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  1. Techno-Telepathy & Silent Subvocal Speech-Recognition Robotics.Virgil W. Brower - 2021 - HORIZON. Studies in Phenomenology 10 (1):232-257.
    The primary focus of this project is the silent and subvocal speech-recognition interface unveiled in 2018 as an ambulatory device wearable on the neck that detects a myoelectrical signature by electrodes worn on the surface of the face, throat, and neck. These emerge from an alleged “intending to speak” by the wearer silently-saying-something-to-oneself. This inner voice is believed to occur while one reads in silence or mentally talks to oneself. The artifice does not require spoken sounds, opening the mouth, or (...)
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  2. Reply to Critics (Sex, Love, and Gender: A Kantian Theory).Helga Varden - 2021 - SGIR Review 4 (1-2):78-100.
    hese are replies to my critics at at Society for German Idealism and Romanticism (SGIR) Author-Meets-Critics session, Pacific APA 2021. -/- Published version of the full symposium is available on SGIR Review's homepage.
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  3. Kant, Coercion, and the Legitimation of Inequality.Benjamin L. McKean - 2019 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-23.
    Immanuel Kant’s political philosophy has enjoyed renewed attention as an egalitarian alternative to contemporary inequality since it seems to uncompromisingly reassert the primacy of the state over the economy, enabling it to defend the modern welfare state against encroaching neoliberal markets. However, I argue that, when understood as a free-standing approach to politics, Kant’s doctrine of right shares essential features with the prevailing theories that legitimate really existing economic inequality. Like Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman, Kant understands the state’s function (...)
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  4. Non-State Peoples and Cosmopolitan Exit From the State of Nature.Stefano Lo Re - 2020 - Estudos Kantianos 1 (8):111-129.
    Non-state peoples cannot be subjects of Kant’s international law, which accordingly affords them no protection against external interference. They might also lack the dynamic of private law at the basis of the duty of state entrance. Prima facie, this compels Kant to allow that their lands be appropriated and that they be forced out of the state of nature. But this conclusion is at odds with his cosmopolitanism, particularly its anti-imperialistic commitments: non-state peoples are protected against annexation, under Kant’s cosmopolitan (...)
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  5. Immanuel Kant - Racist and Colonialist?Vadim Chaly - 2020 - Kantian Journal 39 (2):94-98.
    A murder of an Afro-American detainee by a policeman at the end of May 2020 caused a public outrage in the United States, which led to a campaign against the monuments to historical figures whose reputation, according to the protesters, was marred by racism. Some German publicists, impressed by the campaign, initiated an analogous search for racists among the national thinkers and politicians of the past. Suddenly Kant emerged as a ‘scapegoat’. This statement is an attempt to assess such reactions (...)
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  6. Plurality and the Potential for Agreement: Arendt, Kant, and the “Way of Thinking” of the World Citizen.Nicholas Dunn - 2020 - Constellations 27 (2):244-257.
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  7. Kantian Care.Helga Varden - forthcoming - In Amy Baehr & Asha Bhandary (eds.), Caring for Liberalism: Dependency and Political Theory. pp. 50-74.
    How do we care well for a human being: ourselves or another? Non-Kantian scholars rarely identify the philosophy of Kant as a particularly useful resource with which to understand the full complexity of human care. Kant’s philosophy is often taken to presuppose that a philosophical analysis of good human life needs to attend only to how autonomous, rational agents—sprung up like mushrooms out of nowhere, without a childhood, never sick, always independent—ought to act respectfully, and how they can be forced (...)
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  8. Myśl europejska w poszukiwaniu definicji obywatela. Rzecz o koncepcjach statusu jednostki w państwie przed przełomem rewolucji francuskiej. Kontekst historyczny, podobieństwa i różnice, znaczenie.Krzysztof Trzcinski - 2006 - Przegląd Humanistyczny 50 (3):59-81.
    Na długo przed rewolucją francuską oraz jej pierworodną Deklaracją Praw Człowieka i Obywatela w europejskiej myśli politycznej członek państwa przedzierzgnięty został z poddanego w obywatela. Ta fundamentalna zmiana w definiowaniu stanowiska jednostki w państwie korespondowała z humanistycznym postrzeganiem rozumu ludzkiego nie tylko jako instrumentu poznawania świata, ale też narzędzia głębokiej refleksji i krytycznej oceny mechanizmów światem rządzących. Siła rozumu kojarzona była przez oświeceniowych filozofów z porządkiem naturalnym, który jawił się przeciwwagą dla społecznych i politycznych realiów absolutnego władztwa monarszego. W XVIII (...)
