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  1. Publishing in the field of medical ethics: From describing ethical issues to ethical analysis.Jonathan Lewis - 2024 - Clinical Ethics 19 (1):1-2.
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  2. Is pregnancy a disease? A normative approach.Anna Smajdor & Joona Räsänen - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    In this paper, we identify some key features of what makes something a disease, and consider whether these apply to pregnancy. We argue that there are some compelling grounds for regarding pregnancy as a disease. Like a disease, pregnancy affects the health of the pregnant person, causing a range of symptoms from discomfort to death. Like a disease, pregnancy can be treated medically. Like a disease, pregnancy is caused by a pathogen, an external organism invading the host’s body. Like a (...)
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  3. Persons or datapoints?: Ethics, artificial intelligence, and the participatory turn in mental health research.Joshua August Skorburg, Kieran O'Doherty & Phoebe Friesen - 2024 - American Psychologist 79 (1):137-149.
    This article identifies and examines a tension in mental health researchers’ growing enthusiasm for the use of computational tools powered by advances in artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML). Although there is increasing recognition of the value of participatory methods in science generally and in mental health research specifically, many AI/ML approaches, fueled by an ever-growing number of sensors collecting multimodal data, risk further distancing participants from research processes and rendering them as mere vectors or collections of data points. The (...)
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  4. The machine of caring: A book review of "Philosophy of Care" By Boris Groys. [REVIEW]Matthew Tieu - 2024 - Nursing Philosophy 25 (1):e12465.
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  5. The Ethical Obligation for Research During Public Health Emergencies: Insights From the COVID-19 Pandemic.Mariana Barosa, Euzebiusz Jamrozik & Vinay Prasad - 2023 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-22.
    In times of crises, public health leaders may claim that trials of public health interventions are unethical. One reason for this claim can be that equipoise—i.e. a situation of uncertainty and/or disagreement among experts about the evidence regarding an intervention—has been disturbed by a change of collective expert views. Some might claim that equipoise is disturbed if the majority of experts believe that emergency public health interventions are likely to be more beneficial than harmful. However, such beliefs are not always (...)
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  6. A fair exchange: why living kidney donors in England should be financially compensated.Daniel Rodger & Bonnie Venter - 2023 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 26 (4):625-634.
    Every year, hundreds of patients in England die whilst waiting for a kidney transplant, and this is evidence that the current system of altruistic-based donation is not sufficient to address the shortage of kidneys available for transplant. To address this problem, we propose a monopsony system whereby kidney donors can opt-in to receive financial compensation, whilst still preserving the right of individuals to donate without receiving any compensation. A monopsony system describes a market structure where there is only one ‘buyer’—in (...)
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  7. Strengthening midwifery in response to global climate change to protect maternal and newborn health.Maeve O'Connell, Christine Catling, Kian Mintz-Woo & Caroline Homer - 2023 - Women and Birth 37 (1):1-3.
    In this editorial, we argue that midwives should focus on climate change, a link which has been underexplored.
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  8. Epistemic Virtue Signaling and the Double Bind of Testimonial Injustice.Catharine Saint-Croix - forthcoming - Philosophers' Imprint.
    Virtue signaling—using public moral discourse to enhance one’s moral reputation—is a familiar concept. But, what about profile pictures framed by “Vaccines work!”? Or memes posted to anti-vaccine groups echoing the group’s view that “Only sheep believe Big Pharma!”? These actions don’t express moral views—both claims are empirical (if imprecise). Nevertheless, they serve a similar purpose: to influence the judgments of their audience. But, where rainbow profiles guide their audience to view the agent as morally good, these acts guide their audience (...)
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  9. JUSTICIA PANDÉMICA GLOBAL. INTRODUCCIÓN JUSTICIA PANDÉMICA PARA Y DESDE AMERICA LATINA.Florencia Luna, Romina Rekers, Euzebiusz Jamrozik & Rachel Gur-Arie - 2023 - Ethic@ - An International Journal for Moral Philosophy 22 (1).
    Este número de acceso abierto tiene como objetivo resaltar los puntos de vista de los países latinoamericanos sobre la justicia en un contexto de pandemia y contribuir al diálogo entre estos y con la comunidad científica global. Explora los desafíos globales de la pandemia de COVID-19, las diferencias relevantes entre las medidas de salud pública y su impacto en los países de ingresos altos versus los países de ingresos bajos o medios, y cómo la injusticia global se profundizó debido a (...)
