):90-112.
    After examining the ethical and political writings of Immanuel Kant, one finds an apparent paradox in his philosophy as his perfectionist moral teachings appear to be linked to his anti-perfectionist political theory. Specifically, he writes that the perfection of moral character can only take place for an individual who is inside of civil society, a condition where no laws may legitimately be implemented expressly for the purpose of trying to make individuals moral. Kant believes that living in civil society is (...)
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  19. KANT E O ESCLARECIMENTO COMO ESTRATÉGIA POLÍTICA PARA A EDUCAÇÃO DA HUMANIDADE.Marcos Seneda - 2012 - Revista Sul-Americana de Filosofia E Educação 19:89-102.
    Esse texto procura investigar a seguinte questão: como pode ser conduzido um processo de Esclarecimento que não seja apenas individual, mas social e político? Uma resposta para esta questão pode ser obtida na medida em que concebemos o conceito de autonomia como fundamento da estratégia do Esclarecimento, que aqui será compreendido como um processo arquetípico de educação da humanidade. Nosso objetivo é mostrar que a proposta de educação elaborada por Kant tem de ser compreendida de um ponto de vista cosmopolita.
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  20. Fight, Flight or Respect? First Encounters of the Other in Kant and Hegel.Lydia L. Moland - 2002 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 19 (4):381-400.
    Immanuel Kant's description of humans' first encounter with each other depicts a peaceful recognition of mutual worth. G.W.F. Hegel's by contrast depicts a struggle to the death. I argue in this paper that Hegel's description of conflict results in an ethical theory that better preserves the distinctness of the other. I consider Christine Korsgaard's description of first encounters as a third alternative but conclude that Hegel's approach better accounts for the specific commitments we make--as family members, works, and citizens --in (...)
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  21. Terry Godlove, Kant and the Meaning of Religion: The Critical Philosophy and Modern Religious Thought London: I. B. Tauris, 2014 Pp. 256 ISBN 9781848855298 £18.99. [REVIEW]Jacqueline Mariña - 2016 - Kantian Review 21 (1):138-141.
    Review of Godlove's book Kant and the Meaning of Religion in Kantian Review.
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  22. Review: Anderson-Gold, Sharon, Unnecessary Evil: History and Moral Progress in the Philosophy of Immanuel Kant[REVIEW]Anne Margaret Baxley - 2004 - Kant Studien 95 (2):256-256.
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  23. Nietzsche’s Late Pragmatic Anthropology.Pietro Gori - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Research 40:377-404.
    The aim of this paper is to shed light on Nietzsche’s late investigation of the Western human being, with particular reference to Twilight of the Idols. I shall argue that this investigation can be seen as a “pragmatic anthropology,” according to the meaning that Kant gave to this notion in 1798. Although the paper focuses on Nietzsche’s thought, an analysis of Kant’s anthropology and the comparison between and Nietzsche’s late views of the human being, will show both their differences and (...)
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  24. Radical Evil: Between the Trivial and the Diabolical.Pablo Muchnik - 2001 - Contemporary Philosophy (3 & 4).
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  25. On the Possibility of the Language of ‘Radical Evil’ ".Pablo Muchnik - 2001 - Academic Forum 1.
    This paper analyzes the system of inferences Kant uses to determine whether an agent is evil.
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  26. Colonialism in Kant's Political Philosophy.Howard Williams - 2014 - Diametros 39:154-181.
    This article examines the controversy that has arisen concerning the interpretation of Immanuel Kant's account of European colonialism. One the one hand there are those interpreters such as Robert Bernasconi who see Kant's account as all of a piece with his earlier views on race which demonstrate a certain narrow mindedness in relation to black and coloured people and, on the other hand, there are those such as Pauline Kleingeld and Allen Wood who argue that the earlier writings on race (...)
