Technology Ethics

Edited by Hector MacIntyre (University of Lethbridge)
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  1. “Structural Ethics” as a Framework to Study the Moral Role of Non-Humans.Ehsan Arzroomchilar - 2022 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 26 (2).
    A challenging issue within the philosophy of technology is the moral relevancy of artifacts. While many philosophers agree that artifacts have moral significance, there are numerous positions on how moral relevancy ought to be understood, ranging from scholars who argue that there is no room for artifacts in moral debates to those who argue for the moral agency of artifacts. In this paper, I attempt to avoid extreme positions; accordingly, I reject both the neutrality thesis and the moral agency of (...)
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  2. The Case for Compulsory Surgical Smoke Evacuation Systems in the Operating Theatre.Daniel Rodger - 2022 - Clinical Ethics 17 (2):130-135.
    Perioperative staff are frequently exposed to surgical smoke or plume created by using heat-generating devices like diathermy and lasers. This is a concern due to mounting evidence that this exposure can be harmful with no safe level of exposure yet identified. First, I briefly summarise the problem posed by surgical smoke exposure and highlight that many healthcare organisations are not sufficiently satisfying their legal and ethical responsibilities to protect their staff from potential harm. Second, I explore the ethical case for (...)
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  3. Please Like This Paper.Lucy McDonald - 2021 - Philosophy 96 (3):335-358.
    In this paper I offer a philosophical analysis of the act of ‘liking’ a post on social media. First, I consider what it means to ‘like’ something. I argue that ‘liking’ is best understood as a phatic gesture; it signals uptake and anoints the poster’s positive face. Next, I consider how best to theorise the power that comes with amassing many ‘likes’. I suggest that ‘like’ tallies alongside posts institute and record a form of digital social capital. Finally, I consider (...)
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  4. The Fair Chances in Algorithmic Fairness: A Response to Holm.Clinton Castro & Michele Loi - forthcoming - Res Publica:1-7.
    Holm (2022) argues that a class of algorithmic fairness measures, that he refers to as the ‘performance parity criteria’, can be understood as applications of John Broome’s Fairness Principle. We argue that the performance parity criteria cannot be read this way. This is because in the relevant context, the Fairness Principle requires the equalization of actual individuals’ individual-level chances of obtaining some good (such as an accurate prediction from a predictive system), but the performance parity criteria do not guarantee any (...)
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  5. Autonomy of Attention.Kaisa Kärki - forthcoming - In Vincent C. Müller (ed.), Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence 2021.
    What precisely does a distraction threaten? An agent who spends an inordinate amount of time attending to her smartphone – what precisely is she lacking? I argue that whereas agency of attention is the agent’s non-automatic decision-making on what she currently pays attention to, autonomy of attention is the agent, through her second-order desires, effectively interfering with her non-automatic decision-making on what she currently pays attention to. Freedom of attention is the agent’s possibility to hold or switch her focus of (...)
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  6. Managing the Responsibilities of Doing Good and Avoiding Harm in Sustainability-Orientated Innovations: Example From Agri-Tech Start-Ups in the Netherlands.Thomas B. Long & Vincent Blok - 2022 - In Putting Responsible Research and Innovation into Practice. A Multi-Stakeholder Approach. Dordrecht, Nederland: pp. 249-272.
    Responsible innovation (RI), also termed Responsible Research and Innovation, has emerged due to increasing concern over how to integrate ethical and societal values into research and innovation policy and governance (Von Schomberg 2013), in response to questioning of the societal role of science as well as populist resurgence in some countries (Long and Blok 2017a). Within a RI approach, innovators must consider three dimensions of responsibility, including the dimensions of (1) ‘avoiding harm’ to people and the planet, (2) ‘doing good’ (...)
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  7. Nudges, Nudging, and Self-Guidance Under the Influence.W. Jared Parmer - forthcoming - Ergo.
    Nudging works through dispositions to decide with specific heuristics, and has three component parts. A nudge is a feature of an environment that enables such a disposition; a person is nudged when such a disposition is triggered; and a person performs a nudged action when such a disposition manifests in action. This analysis clarifies an autonomy-based worry about nudging as used in public policy or for private profit: that a person’s ability to reason well is undermined when she is nudged. (...)