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  9. The Oxford Handbook of Kant.Andrew Stephenson & Anil Gomes (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
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  10. Moral Autonomy as Political Analogy: Self-Legislation in Kant's 'Groundwork' and the 'Feyerabend Lectures on Natural Law'.Pauline Kleingeld - 2019 - In Stefano Bacin & Oliver Sensen (eds.), The Emergence of Autonomy in Kant's Moral Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 158-175.
    'Autonomy' is originally a political notion. In this chapter, I argue that the political theory Kant defended while he was writing the _Groundwork_ sheds light on the difficulties that are commonly associated with his account of moral autonomy. I argue that Kant's account of the two-tiered structure of political legislation, in his _Feyerabend Lectures on Natural Law_, parallels his distinction between two levels of moral legislation, and that this helps to explain why Kant could regard the notion of 'autonomy' as (...)
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  11. Racism, Chauvinism and Prejudice in the History of Philosophy.Lloyd Strickland - 2019 - Institute of Arts and Ideas.
    This piece was originally titled "Racism, Chauvinism and Prejudice in the History of Philosophy" but was later retitled "How Western Philosophy Became Racist" by the publisher.
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  12. A Kantian Defense of Self‐Ownership.Robert S. Taylor - 2004 - Journal of Political Philosophy 12 (1):65-78.
    Many scholars, including G. A. Cohen, Daniel Attas, and George Brenkert, have denied that a Kantian defense of self-ownership is possible. Kant's ostensible hostility to self-ownership can be resolved, however, upon reexamination of the Groundwork and the Metaphysics of Morals. Moreover, two novel Kantian defenses of self-ownership (narrowly construed) can be devised. The first shows that maxims of exploitation and paternalism that violate self-ownership cannot be universalized, as this leads to contradictions in conception. The second shows that physical coercion against (...)
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  13. Cultivating Virtue: Moral Progress and the Kantian State.Chris W. Surprenant - 2007 - Kantian Review 12 (1):90-112.
    After examining the ethical and political writings of Immanuel Kant, one finds an apparent paradox in his philosophy as his perfectionist moral teachings appear to be linked to his anti-perfectionist political theory. Specifically, he writes that the perfection of moral character can only take place for an individual who is inside of civil society, a condition where no laws may legitimately be implemented expressly for the purpose of trying to make individuals moral. Kant believes that living in civil society is (...)
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  14. KANT E O ESCLARECIMENTO COMO ESTRATÉGIA POLÍTICA PARA A EDUCAÇÃO DA HUMANIDADE.Marcos Seneda - 2012 - Revista Sul-Americana de Filosofia E Educação 19:89-102.
    Esse texto procura investigar a seguinte questão: como pode ser conduzido um processo de Esclarecimento que não seja apenas individual, mas social e político? Uma resposta para esta questão pode ser obtida na medida em que concebemos o conceito de autonomia como fundamento da estratégia do Esclarecimento, que aqui será compreendido como um processo arquetípico de educação da humanidade. Nosso objetivo é mostrar que a proposta de educação elaborada por Kant tem de ser compreendida de um ponto de vista cosmopolita.
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  15. Fight, Flight or Respect? First Encounters of the Other in Kant and Hegel.Lydia L. Moland - 2002 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 19 (4):381-400.
    Immanuel Kant's description of humans' first encounter with each other depicts a peaceful recognition of mutual worth. G.W.F. Hegel's by contrast depicts a struggle to the death. I argue in this paper that Hegel's description of conflict results in an ethical theory that better preserves the distinctness of the other. I consider Christine Korsgaard's description of first encounters as a third alternative but conclude that Hegel's approach better accounts for the specific commitments we make--as family members, works, and citizens --in (...)
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  16. Terry Godlove, Kant and the Meaning of Religion: The Critical Philosophy and Modern Religious Thought London: I. B. Tauris, 2014 Pp. 256 ISBN 9781848855298 £18.99. [REVIEW]Jacqueline Mariña - 2016 - Kantian Review 21 (1):138-141.