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  27. Evil and Imputation in Kant's Ethics.Mark Timmons - 1994 - In B. Sharon Byrd, Joachim Hruschka & Jan C. Joerdan (eds.), Jahrbuch für Recht Und Ethik. Duncker Und Humblot.
    An examination of Kant's doctrine of radical evil as set forth in Book I of Religion.
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  28. Review: Besoli, Stefano, La Rocca, Claudio, and Martinelli, Riccardo (Eds.), L'universo Kantiano. Filosofia, Scienze, Sapere[REVIEW]Dennis Schulting - 2012 - Studi Kantiani:159-161.
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  29. Kant, Ripstein and the Circle of Freedom: A Critical Note.Laura Valentini - 2012 - European Journal of Philosophy 20 (3):450-459.
    Much contemporary political philosophy claims to be Kant-inspired, but its aims and method differ from Kant's own. In his recent book, Force and Freedom, Arthur Ripstein advocates a more orthodox Kantian outlook, presenting it as superior to dominant (Kant-inspired) views. The most striking feature of this outlook is its attempt to ground the whole of political morality in one right: the right to freedom, understood as the right to be independent of others’ choices. Is Ripstein's Kantian project successful? In this (...)
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  30. Kant on the Limits of Human Evil.Paul Formosa - 2009 - Journal of Philosophical Research 34:189-214.
    Kant has often been accused of being far too “optimistic” when it comes to the extremes of evil that humans can perpetrate upon one another. In particular, Kant’s supposed claim that humans cannot choose evil qua evil has struck many people as simply false. Another problem for Kant, or perhaps the same problem in another guise, is his supposed claim that all evil is done for the sake of self-love. While self-love might be a plausible way to explain some instances (...)
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  31. Triangulating God: A Kantian Rejoinder to Perovich.Stephen Palmquist - 1994 - Faith and Philosophy 11 (2):302-310.
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  32. A Reconciliation of Kant's Views on Revolution.Chris W. Surprenant - 2005 - Interpretation 32 (2):151-169.
    Kant's views on revolution are notoriously paradoxical: on the one hand he appears to condemn all instances of revolution, but on the other he expresses enthusiasm for the French Revolution and other revolutionary acts. I argue that we can reconcile Kant’s views on revolution by examining instances when an individual is under a moral obligation to revolt. First, I show how Kant reconciles his position on the French Revolution with his position on revolution in general. His answer, however, raises additional (...)
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  33. Approaching Perpetual Peace: Kant’s Defence of a League of States and His Ideal of a World Federation.Pauline Kleingeld - 2004 - European Journal of Philosophy 12 (3):304-325.
    There exists a standard view of Kant’s position on global order and this view informs much of current Kantian political theory. This standard view is that Kant advocates a voluntary league of states and rejects the ideal of a federative state of states as dangerous, unrealistic, and conceptually incoherent. This standard interpretation is usually thought to fall victim to three equally standard objections. In this essay, I argue that the standard interpretation is mistaken and that the three standard objections miss (...)
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  34. Rawls’s Defense of the Priority of Liberty: A Kantian Reconstruction.Robert S. Taylor - 2003 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 31 (3):246–271.
    Rawls offers three arguments for the priority of liberty in Theory, two of which share a common error: the belief that once we have shown the instrumental value of the basic liberties for some essential purpose (e.g., securing self-respect), we have automatically shown the reason for their lexical priority. The third argument, however, does not share this error and can be reconstructed along Kantian lines: beginning with the Kantian conception of autonomy endorsed by Rawls in section 40 of Theory, we (...)
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  35. Kant and the Marriage Right.Donald Wilson - 2004 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 85 (1):103–123.
    The provision of a marriage right is a distinctive aspect of Kant ’s political philosophy and seems, initially, difficult to reconcile with the general concern with ensuring external freedom of action apparent in the universal principle of Right and the sole innate right said to follow from this principle. I claim that this provision can be regarded as consistent with this general focus and that Kant ’s treatment of issue suggests an interesting secular argument for the institution of marriage.