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  8. Putting Responsible Research and Innovation Into Practice: A Multi-Stakeholder Approach.Vincent Blok (ed.) - 2022 - dordrecht: springer.
    This Open Access book builds on the experiences of one of the largest European projects in the domain of responsible Research and Innovation: NewHoRRIzon. It highlights the potential of and opportunity in responsible R&I to conduct innovation in a socially responsible way. Employing the methodology of Social Labs, the book analyses responsible R&I from an experience-based viewpoint and further explores the application of responsible R&I beyond scholarly and industrial interests. The contributors analyze the current European R&I landscape, provide reflection and (...)
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  9. Should We Dream of Designer Babies?Samantha Noll & Laci Hubbard-Mattix - 2019 - In Trip McCrossin (ed.), Blade Runner 2049 and Philosophy. New York, NY, USA:
    Seventy-five years before Niander Wallace brutally kills a newborn replicant in Blade Runner 2049, the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research was formed. Its formation led to the creation of the Belmont Report, which established guidelines for the treatment of human subjects. Wallace uses a scalpel as the instrument of disposal, of the newborn replicant, stabbing her in the womb, thereby ending her life moments after wishing her a happy birthday. The conjunction of (...)
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  10. Urban Agriculture and Environmental Imagination.Samantha Noll - 2019 - In Sharon Meagher, Samantha Noll & Joseph S. Biehl (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of the City. New York, NY, USA: pp. 100-130.
    While we are currently experiencing a renaissance in philosophical work on agriculture and food ( Barnhill, Budolfson, & Doggett 2016 ; Thompson 2015 ; Kaplan 2012 ), these topics were common sources of discussion throughout the three-thousand-year history of Western thought. For example, the Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle (2014 ) explored connections between fulfi lling human promise and systems of agriculture ( Thompson & Noll 2015 ) and Hippocrates (1923 ) stressed the importance of cultivating agricultural products provided by nature (...)
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  11. Introduction: Transforming Philosophy and the City.Samantha Noll - 2019 - In Sharon Meagher, Samantha Noll & Joseph S. Biehl (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of the City. New York, NY, USA: pp. 1-30.
    Since the 1960s, the field of urban studies has blossomed in the United States and the United Kingdom, but philosophers participated very little until recently. We are now seeing Western philosophy both return to its urban roots and develop in new directions that ancient Greek philosophers based in Athens never could have imagined. Of all the disciplines, philosophy is one of the most ancient, and it is rooted in ancient cities; indeed, we could argue that philosophy was demanded by the (...)
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  12. Responsible Innovation in the Age of Science Conspiracism.Eugen O. Popa & Vincent Blok - 2022 - Journal of Responsible Innovation 1 ( 1):1.
    Responsible innovation is centered around the ideal that societal stakeholders are entitled to participate in scientific and technological decision-making by voicing their needs and worries. Individuals who believe in science conspiracies (referred to here as ‘science conspiracists’) pose a challenge to implementing this ideal because it is not clear under what conditions their inclusion in responsible innovation exercises is possible and advisable. Yet precisely because of this uncertain status, science conspiracists constitute an instructive case in point to travel towards the (...)
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  13. Designing Genetic Engineering Technologies For Human Values.Steven Umbrello - 2022 - Etica E Politica (2):481-510.
    Genetic engineering technologies are a subclass of the biotechnology family, and are concerned with the use of laboratory-based technologies to intervene with a given organism at the genetic level, i.e., the level of its DNA. This class of technologies could feasibly be used to treat diseases and disabilities, create disease-resistant crops, or even be used to enhance humans to make them more resistant to certain environmental conditions. However, both therapeutic and enhancement applications of genetic engineering raise serious ethical concerns. This (...)
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  14. Digital Working Lives: Worker Autonomy and the Gig Economy.Tim Christiaens - 2022 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Recent innovations in digital technologies are fundamentally transforming the world of work. A digital gig economy is emerging that threatens to displace traditional labour relations based on legally regulated labour contracts. Companies like Uber, Deliveroo, or Amazon Mechanical Turk rely increasingly on 'independent contractors' who earn piece-rate wages by completing tasks sent to them via their smartphones. This development understandably pushes workers to desire more autonomy, but what would workers' autonomy mean in the digital age? This book argues that the (...)