    Review of Godlove's book Kant and the Meaning of Religion in Kantian Review.
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  17. Review: Anderson-Gold, Sharon, Unnecessary Evil: History and Moral Progress in the Philosophy of Immanuel Kant[REVIEW]Anne Margaret Baxley - 2004 - Kant-Studien 95 (2):256-256.
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  18. Nietzsche’s Late Pragmatic Anthropology.Pietro Gori - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Research 40:377-404.
    The aim of this paper is to shed light on Nietzsche’s late investigation of the Western human being, with particular reference to Twilight of the Idols. I shall argue that this investigation can be seen as a “pragmatic anthropology,” according to the meaning that Kant gave to this notion in 1798. Although the paper focuses on Nietzsche’s thought, an analysis of Kant’s anthropology and the comparison between and Nietzsche’s late views of the human being, will show both their differences and (...)
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  19. Radical Evil: Between the Trivial and the Diabolical.Pablo Muchnik - 2001 - Contemporary Philosophy (3 & 4).
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  20. On the Possibility of the Language of ‘Radical Evil’ ".Pablo Muchnik - 2001 - Academic Forum 1.
    This paper analyzes the system of inferences Kant uses to determine whether an agent is evil.
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  21. Colonialism in Kant's Political Philosophy.Howard Williams - 2014 - Diametros 39:154-181.
    This article examines the controversy that has arisen concerning the interpretation of Immanuel Kant's account of European colonialism. One the one hand there are those interpreters such as Robert Bernasconi who see Kant's account as all of a piece with his earlier views on race which demonstrate a certain narrow mindedness in relation to black and coloured people and, on the other hand, there are those such as Pauline Kleingeld and Allen Wood who argue that the earlier writings on race (...)
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  22. Evil and Imputation in Kant's Ethics.Mark Timmons - 1994 - In B. Sharon Byrd, Joachim Hruschka & Jan C. Joerdan (eds.), Jahrbuch für Recht Und Ethik. Duncker Und Humblot.
    An examination of Kant's doctrine of radical evil as set forth in Book I of Religion.
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  23. Review: Besoli, Stefano, La Rocca, Claudio, and Martinelli, Riccardo (Eds.), L'universo Kantiano. Filosofia, Scienze, Sapere[REVIEW]Dennis Schulting - 2012 - Studi Kantiani:159-161.
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  24. Kant, Ripstein and the Circle of Freedom: A Critical Note.Laura Valentini - 2012 - European Journal of Philosophy 20 (3):450-459.
    Much contemporary political philosophy claims to be Kant-inspired, but its aims and method differ from Kant's own. In his recent book, Force and Freedom, Arthur Ripstein advocates a more orthodox Kantian outlook, presenting it as superior to dominant (Kant-inspired) views. The most striking feature of this outlook is its attempt to ground the whole of political morality in one right: the right to freedom, understood as the right to be independent of others’ choices. Is Ripstein's Kantian project successful? In this (...)
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  25. Kant on the Limits of Human Evil.Paul Formosa - 2009 - Journal of Philosophical Research 34:189-214.
    Kant has often been accused of being far too “optimistic” when it comes to the extremes of evil that humans can perpetrate upon one another. In particular, Kant’s supposed claim that humans cannot choose evil qua evil has struck many people as simply false. Another problem for Kant, or perhaps the same problem in another guise, is his supposed claim that all evil is done for the sake of self-love. While self-love might be a plausible way to explain some instances (...)
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  26. Triangulating God: A Kantian Rejoinder to Perovich.Stephen Palmquist - 1994 - Faith and Philosophy 11 (2):302-310.
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  27. A Reconciliation of Kant's Views on Revolution.Chris W. Surprenant - 2005 - Interpretation 32 (2):151-169.
    Kant's views on revolution are notoriously paradoxical: on the one hand he appears to condemn all instances of revolution, but on the other he expresses enthusiasm for the French Revolution and other revolutionary acts. I argue that we can reconcile Kant’s views on revolution by examining instances when an individual is under a moral obligation to revolt. First, I show how Kant reconciles his position on the French Revolution with his position on revolution in general. His answer, however, raises additional (...)