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  10. GLOBAL PANDEMIC JUSTICE. INTRODUCTION PANDEMIC JUSTICE FOR AND FROM LATIN AMERICA.Florencia Luna, Romina Rekers, Euzebiusz Jamrozik & Rachel Gur-Arie - 2023 - Ethic@ - An International Journal for Moral Philosophy 22 (1).
    This open-access issue aims to highlight views about justice in a pandemic context from Latin American countries and to contribute to the dialogue between them as well as with the global scientific community. It explores the global challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic, relevant differences between public health measures and their impact on high-income countries versus low- or middle-income countries, and how global injustice deepened because of the COVID-19 pandemic. It also draws attention to experiences, outcomes, and responses to the pandemic (...)
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  11. Defending the de dicto approach to the non-identity problem.Joona Räsänen - 2023 - Monash Bioethics Review 41 (2):124-135.
    Is it wrong to create a blind child, for example by in vitro fertilization, if you could create a sighted child instead? Intuitively many people believe it is wrong, but this belief is difficult to justify. When there is a possibility to create and select either ‘blind’ or ‘sighted’ embryos choosing a set of ‘blind’ embryos seems to harm no-one since choosing ‘sighted’ embryos would create a different child altogether. So when the parents choose ‘blind’ embryos, they give some specific (...)
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  12. Antinatalism—Solving everything everywhere all at once?Joona Räsänen & Matti Häyry - 2023 - Bioethics 37 (9):829-830.
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  13. Biohacking: Garage Transhumanism.Piero Gayozzo - 2021 - Revista Iberoamericana de Bioética 16:1-17.
    Biohacking is a grass-roots movement that brings the knowledge and experimen-tal practice of biological sciences to a non-specialized public. This article seeks to identify biohacking as a type of transhumanism and not just as a movement influenced by the latter. To do so, it examines the constitution, history, practi-ces, and moral codes of the biohacker movement. Subsequently, it compares the results with the definition of transhumanism, finding points of similarity in the hypotheses of both, as well as an adaptation of (...)
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  14. Empirical bioethics and human enhancement: a methodological proposal.Piero Gayozzo - 2022 - Revista Colombiana de Bioética 17 (2):e3501.
    Purpose/Background. The present research focuses on the debate on transhumanism/bioconservatism from the perspective of empirical bioethics, that is, making use of em-pirical evidence in the process of moral reasoning. Its objective is to propose a metho-dological guide for the approach and resolution of moral problems concerning human enhancement. Methodology/Approach. The method Step-wise Ethical Human Enhancemet (SWEH) is proposed. It is a guide consisting of 11 questions that are the result of the adaptation of the guidelines for identifying a human enhancement (...)
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  15. Black-box assisted medical decisions: AI power vs. ethical physician care.Berman Chan - 2023 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 26 (3):285-292.
    Without doctors being able to explain medical decisions to patients, I argue their use of black box AIs would erode the effective and respectful care they provide patients. In addition, I argue that physicians should use AI black boxes only for patients in dire straits, or when physicians use AI as a “co-pilot” (analogous to a spellchecker) but can independently confirm its accuracy. I respond to A.J. London’s objection that physicians already prescribe some drugs without knowing why they work.
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  16. Ditching Decision-Making Capacity.Daniel Fogal & Ben Schwan - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Decision-making capacity (DMC) plays an important role in clinical practice—determining, on the basis of a patient’s decisional abilities, whether they are entitled to make their own medical decisions or whether a surrogate must be secured to participate in decisions on their behalf. As a result, it’s critical that we get things right—that our conceptual framework be well-suited to the task of helping practitioners systematically sort through the relevant ethical considerations in a way that reliably and transparently delivers correct verdicts about (...)
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  17. The Counterfactual Argument Against Abortion.Ryan Kulesa - 2023 - Utilitas 35 (3):218-228.
    In this article, I present a novel argument against abortion. In short, what makes it wrong to kill someone is that they are a counterfactual person; counterfactual persons are individuals such that, were they not killed, they would have been persons. My view accommodates two intuitions which many views concerning the wrongness of killing fail to account for: embryo rescue cases and the impermissibility of infanticide. The view avoids embryo rescue cases because embryos in the rescue scenarios are not counterfactual (...)