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  15. AI, Opacity, and Personal Autonomy.Bram Vaassen - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1-20.
    Advancements in machine learning have fuelled the popularity of using AI decision algorithms in procedures such as bail hearings, medical diagnoses and recruitment. Academic articles, policy texts, and popularizing books alike warn that such algorithms tend to be opaque: they do not provide explanations for their outcomes. Building on a causal account of transparency and opacity as well as recent work on the value of causal explanation, I formulate a moral concern for opaque algorithms that is yet to receive a (...)
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  16. AI and the Expert; a Blueprint for the Ethical Use of Opaque AI.Amber Ross - forthcoming - AI and Society.
    The increasing demand for transparency in AI has recently come under scrutiny. The question is often posted in terms of “epistemic double standards”, and whether the standards for transparency in AI ought to be higher than, or equivalent to, our standards for ordinary human reasoners. I agree that the push for increased transparency in AI deserves closer examination, and that comparing these standards to our standards of transparency for other opaque systems is an appropriate starting point. I suggest that a (...)
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  17. Michael S. Moore: Mechanical Choices. The Responsibility of the Human Machine: New York: Oxford University Press, 2020. E-book (ISBN 9780190864019). 589 pages.1 hardback (ISBN: 9780190863999) 64 £. 616 pages. [REVIEW]Sofia M. I. Jeppsson - 2022 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 25 (3):499-502.
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  18. A Hippocratic Oath for Mathematicians? Mapping the Landscape of Ethics in Mathematics.Dennis Müller, Maurice Chiodo & James Franklin - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (5):1-30.
    While the consequences of mathematically-based software, algorithms and strategies have become ever wider and better appreciated, ethical reflection on mathematics has remained primitive. We review the somewhat disconnected suggestions of commentators in recent decades with a view to piecing together a coherent approach to ethics in mathematics. Calls for a Hippocratic Oath for mathematicians are examined and it is concluded that while lessons can be learned from the medical profession, the relation of mathematicians to those affected by their work is (...)
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  19. Artificial Intelligence in a Structurally Unjust Society.Ting-An Lin & Po-Hsuan Cameron Chen - forthcoming - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly.
    Increasing concerns have been raised regarding artificial intelligence (AI) bias, and in response, efforts have been made to pursue AI fairness. In this paper, we argue that the idea of structural injustice serves as a helpful framework for clarifying the ethical concerns surrounding AI bias—including the nature of its moral problem and the responsibility for addressing it—and reconceptualizing the approach to pursuing AI fairness. Using AI in healthcare as a case study, we argue that AI bias is a form of (...)
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  20. The Concept of Painless Civilization and the Philosophy of Biological Evolution: With Reference to Jonas, Freud, and Bataille.Masahiro Morioka - 2022 - The Review of Life Studies 13:16-34.
    In this paper I attempt to open a new horizon in the field of civilization studies by examining the concept of painless civilization from the perspective of the philosophy of biological evolution. Since the space is limited, the priority will be given to the clarification of an overall structure. Modern civilization has created systems that seek “comfort and pleasure” and eliminate “pain and suffering” and has spread them to every corner of our society. It is progressing like a great wave (...)
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  21. Algorithmic Bias and Risk Assessments: Lessons From Practice.Ali Hasan, Shea Brown, Jovana Davidovic, Benjamin Lange & Mitt Regan - 2022 - Digital Society 1 (1):1-15.
    In this paper, we distinguish between different sorts of assessments of algorithmic systems, describe our process of assessing such systems for ethical risk, and share some key challenges and lessons for future algorithm assessments and audits. Given the distinctive nature and function of a third-party audit, and the uncertain and shifting regulatory landscape, we suggest that second-party assessments are currently the primary mechanisms for analyzing the social impacts of systems that incorporate artificial intelligence. We then discuss two kinds of as-sessments: (...)