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  28. Approaching Perpetual Peace: Kant’s Defence of a League of States and His Ideal of a World Federation.Pauline Kleingeld - 2004 - European Journal of Philosophy 12 (3):304-325.
    There exists a standard view of Kant’s position on global order and this view informs much of current Kantian political theory. This standard view is that Kant advocates a voluntary league of states and rejects the ideal of a federative state of states as dangerous, unrealistic, and conceptually incoherent. This standard interpretation is usually thought to fall victim to three equally standard objections. In this essay, I argue that the standard interpretation is mistaken and that the three standard objections miss (...)
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  29. Rawls’s Defense of the Priority of Liberty: A Kantian Reconstruction.Robert S. Taylor - 2003 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 31 (3):246–271.
    Rawls offers three arguments for the priority of liberty in Theory, two of which share a common error: the belief that once we have shown the instrumental value of the basic liberties for some essential purpose (e.g., securing self-respect), we have automatically shown the reason for their lexical priority. The third argument, however, does not share this error and can be reconstructed along Kantian lines: beginning with the Kantian conception of autonomy endorsed by Rawls in section 40 of Theory, we (...)
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  30. Kant and the Marriage Right.Donald Wilson - 2004 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 85 (1):103–123.
    The provision of a marriage right is a distinctive aspect of Kant ’s political philosophy and seems, initially, difficult to reconcile with the general concern with ensuring external freedom of action apparent in the universal principle of Right and the sole innate right said to follow from this principle. I claim that this provision can be regarded as consistent with this general focus and that Kant ’s treatment of issue suggests an interesting secular argument for the institution of marriage.
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Kant: Anthropology
  1. Cosmopolitanism in Kant’s Anthropology From a Pragmatic Point of View: Regulative Ideas and Empirical Evidence.Roberta Pasquarè - 2019 - Con-Textos Kantianos 10 (2019):140-161.
    With this paper I analyze Kant’s account of the human vocation to cosmopolitanism discussed in the last section of the Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View (7:321-333) and show how Kant’s notion of cosmopolitanism requires the cooperation of pure reason and pragmatic anthropology. My main thesis is that pure reason provides regulative ideas, thereby maintaining a foundational role, and pragmatic anthropology provides empirical evidence, thereby reinforcing the theoretical and practical status of reason’s ideas. In developing my analysis, I argue (...)
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  2. Feeling and Orientation in Action: A Reply to Alix Cohen.Melissa M. Merritt - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-10.
    Alix Cohen argues that the function of feeling in Kantian psychology is to appraise and orient activity. Thus she sees feeling and agency as importantly connected by Kant’s lights. I endorse this broader claim, but argue that feeling, on her account, cannot do the work of orientation that she assigns to it.
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  3. Kant y el incesto.Jassir Enrique Hernández Castilla - 2020 - Con-Textos Kantianos 1 (11):8-36.
    Intentar explicar el origen, evolución y violación de un tabú considerado casi universal en las sociedades humanas no es una empresa sencilla dado su carácter polifacético; sin embargo, ello no ha impedido que en muchos ordenamientos jurídicos sea empleado ese sentimiento de repulsión o asco como un elemento para criminalizar una relación sexual aparentemente ofensiva. El artículo sostiene que el matrimonio es la única forma en que las prácticas sexuales entre parientes en condición de igualdad pueden tener lugar. Para ello: (...)
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  4. Cosmopolitanism in Kant’s Anthropology From a Pragmatic Point of View: Regulative Ideas and Empirical Evidence.Roberta Pasquarè - 2019 - Con-Textos Kantianos 1 (10):140-161.
    With this paper I analyze Kant’s account of the human vocation to cosmopolitanism discussed in the last section of the Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View and show how Kant’s notion of cosmopolitanism requires the cooperation of pure reason and pragmatic anthropology. My main thesis is that pure reason provides regulative ideas, thereby maintaining a foundational role, and pragmatic anthropology provides empirical evidence, thereby reinforcing the theoretical and practical status of reason’s ideas. In developing my analysis, I argue that (...)
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  5. The Duty of Knowing Oneself as One Appears: A Response to Kant’s Problem of Moral Self-Knowledge.Vivek Kumar Radhakrishnan - 2019 - Problemos 96.