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  18. Ethical Controversy Surrounding the Revision of the Uniform Determination of Death Act in the United States.Osamu Muramoto - 2023 - In Peter A. Clark (ed.), Contemporary Issues in Clinical Bioethics. London: Intech Open. pp. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.1002031.
    This chapter reviews fundamental ethical controversy surrounding the ongoing effort to revise the Uniform Determination of Death Act in the United States. Instead of focusing on the process of the revision itself, the chapter explores the underlying ethical debate over brain death that has been ongoing for many decades and finally culminated in this revision. Three issues are focused: the requirement for consent and personal exemptions before applying brain death for the diagnosis of death; redefining the areas of the brain (...)
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  19. Review of Kevin Aho, One Beat More: Existentialism and the Gift of Mortality. [REVIEW]Casey Rentmeester - 2023 - Journal of the Pacific Association for the Continental Tradition 5 (1).
    Book Review of Kevin Aho's One Beat More: Existentialism and the Gift of Mortality (Polity, 2022).
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  20. Medical AI: Is Trust Really the Issue?Jakob Thrane Mainz - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    I discuss an influential argument put forward by Joshua Hatherley. Drawing on influential philosophical accounts of inter-personal trust, Hatherley claims that medical Artificial Intelligence is capable of being reliable, but not trustworthy. Furthermore, Hatherley argues that trust generates moral obligations on behalf of the trustee. For instance, when a patient trusts a clinician, it generates certain moral obligations on behalf of the clinician for her to do what she is entrusted to do. I make three objections to Hatherley’s claims: (1) (...)
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  21. Talking it better: conversations and normative complexity in healthcare improvement.Alan Cribb, Vikki Entwistle & Polly Mitchell - 2022 - Medical Humanities 48:85-93.
    In this paper, we consider the role of conversations in contributing to healthcare quality improvement. More specifically, we suggest that conversations can be important in responding to what we call ’normative complexity’. As well as reflecting on the value of conversations, the aim is to introduce the dimension of normative complexity as something that requires theoretical and practical attention alongside the more recognised challenges of complex systems, which we label, for short, as ’explanatory complexity’. In brief, normative complexity relates to (...)
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  22. When biological ageing is desirable? A reply to García-Barranquero et al.Joona Räsänen - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    García-Barranquero et al explore the desirability of human ageing. They differentiate between chronological and biological views of ageing and contend that the positive aspects of ageing are solely linked to chronological ageing. Consequently, the authors embrace the potential for technological interventions in biological ageing. Contrary to their stance, I argue that there are sometimes desirable aspects associated with biological ageing. Therefore, proposals aiming to eliminate, mitigate or diminish biological ageing are not without problems.
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  23. The Pregnancy Rescue Case: Why Abortion is Immoral.Perry Hendricks - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    In cases in which we must choose between either (i) preventing a woman from remaining unwillingly pregnant or (ii) preventing a fetus from being killed, we should prevent the fetus from being killed. But this suggests that in typical cases abortion is wrong: typical abortions involve preventing a woman from remaining unwillingly pregnant over preventing a fetus from being killed. So abortion is typically wrong—and this holds whether or not fetuses are persons.
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  24. Identity-relative paternalism is internally incoherent.Eli Garrett Schantz - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (6):404-405.
    Identity-Relative Paternalism, as defended by Wilkinson, holds that paternalistic intervention is justified to prevent an individual from doing to their future selves (where there are weakened prudential unity relations between the current and future self) what it would be justified to prevent them from doing to others.1 Wilkinson, drawing on the work of Parfit and others, defends the notion of Identity-Relative Paternalism from a series of objections. I argue here, however, that Wilkinson overlooks a significant problem for Identity-Relative Paternalism—namely, that (...)
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  25. The Aim of Medicine. Sanocentricity and the Autonomy Thesis.Somogy Varga - 2023 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly (4):720-745.
    Recent criticisms of medicine converge on fundamental questions about the aim of medicine. The main task of this paper is to propose an account of the aim of medicine. Discussing and rejecting the initially plausible proposal according to which medicine is pathocentric, the paper presents and defends the Autonomy Thesis, which holds that medicine is not pathocentric, but sanocentric, aiming to promote health with the final aim to enhance autonomy. The paper closes by considering the objection that the Autonomy Thesis (...)