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  22. Conflicting Aims and Values in the Application of Smart Sensors in Geriatric Rehabilitation: Ethical Analysis.Christopher Predel, Cristian Timmermann, Frank Ursin, Marcin Orzechowski, Timo Ropinski & Florian Steger - 2022 - JMIR mHealth and uHealth 10 (6):e32910.
    Background: Smart sensors have been developed as diagnostic tools for rehabilitation to cover an increasing number of geriatric patients. They promise to enable an objective assessment of complex movement patterns. -/- Objective: This research aimed to identify and analyze the conflicting ethical values associated with smart sensors in geriatric rehabilitation and provide ethical guidance on the best use of smart sensors to all stakeholders, including technology developers, health professionals, patients, and health authorities. -/- Methods: On the basis of a systematic (...)
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  23. Responsible Innovation at Work: Gamification, Public Engagement, and Privacy by Design.Blok Vincent, Ruggio Daniele & Coenen Christopher - 2022 - Journal of Responsible Innovation.
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  24. Autonomous Weapon Systems in Just War Theory Perspective. Maciej - 2022 - Dissertation,
    Please contact me at [email protected] if you are interested in reading a particular chapter or being sent the entire manuscript for private use. -/- The thesis offers a comprehensive argument in favor of a regulationist approach to autonomous weapon systems (AWS). AWS, defined as all military robots capable of selecting or engaging targets without direct human involvement, are an emerging and potentially deeply transformative military technology subject to very substantial ethical controversy. AWS have both their enthusiasts and their detractors, prominently (...)
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  25. Manipulation, Injustice, and Technology.Michael Klenk - 2022 - In Fleur Jongepier & Michael Klenk (eds.), The Philosophy of Online Manipulation. New York: Routledge. pp. 108-131.
    This chapter defends the view that manipulated behaviour is explained by an injustice. Injustices that explain manipulated behaviour need not involve agential features such as intentionality. Therefore, technology can manipulate us, even if technological artefacts like robots, intelligent software agents, or other ‘mere tools’ lack agential features such as intentionality. The chapter thus sketches a comprehensive account of manipulated behaviour related to but distinct from existing accounts of manipulative behaviour. It then builds on that account to defend the possibility that (...)
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  26. The Philosophy of Online Manipulation.Michael Klenk & Fleur Jongepier (eds.) - 2022 - Routledge.
    Are we being manipulated online? If so, is being manipulated by online technologies and algorithmic systems notably different from human forms of manipulation? And what is under threat exactly when people are manipulated online? This volume provides philosophical and conceptual depth to debates in digital ethics about online manipulation. The contributions explore the ramifications of our increasingly consequential interactions with online technologies such as online recommender systems, social media, user-friendly design, micro-targeting, default-settings, gamification, and real-time profiling. The authors in this (...)
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  27. Modern Forms of Surveillance and Control.Dustin Gray - 2022 - Filozofia i Nauka. Studia Filozoficzne I Interdyscyplinarne 10 (Special):213-228.
    In todays advanced society, there is rising concern for data privacy and the diminution thereof on the internet. I argue from the position that for one to enjoy privacy, one must be able to effectively exercise autonomous action. I offer in this paper a survey of the many ways in which persons autonomy is severely limited due to a variety of privacy invasions that come not only through the use of modern technological apparatuses, but as well simply by existing in (...)
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  28. Techno-optimism: an Analysis, an Evaluation and a Modest Defence.John Danaher - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-29.
    What is techno-optimism and how can it be defended? Although techno-optimist views are widely espoused and critiqued, there have been few attempts to systematically analyse what it means to be a techno-optimist and how one might defend this view. This paper attempts to address this oversight by providing a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of techno-optimism. It is argued that techno-optimism is a pluralistic stance that comes in weak and strong forms. These vary along a number of key dimensions but each (...)
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  29. Legitimacy, Authority, and the Political Value of Explanations.Seth Lazar - manuscript
    Here is my thesis (and the outline of this paper). Increasingly secret, complex and inscrutable computational systems are being used to intensify existing power relations, and to create new ones (Section II). To be all-things-considered morally permissible, new, or newly intense, power relations must in general meet standards of procedural legitimacy and proper authority (Section III). Legitimacy and authority constitutively depend, in turn, on a publicity requirement: reasonably competent members of the political community in which power is being exercised must (...)