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Kant: Anthropology
  1. Kant, Race, and Racism: Views From Somewhere.Huaping Lu-Adler - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
    Kant scholars have paid relatively little attention to his raciology. They assume that his racism, as personal prejudice, can be disentangled from his core philosophy. They also assume that racism contradicts his moral theory. Lu-Adler challenges both assumptions. She shows how Kant’s raciology—divided into racialism and racism—is integral to his philosophical system as a whole. She also rejects the individualistic approach to Kant and racism. Instead, she uses the notion of racism as ideological formation to demonstrate how Kant, from his (...)
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  2. O CONHECIMENTO DO MUNDO COMO GEOGRAFIA FILOSÓFICA E FILOSOFIA GEOGRÁFICA EM IMMANUEL KANT.Jecson Girão Lopes - 2018 - Dissertation, Universidade Federal de Sergipe
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  3. In Vino Veritas: A New Way of Understanding the Intoxication of Knowledge.Victor Mota - manuscript
    Saturation, intoxication to the medias of realization and porsuit of happyness.
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  4. Kant and Slavery—Or Why He Never Became a Racial Egalitarian.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2022 - Critical Philosophy of Race 10 (2):263-294.
    According to an oft-repeated narrative, while Kant maintained racist views through the 1780s, he changed his mind in the 1790s. Pauline Kleingeld introduced this narrative based on passages from Kant’s Metaphysics of Morals and “Toward Perpetual Peace”. On her reading, Kant categorically condemned chattel slavery in those texts, which meant that he became more racially egalitarian. But the passages involving slavery, once contextualized, either do not concern modern, race-based chattel slavery or at best suggest that Kant mentioned it as a (...)
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  5. Kant's Use of Travel Reports in Theorizing About Race -A Case Study of How Testimony Features in Natural Philosophy.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 91:10-19.
    A testimony is somebody else’s reported experience of what has happened. It is an indispensable source of knowledge. It only gives us historical cognition, however, which stands in a complex relation to rational or philosophical cognition: while the latter presupposes historical cognition as its matter, one needs the architectonic “eye of a philosopher” to select, interpret, and organize historical cognition. Kant develops this rationalist theory of testimony. He also practices it in his own work, especially while theorizing about race as (...)
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  6. Cosmopolitanism in Kant’s Anthropology From a Pragmatic Point of View: Regulative Ideas and Empirical Evidence.Roberta Pasquarè - 2019 - Con-Textos Kantianos 10 (2019):140-161.
    With this paper I analyze Kant’s account of the human vocation to cosmopolitanism discussed in the last section of the Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View (7:321-333) and show how Kant’s notion of cosmopolitanism requires the cooperation of pure reason and pragmatic anthropology. My main thesis is that pure reason provides regulative ideas, thereby maintaining a foundational role, and pragmatic anthropology provides empirical evidence, thereby reinforcing the theoretical and practical status of reason’s ideas. In developing my analysis, I argue (...)
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  7. Feeling and Orientation in Action: A Reply to Alix Cohen.Melissa M. Merritt - 2021 - Kantian Review 51 (5):329-350.
    Alix Cohen argues that the function of feeling in Kantian psychology is to appraise and orient activity. Thus she sees feeling and agency as importantly connected by Kant’s lights. I endorse this broader claim, but argue that feeling, on her account, cannot do the work of orientation that she assigns to it.
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  8. A Alma da (e na) Geografia Física de Kant.Leonardo Rennó Ribeiro Santos - 2020 - Doispontos 17 (1).
    O presente artigo examina a natureza da investigação antropológica que Kant executou nos seus cursos sobre geografia física. Se, por um lado, a sua relação com a física empírica é assegurada, por outro, a incorporação de ambos os objetos do sentido interno, alma e ser humano, na abordagem cosmológica da investigação empírica da natureza humana gera questionamentos sobre a articulação disciplinar e metodológica pressupostas no Conhecimento do Mundo. Será mostrado que a investigação antropológica de Kant desde o início procurou assegurar (...)