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  26. Public Health Officials Should Almost Always Tell the Truth.Director Samuel - 2023 - Journal of Applied Philosophy (TBD):1-15.
    One of the lessons of the COVID-19 pandemic is that the lay public relies immensely on the knowledge of public health officials. At every phase of the pandemic, the testimony of public health officials has been crucial for guiding public policy and individual behavior. The reason is simple: public health officials know a lot more than you and I do about public health. As lay people, we rely on experts. This seems straightforward. But the COVID-19 pandemic has shown that public (...)
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  27. Responding to Unexpected Urine Drug Test Results: A Phenomenological Approach.Casey Rentmeester - 2023 - Journal of Applied Hermeneutics 2023:1-12.
    As a response to the opioid epidemic in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published the CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain in 2016. This document served as a means to reduce risks and address harms of opioid use by recommending that clinicians conduct periodic urine drug testing for patients on chronic opioid therapy. As an unintended result of this recommendation, providers began using unexpected urine drug test results as a reason to dismiss (...)
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  28. Intraoperative Liposomal Bupivacaine Does Not Reduce Opioid Use vs. Ropivacaine: A Systematic Review.Boris Yang, Violet Victoria, Radhika Rastogi & Zequan Yang - 2022 - Journal of Surgery 7 (1570).
    Introduction: Liposomal bupivacaine (LB) is a long-acting analgesic that, due to its liposomal formulation, purportedly extends its analgesic effect up to 72 hours. However, the clinical efficacy of LB appears mixed. This systematic review seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of liposomal bupivacaine in improving postoperative outcomes compared to ropivacaine (ROPI), another commonly used long-acting analgesic. -/- Materials and Methods: Prospective and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of LB compared to ROPI were selected for review. Primary outcomes included hospital (...)
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  29. The Patient preference predictor and the objection from higher-order preferences.Jakob Thrane Mainz - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (3):221-222.
    Recently, Jardas _et al_ have convincingly defended the patient preference predictor (PPP) against a range of autonomy-based objections. In this response, I propose a new autonomy-based objection to the PPP that is not explicitly discussed by Jardas _et al_. I call it the ‘objection from higher-order preferences’. Even if this objection is not sufficient reason to reject the PPP, the objection constitutes a pro tanto reason that is at least as powerful as the ones discussed by Jardas _et al._.
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  30. Public Sociology: Working At The Interstices.Alya Khan - 2009 - The American Sociologist 40 (4):309-331.
    The article examines recent debates surrounding public sociology in the context of a UK based Department of Applied Social Sciences. Three areas of work within the department form the focus of the article: violence against women and children; community-based oral history projects and health ethics teaching. The article draws on Micheal Burawoy’s typology comprising public, policy, professional and critical sociology, and argues that much of the work described in the case studies more often lies somewhere in between, in the interstices, (...)
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  31. The Principle of Restraint: Public Reason and the Reform of Public Administration.Gabriele Badano - 2020 - Political Studies 68 (1):110-127.
    Normative political theorists have been growing more and more aware of the many difficult questions raised by the discretionary power inevitably left to public administrators. This article aims to advance a novel normative principle, called ‘principle of restraint’, regulating reform of established administrative agencies. I argue that the ability of public administrators to exercise their power in accordance with the requirements of public reason is protected by an attitude of restraint on the part of potential reformers. Specifically, they should refrain (...)
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  32. Philosophy Books for Psychiatric Practice. [REVIEW]Hane Htut Maung - 2022 - Archivos de Neurociencias 27 (4):70-72.
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  33. Evaluating Tradeoffs between Autonomy and Wellbeing in Supported Decision Making.Walter Veit, Brian Earp, Heather Browning & Julian Savulescu - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (11):21-24.
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  34. Reversing the medical humanities.Helene Scott-Fordsmand - 2023 - Medical Humanities 49:347-360.
    The paper offers the concept of reversing the medical humanities. In agreement with the call from Kristeva et al. to recognise the bidirectionality of the medical humanities, I propose moving beyond debates of attitude and aptitude in the application and engagement (either friendly or critical) of humanities to/in medicine, by considering a reversal of the directions of epistemic movement (a reversal of the flow of knowledge). I situate my proposal within existing articulations of the field found in the medical humanities (...)