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  30. From Value Sensitive Design to Values Absorption – Building an Instrument to Analyze Organizational Capabilities for Value-Sensitive Innovation.Jilde Garst & Vincent Blok - 2022 - Journal of Responsible Innovation 1.
    Previous Responsible Innovation (RI) research has provided valuable insights on the value conflicts inherent to societally desirable innovation. By observing the responses of firms to these conflicts, Value-sensitive Absorptive Capacity (VAC) captures the organizational capabilities to become sensitive to these value conflicts and thus, innovate more responsibly. In this article, we construct a survey instrument to assess VAC, based on previous work by CSR and RI scholars. The construct and concurrent validity of the instrument were tested in an empirical study, (...)
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  31. Designed for Death: Controlling Killer Robots.Steven Umbrello - 2022 - Budapest: Trivent Publishing.
    Autonomous weapons systems, often referred to as ‘killer robots’, have been a hallmark of popular imagination for decades. However, with the inexorable advance of artificial intelligence systems (AI) and robotics, killer robots are quickly becoming a reality. These lethal technologies can learn, adapt, and potentially make life and death decisions on the battlefield with little-to-no human involvement. This naturally leads to not only legal but ethical concerns as to whether we can meaningful control such machines, and if so, then how. (...)
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  32. Values for a Post-Pandemic Future.Matthew James Dennis, Georgy Ishmaev, Steven Umbrello & Jeroen van den Hoven (eds.) - 2022 - Cham: Springer.
    This Open Access book shows how value sensitive design (VSD), responsible innovation, and comprehensive engineering can guide the rapid development of technological responses to the COVID-19 crisis. Responding to the ethical challenges of data-driven technologies and other tools requires thinking about values in the context of a pandemic as well as in a post-COVID world. Instilling values must be prioritized from the beginning, not only in the emergency response to the pandemic, but in how to proceed with new societal precedents (...)
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  33. The Modern Origins & Sources of China’s Techtransfer.Yang Immanuel Pachankis - 2022 - International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research 13 (7):18-25.
    The research identified the key element on P. R. China’s incentives in modern history on techtransfer practices. With reviewing on the state funding surrogacy in the natural sciences, the author identified the key militant coercive contracting clauses in the document of the National Natural Science Foundation of China. With its combined workings with the statutory & martial laws, the analysis takes a com- parative culture approach that partially counteracts the work of the “United Front Working Group of the CPC”, which (...)
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  34. The Necessity of Memory for Self-Identity: Locke, Hume, Freud and the Cyber-Self.Shane J. Ralston - 2000 - Cyberphilosophy Journal 1 (1).
    John Locke is often understood as the inaugurator of the modern discussion of personal human identity—a discussion that inevitably falls back on his own theory with its critical reliance on memory. David Hume and Sigmund Freud would later make arguments for what constituted personal identity, both relying, like Locke, on memory, but parting from Locke's company in respect the role that memory played. The purpose of this paper will be to sketch the groundwork for Locke's own theory of personal identity (...)
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  35. Postdigital Prospects for Blockchain-Disrupted Higher Education: Beyond the Theater, Memes and Marketing Hype.Shane J. Ralston - 2020 - Postdigital Science and Education 2 (1):280-288.
    With DLT’s success in driving the development of cryptocurrency (such as Bitcoin), the technology bridged to a myriad of knowledge-based applications, most notably in the areas of commerce, industry and government . In the language of technology sector insiders, these areas were ‘disrupted’ by Blockchain. Some higher education analysts, technology industry insiders and futurists have claimed that Blockchain technology will inevitably disrupt higher education in a similarly dramatic fashion. The aim of this commentary is to introduce a healthy dose of (...)
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  36. Higher Education's Microcredentialing Craze: A Postdigital-Deweyan Critique.Shane J. Ralston - 2021 - Postdigital Science and Education 3 (1):83-101.