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  9. Kant y el incesto.Jassir Enrique Hernández Castilla - 2020 - Con-Textos Kantianos 1 (11):8-36.
    Intentar explicar el origen, evolución y violación de un tabú considerado casi universal en las sociedades humanas no es una empresa sencilla dado su carácter polifacético; sin embargo, ello no ha impedido que en muchos ordenamientos jurídicos sea empleado ese sentimiento de repulsión o asco como un elemento para criminalizar una relación sexual aparentemente ofensiva. El artículo sostiene que el matrimonio es la única forma en que las prácticas sexuales entre parientes en condición de igualdad pueden tener lugar. Para ello: (...)
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  10. Cosmopolitanism in Kant’s Anthropology From a Pragmatic Point of View: Regulative Ideas and Empirical Evidence.Roberta Pasquarè - 2019 - Con-Textos Kantianos 1 (10):140-161.
    With this paper I analyze Kant’s account of the human vocation to cosmopolitanism discussed in the last section of the Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View and show how Kant’s notion of cosmopolitanism requires the cooperation of pure reason and pragmatic anthropology. My main thesis is that pure reason provides regulative ideas, thereby maintaining a foundational role, and pragmatic anthropology provides empirical evidence, thereby reinforcing the theoretical and practical status of reason’s ideas. In developing my analysis, I argue that (...)
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  11. Der Mensch zwischen Tier und Mechanismus. Öffentlichkeit als Grundbedingung des Menschlichen bei Kant.Roberta Pasquarè - 2021 - In Christoph Asmuth (ed.), Anthropologie in der Klassischen Deutschen Philosophie. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann. pp. 21-34.
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  12. The Duty of Knowing Oneself as One Appears: A Response to Kant’s Problem of Moral Self-Knowledge.Vivek Kumar Radhakrishnan - 2019 - Problemos 96.
    A challenge to Kant’s less known duty of self-knowledge comes from his own firm view that it is impossible to know oneself. This paper resolves this problem by considering the duty of self-knowledge as involving the pursuit of knowledge of oneself as one appears in the empirical world. First, I argue that, although Kant places severe restrictions on the possibility of knowing oneself as one is, he admits the possibility of knowing oneself as one appears using methods from empirical anthropology. (...)
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  13. Evil, Virtue, and Education in Kant.Paul Formosa - 2019 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 51 (13):1325-1334.
    For Kant, we cannot understand how to approach moral education without confronting the radical evil of humanity. But if we start out, as Kant thinks we do, from a morally corrupt state, how...
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  14. Philosophical and anthropological studies in NaUKMA: the problem of human as a moral and ethical being.Dmytro Mykhailov - 2018 - Наукові Записки Наукма. Філософія Та Релігієзнавство 1:3-11.
    Last year, the Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies of “Kyiv-Mohyla Academy” celebrated the 25 th anniversary. This article confines to this very special event and analyzes three important anthropological studies that deal with moral components of human being. The research directions have been formed at the Department since its establishment in 1992. -/- The first part of the article focuses mainly on the Kantian studies. According to Kant’s anthropology, human nature should be explored on two levels: empirical and intelligible. (...)
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  15. ‘The Ultimate Kantian Experience: Kant on Dinner Parties’, History of Philosophy Quarterly 25(4): 315-36, 2008.Alix Aurelia Cohen - 2008 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 25 (4):315-36.
    As one would expect, Kant believes that there is a tension, and even a conflict, between our bodily humanity and its ethical counterpart: ‘Inclination to pleasurable living and inclination to virtue are in conflict with each other’ (Anthropology, 185-86 [7:277]). What is more unexpected, however, is that he further claims that this tension can be resolved in what he calls an example of ‘civilised bliss’, namely dinner parties. Dinner parties are, for Kant, part of the ‘highest ethicophysical good’, the ultimate (...)
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