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  35. Egalitarianism, moral status and abortion: a reply to Miller.Joona Räsänen - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (10):717-718.
    Calum Miller recently argued that a commitment to a very modest form of egalitarianism—equality between non-disabled human adults—implies fetal personhood. Miller claims that the most plausible basis for human equality is in being human—an attribute which fetuses have—therefore, abortion is likely to be morally wrong. In this paper, I offer a plausible defence for the view that equality between non-disabled human adults does not imply fetal personhood. I also offer a challenge for Miller’s view.
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  36. Does overruling Roe discriminate against women (of colour)?Joona Räsänen, Claire Gothreau & Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (12):952-956.
    On 24 July 2022, the landmark decision Roe v. Wade (1973), that secured a right to abortion for decades, was overruled by the US Supreme Court. The Court decision in Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organisation severely restricts access to legal abortion care in the USA, since it will give the states the power to ban abortion. It has been claimed that overruling Roe will have disproportionate impacts on women of color and that restricting access to abortion contributes to or (...)
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  37. Autonomy and Dignity.Suzy Killmister - forthcoming - In Ben Colburn (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Autonomy. Routledge.
    Like the ‘thoughts and prayers’ so commonly offered by politicians in the aftermath of disaster, it is incredibly common to hear ‘autonomy and dignity’ invoked together in response to some threat to human wellbeing. As such, it seems natural to assume they must bear some kind of relation to one another. But are they merely two core human interests, that happen to be vulnerable to the same kinds of threat? Or are they interrelated in a deeper way? What I aim (...)
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  38. The Role of Philosophers in Bioethics.Joona Räsänen & Matti Häyry - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (12):58-60.
    Blumenthal-Barby et al. (2022) present a nuanced and convincing case for the continued presence of moral and political philosophers in bioethics. We agree with the authors that philosophers should have a role in bioethical inquiry. However, we partly disagree on what that role should be. We assess the case taking our clues from a concern the authors mention – and another one that they do not directly address.
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  39. COVID-19: A Dystopian Delusion: Examining the Machinations of Governments, Health Organizations, the Globalist Elites, Big Pharma, Big Tech, and the Legacy Media.Scott D. G. Ventureyra (ed.) - 2022 - Ottawa, ON, Canada: True Freedom Press.
    Since March of 2020, the world has been brought to its knees by unscientific and unethical mandates. These mandates have destroyed the world economy and the lives of countless innocent individuals. The “cure” that has been offered by medical bureaucrats and politicians has been more deadly than the disease (COVID-19). The imposition of ludicrous lockdowns, mask-wearing, coerced vaccination, and vaccine passports have not only proved to be ineffective, but also much more harmful than SARS-CoV-2 and all its variants. COVID-19 has (...)
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  40. Knowing Together: The Physician-Patient Encounter and Encountering Others: Imagining Relationships and Vulnerable Possibilities.Norman Quist - 2022 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 33 (3):149-156.
    In this essay, by example of the physician-patient relationship and drawing on the work of D.W. Winnicott, I explore what may be possible together in relationships, and in the pursuit of health and flourishing, at understanding what we need, and getting ourselves and the other “right”—what we are afraid of and how we get each other wrong, and the distance or gap between “what has been” and “what might be.” In pursuit of these questions, I consider what both physicians and (...)
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  41. 175 An ethical analysis of evidence-based medicine.Wesley J. Park - 2022 - BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine 27 (Suppl 1):A48.
    Evidence-based medicine is a clinical decision-making framework which makes claims about what physicians ought to do. Though heralded as the cutting edge of medical science, evidence-based medicine is a value-laden normative theory which implicitly depends on substantive views regarding what is morally good or right. In this paper, I provide an ethical analysis of evidence-based medicine. I consider its normative underpinnings in three ethical theories: utilitarianism, Kantian deontology, and virtue ethics. In the face of uncertainty, evidence-based medicine endorses expected utility (...)
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  42. 16 The logic of lockdowns: a game of modeling and evidence.Wesley J. Park - 2022 - BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine 27 (Suppl 1):A59.
    Lockdowns, or modern quarantines, involve the use of novel restrictive non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to suppress the transmission of COVID-19. In this paper, I aim to critically analyze the emerging history and philosophy of lockdowns, with an emphasis on the communication of health evidence and risk for informing policy decisions. I draw a distinction between evidence-based and modeling-based decision-making. I argue that using the normative framework of evidence-based medicine would have recommended against the use of lockdowns. I first review the World (...)