    A challenge to Kant’s less known duty of self-knowledge comes from his own firm view that it is impossible to know oneself. This paper resolves this problem by considering the duty of self-knowledge as involving the pursuit of knowledge of oneself as one appears in the empirical world. First, I argue that, although Kant places severe restrictions on the possibility of knowing oneself as one is, he admits the possibility of knowing oneself as one appears using methods from empirical anthropology. (...)
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  6. Evil, Virtue, and Education in Kant.Paul Formosa - 2019 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 51 (13):1325-1334.
    For Kant, we cannot understand how to approach moral education without confronting the radical evil of humanity. But if we start out, as Kant thinks we do, from a morally corrupt state, how...
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  7. Philosophical and anthropological studies in NaUKMA: the problem of human as a moral and ethical being.Dmytro Mykhailov - 2018 - Наукові Записки Наукма. Філософія Та Релігієзнавство 1:3-11.
    Last year, the Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies of “Kyiv-Mohyla Academy” celebrated the 25 th anniversary. This article confines to this very special event and analyzes three important anthropological studies that deal with moral components of human being. The research directions have been formed at the Department since its establishment in 1992. -/- The first part of the article focuses mainly on the Kantian studies. According to Kant’s anthropology, human nature should be explored on two levels: empirical and intelligible. (...)
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  8. ‘The Ultimate Kantian Experience: Kant on Dinner Parties’, History of Philosophy Quarterly 25(4): 315-36, 2008.Alix Aurelia Cohen - 2008 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 25 (4):315-36.
    As one would expect, Kant believes that there is a tension, and even a conflict, between our bodily humanity and its ethical counterpart: ‘Inclination to pleasurable living and inclination to virtue are in conflict with each other’ (Anthropology, 185-86 [7:277]). What is more unexpected, however, is that he further claims that this tension can be resolved in what he calls an example of ‘civilised bliss’, namely dinner parties. Dinner parties are, for Kant, part of the ‘highest ethicophysical good’, the ultimate (...)
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  9. Kant on Civilization, Moralization, and the Paradox of Happiness.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2007 - In Luigino Bruni & Pier Luigi Porta (eds.), The Handbook on the Economics of Happiness. Cheltenham, UK: Elgar. pp. 110-123.
    The well-known Kantian passage on misology in the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals starts making fuller sense when located within the framework of Kant writings on philosophy of history where he contrasts civilization with moralization as two different phases in the growth of humankind. In this context, the growth of commerce and manufactures plays a distinctive role, namely that of means of fostering civilization, while pursuing a deceptive goal, namely happiness. Deception plays a basic role in the growth of (...)
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  10. Ulrich Lehner, Kants Vorsehungskonzept auf dem Hintergrund der deutschen Schulphilosophie und -theologie , pp. 532 + ix, $139. [REVIEW]Andrew Chignell - 2012 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 6 (1):143-147.
    A review of Ulrich Lehner's recent book on Kant's philosophy of history. -/- .
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  11. Razón crítica kantiana. Un imperativo teórico fundado en la autonomía.Rodrigo González - 2017 - In Daniela Alegría & Paula Órdenes (eds.), Kant y los retos práctico morales de la actualidad. Madrid: Tecnos. pp. 108-120.
    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo examinar cómo el legado kantiano de la razón crítica sigue vigente, pues se sostiene en un imperativo teórico fundado en la autonomía. Tal como argumento, este imperativo «categórico-teórico» se estructura gracias a la primacía de la razón práctica por sobre la razón teórica. El ensayo está estructurado en tres secciones. En la primera discuto brevemente el compromiso con la verdad propio de la ética de Sócrates y Platón, quienes inauguran el racionalismo crítico, según Popper. Luego, (...)
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  12. Ist Die Lehrbarkeit der Tugend Vereinbar MIT Kant’s Theorie der Willensfreiheit?Markus Kohl - forthcoming - In Bernd Dörflinger & Heiner F. Klemme (eds.), Kant als Tugendethiker? Studien und Materialien zur Geschichte der Philosophie. Hildesheim: Olms Verlag.
    In the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant declares that virtue “can and must be taught.” This claim raises two problems. First, it is in tension with Kant’s emphasis on the absolute moral responsibility that each individual agent owes to her transcendental freedom. Second, it raises the question of how the empirical events that constitute moral education can have an impact on atemporal moral choices. Concerning the second issue, I argue that Kant has a coherent framework for representing how empirical conditions can (...)