    As the value of a university degree plummets, the popularity of digital microcredentials has soared. Similar to recent calls for the early adoption of Blockchain technology, the so-called ‘microcredentialing craze’ could be no more than a fad, marketing hype or another case of ‘learning innovation theater’. Alternatively, the introduction of these compact skills- and competency-based online certificate programs might augur the arrival of a legitimate successor to the four-year university diploma. The thesis of this article is that the craze for (...)
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  37. Postdigital Slacktivism.Shane Ralston - 2022 - Postdigital Science and Education 4 (3).
    This commentary proposes that the concept of slacktivism be enlarged and refined in light of postdigitalism’s Parity Thesis, which states that digital media should not receive undue privilege relative to non-digital media. The term ‘slacktivism’ makes an implicit comparison of activism in digital and non-digital contexts, demeaning the former as less potent, valuable, and impactful than the latter. As a reconstructed concept, postdigital slacktivism would apply equally in both contexts, and most importantly to poorly reasoned activism. After this reformulation, slacktivism’s (...)
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  38. The Struggle for AI’s Recognition: Understanding the Normative Implications of Gender Bias in AI with Honneth’s Theory of Recognition.Rosalie Waelen & Michał Wieczorek - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2).
    AI systems have often been found to contain gender biases. As a result of these gender biases, AI routinely fails to adequately recognize the needs, rights, and accomplishments of women. In this article, we use Axel Honneth’s theory of recognition to argue that AI’s gender biases are not only an ethical problem because they can lead to discrimination, but also because they resemble forms of misrecognition that can hurt women’s self-development and self-worth. Furthermore, we argue that Honneth’s theory of recognition (...)
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  39. El aspecto valorativo de la creación científica. Anuario.José Ramón Fabelo Corzo - 1987 - Problemas Actuales de la Filosofía Marxista-Leninista 1 (1):28-42.
    El trabajo busca el esclarecer el papel de los factores valorativos en el proceso de creación científica. El enfoque axiológico de la creación exige un doble análisis; por un lado, la investigación de los factores valorativos de índole socio-general, es decir, la influencia del proceso de surgimiento y desarrollo de los valores sociales sobre el proceso creativo y, por otro, el análisis de la influencia de los factores valorativos sobre el sujeto directo o inmediato de la creación. En otras palabras, (...)
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  40. What Does It Mean to Be a Digital Nomad?James Brusseau - 2022 - Turkish Policy Quarterly 20 (No 4. Winter).
    Digital nomadism is described geographically, technologically, and existentially.
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  41. “Ecology and Technological Enframement: Cities, Networks and the COVID-19 Pandemic” (Alice Cortés as Second Author).Matthew Crippen - 2022 - In Reclaiming the City.
    Though past commentators have attacked cities as corrupt, dirty places, it is almost too obvious to need stating that a sustainable future depends on them. This is because most people live in cities and because the streamlined use of urban space brings a wide range of efficiencies. Simultaneously, urban living and associated technologies may impact psychology such that people see humans and their cities as outside of nature, which has been shown to reduce concern for the wellbeing of the planet. (...)
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  42. Materialized Oppression in Medical Tools and Technologies.Shen-yi Liao & Vanessa Carbonell - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics:1-15.
    It is well-known that racism is encoded into the social practices and institutions of medicine. Less well-known is that racism is encoded into the material artifacts of medicine. We argue that many medical devices are not merely biased, but materialize oppression. An oppressive device exhibits a harmful bias that reflects and perpetuates unjust power relations. Using pulse oximeters and spirometers as case studies, we show how medical devices can materialize oppression along various axes of social difference, including race, gender, class, (...)
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  43. Regulation of Genetically Engineered (GE) Mosquitoes as a Public Health Tool: A Public Health Ethics Analysis.Zahra Meghani - 2022 - Globalization and Health 1 (18):1-14.
    In recent years, genetically engineered (GE) mosquitoes have been proposed as a public health measure against the high incidence of mosquito-borne diseases among the poor in regions of the global South. While uncertainties as well as risks for humans and ecosystems are entailed by the open-release of GE mosquitoes, a powerful global health governance non-state organization is funding the development of and advocating the use of those bio-technologies as public health tools. In August 2016, the US Food and Drug Agency (...)