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  43. COVID-19 and the unseen pandemic of child abuse.Wesley J. Park & Kristen A. Walsh - 2022 - BMJ Paediatrics Open 6 (1).
    For children, the collateral damage of the COVID-19 pandemic response has been considerable. In this paper, we use the framework of evidence-based medicine to argue that child abuse is another negative side effect of COVID-19 lockdowns. While it was certain that school closures would have profound social and economic costs, it remains uncertain whether they have any effect on COVID-19 transmission. There is emerging evidence that lockdowns significantly worsened child abuse on a global scale. Low-income and middle-income countries are particularly (...)
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  44. 143 An ethical analysis of evidence-based medicine.Wesley J. Park - 2022 - BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine 27 (Suppl 2):A12.
    Evidence-based medicine is a clinical decision making framework which makes claims about what physicians ought to do. Though heralded as the cutting edge of medical science evidence-based medicine is a value laden normative theory which implicitly depends on substantive views regarding what is morally good or right. In this paper, I provide an ethical analysis of evidence-based medicine. I consider its normative underpinnings in three ethical theories: utilitarianism, Kantian deontology, and virtue ethics. In the face of uncertainty, evidence-based medicine endorses (...)
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  45. Medical Ethics.Ayesha Gautam - 2013 - In Vibha Chaturvedi and Pragati Sahni (ed.), Understanding Ethics Edited by Vibha Chaturvedi and Pragati Sahni. New Delhi, Delhi, India: pp. 210-222.
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  46. Ethical medical innovations and their applications: an Islamic perspective.Mohammad Manzoor Malik - 2019 - Al Ameen Journal of Medical Sciences 3 (12):115-120.
    Creativity and innovation is very part of human nature (fitrah) which makes human beings different from other beings that are so far found on the planet. The outcome of creativity can be both harmful and beneficial. And most of it depends on the moral standing of those to whom end products of such creativity are available. Islam gives high importance to health and the Muslim civilization that flourished in Bagdad and Spain during the medieval period made original contributions to medical (...)
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  47. Value After Death.Christopher Frugé - 2022 - Ratio 35 (3):194-203.
    Does our life have value for us after we die? Despite the importance of such a question, many would find it absurd, even incoherent. Once we are dead, the thought goes, we are no longer around to have any wellbeing at all. However, in this paper I argue that this common thought is mistaken. In order to make sense of some of our most central normative thoughts and practices, we must hold that a person can have wellbeing after they die. (...)
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  48. Moral Enhancement, Acquired Virtue, and Theism: A Response to Brummett and Crutchfield.Nicholas Colgrove, Derek McAllister & Burke Rea - 2022 - Bioethics 1 (Online First):1-8.
    Recently, Brummett and Crutchfield advanced two critiques of theists who object to moral enhancement. First, a conceptual critique: theists who oppose moral enhancement commonly do so because virtue is thought to be acquired only via a special kind of process. Enhancement does not involve such processes. Hence, enhancement cannot produce virtue. Yet theists also commonly claim that God is perfectly virtuous and not subject to processes. If virtue requires a process and God is perfectly virtuous without a process, however, then (...)
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  49. The Nature of Harm: A Wine-Dark Sea.Eli G. Schantz & Mark D. Fox - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (10):63-65.
    In “Harmful Choices, the Case of C, and Decision-Making Competence,” Pickering and colleagues advance an argument in favor of externalism, a view in which the competence of a decision maker is judged relative to factors external to their cognition. In advancing this argument, Pickering and colleagues focus on the external factor of harm: In their view, it is the harmfulness of a considered or chosen action that provides evidence against the competence of the decision maker. However, the proper identification of (...)
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  50. Are conscientious objectors morally obligated to refer?Samuel Reis-Dennis & Abram L. Brummett - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (8):547-550.
    In this paper, we argue that providers who conscientiously refuse to provide legal and professionally accepted medical care are not always morally required to refer their patients to willing providers. Indeed, we will argue that refusing to refer is morally admirable in certain instances. In making the case, we show that belief in a sweeping moral duty to refer depends on an implicit assumption that the procedures sanctioned by legal and professional norms are ethically permissible. Focusing on examples of female (...)
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