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  13. Book Review : "Kant's Anatomy of Evil". [REVIEW]Paul Formosa - 2011 - Kantian Review 16 (2):150-156.
    Book review of Sharon Anderson-Gold, and Pablo Muchnik, "Kant's Anatomy of Evil", Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, Pp 251, ISBN 9780521514323.
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  14. Kant and Women.Helga Varden - 2017 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (4):653-694.
    Kant's conception of women is complex. Although he struggles to bring his considered view of women into focus, a sympathetic reading shows it not to be anti-feminist and to contain important arguments regarding human nature. Kant believes the traditional male-female distinction is unlikely to disappear, but he never proposes the traditional gender ideal as the moral ideal; he rejects the idea that such considerations of philosophical anthropology can set the framework for morality. This is also why his moral works clarifies (...)
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  15. Kant and the Promise of Rhetoric.Scott R. Stroud - 2014 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    While Immanuel Kant is an epochal figure in a variety of fields, he has not figured prominently in the study of rhetoric and communication. This book represents the most detailed examination available into Kant's uneasy but often misunderstood relationship with rhetoric. By explicating Kant's complex understanding of rhetoric, this book advances the thesis that communicative practices play an important role in Kant's account of how we become better humans and how we create morally cultivating communities.
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  16. Nietzsche’s Late Pragmatic Anthropology.Pietro Gori - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Research 40:377-404.
    The aim of this paper is to shed light on Nietzsche’s late investigation of the Western human being, with particular reference to Twilight of the Idols. I shall argue that this investigation can be seen as a “pragmatic anthropology,” according to the meaning that Kant gave to this notion in 1798. Although the paper focuses on Nietzsche’s thought, an analysis of Kant’s anthropology and the comparison between and Nietzsche’s late views of the human being, will show both their differences and (...)
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  17. Kant and the Enlightenment.Antonio Pele - 2012 - PHILOSOPHICAL AND HUMANISTIC POSTMODERN VIEWS.
    This paper aims to understand Kant’s conception of Enlightenment and, in particular the idea of “Sapere Aude” (dare to think for yourself), described in his article published in 1784 An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment ? where he defines pre-enlightened people as living in a self-imposed “minority”. In the first part of the article, I will develop this notion, along with a process of domestication of human beings. In the second part, I will examine the solutions proposed to (...)
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  18. A Life Without Affects and Passions: Kant on the Duty of Apathy.Paul Formosa - 2011 - Parrhesia 13:96-111.
    An apathetic life is not the sort of life that most of us would want for ourselves or believe that we have a duty to strive for. And yet Kant argues that we have a duty of apathy, a duty to strive to be without affects (Affecten) and passions (Leidenschaften). But is Kant’s claim that there is a duty of apathy really as problematic as it sounds? In arguing that it is not, this paper investigates in detail in Kant’s accounts (...)
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Kant: Philosophy of History
  1. Cosmopolitanism in Kant’s Anthropology From a Pragmatic Point of View: Regulative Ideas and Empirical Evidence.Roberta Pasquarè - 2019 - Con-Textos Kantianos 10 (2019):140-161.
    With this paper I analyze Kant’s account of the human vocation to cosmopolitanism discussed in the last section of the Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View (7:321-333) and show how Kant’s notion of cosmopolitanism requires the cooperation of pure reason and pragmatic anthropology. My main thesis is that pure reason provides regulative ideas, thereby maintaining a foundational role, and pragmatic anthropology provides empirical evidence, thereby reinforcing the theoretical and practical status of reason’s ideas. In developing my analysis, I argue (...)
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  2. Kant on the ‘Guarantee of Perpetual Peace’ and the Ideal of the United Nations.Lucas Thorpe - 2019 - Dokuz Eylül University Journal of Humanities 6 (1):223-245..
    The ideal of the United Nations was first put forward by Immanuel Kant in his 1795 essay Perpetual Peace. Kant, in the tradition of Locke and Rousseau is a liberal who believes that relations between individuals can either be based upon law and consent or upon force and violence. One way that such the ideal of world peace could be achieved would be through the creation of a single world state, of which every human being was a citizen. Such an (...)
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