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  44. Science is so Costly Because of Wars.Minh-Hoang Nguyen - manuscript
    Investment in science has led human civilization to many achievements in science and technology, including military weapons. War – the worst scenario of a conflict – always leads to deaths and devastation. Weapons do not destroy things and kill people by themselves, but they are used and controlled by the hands of humans. No matter how advanced they are, they are still tools that serve humans’ interests. Conflicts need to be resolved through humane approaches aided by science and technology developments. (...)
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  45. Reconciling Regulation with Scientific Autonomy in Dual-Use Research.Nicholas G. Evans, Michael J. Selgelid & Robert Mark Simpson - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (1):72-94.
    In debates over the regulation of communication related to dual-use research, the risks that such communication creates must be weighed against against the value of scientific autonomy. The censorship of such communication seems justifiable in certain cases, given the potentially catastrophic applications of some dual-use research. This conclusion however, gives rise to another kind of danger: that regulators will use overly simplistic cost-benefit analysis to rationalize excessive regulation of scientific research. In response to this, we show how institutional design principles (...)
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  46. For the Common Good: Philosophical Foundations of Research Ethics.Alex John London - 2021 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    The foundations of research ethics are riven with fault lines emanating from a fear that if research is too closely connected to weighty social purposes an imperative to advance the common good through research will justify abrogating the rights and welfare of study participants. The result is an impoverished conception of the nature of research, an incomplete focus on actors who bear important moral responsibilities, and a system of ethics and oversight highly attuned to the dangers of research but largely (...)
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  47. The Moral Risks of Online Shaming.Krista Thomason - 2021 - In Oxford Handbook of Digital Ethics. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    Shaming behavior on social media has been the cause of concern in recent public discourse. Supporters of online shaming argue that it is an important tool in helping to make social media and online communities safer and more welcoming to traditionally marginalized groups. Objections to shaming often sound like high-minded calls for civility, but I argue that shaming behavior poses serious risks. Here I identify moral and political risks of online shaming. In particular, shaming threatens to undermine our commitment to (...)
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  48. Carbon Capture and Storage: Where Should the World Store CO₂? It’s a Moral Dilemma.Kian Mintz-Woo - 2021 - The Conversation.
    [Newspaper opinion] To give carbon storage sites the greatest chance of success, it makes sense to develop them in places where the geology has been thoroughly explored and where there is lots of relevant expertise. This would imply pumping carbon into underground storage sites in northern Europe, the Middle East and the US, where companies have spent centuries looking for and extracting fossil fuels. On the other hand, it might be important to develop storage sites in economies where the current (...)
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  49. A sociedade contemporânea à luz da ética informacional.João Moraes & Rafael Testa - 2020 - Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences 42 (3).
    Qual o lugar da filosofia nos dias atuais? Diante das inúmeras respostas possíveis a esta questão, nos debruçaremos em alguns tópicos que podemos inserir na chamada Ética Informacional, um ramo de investigação filosófico-interdisciplinar relativamente recente que discute problemas oriundos da relação ser humano/tecnologias digitais. Temas como privacidade informacional, arrogância epistêmica e divisão digital serão discutidos e relacionados, com o intuito de ilustrar o papel da filosofia na compreensão da complexidade inerente às dinâmicas sociais no contexto da sociedade da informação. Argumentaremos (...)
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  50. Aligning Patient’s Ideas of a Good Life with Medically Indicated Therapies in Geriatric Rehabilitation Using Smart Sensors.Cristian Timmermann, Frank Ursin, Christopher Predel & Florian Steger - 2021 - Sensors 21 (24):8479.
    New technologies such as smart sensors improve rehabilitation processes and thereby increase older adults’ capabilities to participate in social life, leading to direct physical and mental health benefits. Wearable smart sensors for home use have the additional advantage of monitoring day-to-day activities and thereby identifying rehabilitation progress and needs. However, identifying and selecting rehabilitation priorities is ethically challenging because physicians, therapists, and caregivers may impose their own personal values leading to paternalism. Therefore, we develop a discussion template consisting of a (...)
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