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  1. Modal Structuralism and Theism.Silvia Jonas - forthcoming - In Fiona Ellis (ed.), New Models of Religious Understanding. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Drawing an analogy between modal structuralism about mathematics and theism, I o er a structuralist account that implicitly de nes theism in terms of three basic relations: logical and metaphysical priority, and epis- temic superiority. On this view, statements like `God is omniscient' have a hypothetical and a categorical component. The hypothetical component provides a translation pattern according to which statements in theistic language are converted into statements of second-order modal logic. The categorical component asserts the logical possibility of the (...)
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  2. Restating Augustinian Recipe to Divine Foreknowledge-Libertarian Freewill Dilemma and its Theodical Implications.Adeboye Godwin - manuscript
    Restating Augustinian Recipe to Divine Foreknowledge-Libertarian Freewill Dilemma and its Theodical Implications Abstract The divine foreknowledge-freewill dilemma has been the focus of much recent philosophico-theological discourse, even though the problem is centuries old. In the attempt to solve the dilemma, there have been some modifications on the traditional definition of divine foreknowledge. Some of the philosophical attempts to solve the dilemma include Molinism, Boethianism, Ochamism, Opentheism and others. While these attempts are noteworthy, their basic flaws lie in their methodologies which (...)
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  3. Metaphysics and the Tri-Personal God, by William Hasker.Daniel Howard-Snyder - 2015 - Faith and Philosophy 32 (1):106-115.
    Here are some questions about Hasker's "social trinitarian" metaphysics of the Trinity.
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  4. Critiques of God Edited by Peter Angeles. --.Peter Adam Angeles - 1976 - Prometheus Books.
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  5. When The Evidence Is Not Needed.Giovanni Mion - 2013 - The Reasoner 7 (11):128-129.
    In “Where’s The Evidence?” (Philosophy Now. Issue 78, 2010), Michael Antony wonders why the so called ‘New Atheists’ (for example, Dawkins or Hitchens) employ evidential principles to argue that religious belief is irrational, but they are unwilling to apply these same principles to atheism and accordingly, they contend that given the absence of compelling evidence in favor of the existence of God, atheism ought to be preferred by default. In particular, in Antony’s reconstruction, New Atheists contend that they do not (...)
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  6. Divine Maximal Beauty: A Reply to Jon Robson.Mark Ian Thomas Robson - 2013 - Religious Studies (2):1-17.
    In this article I reply to Jon Robson's objections to my argument that God does not contain any possible worlds. I had argued that ugly possible worlds clearly compromise God's beauty. Robson argues that I failed to show that possible worlds can be subject to aesthetic evaluation, and that even if they were it could be the case that ugliness might contribute to God's overall beauty. In reply I try to show that possible worlds are aesthetically evaluable by arguing that (...)
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  7. Does God Repent?Rik Peels - forthcoming - In Jonathan L. Kvanvig (ed.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion Vol 7.
    Several passages in documents that have authority for religious believers, such as the Bible, suggest that God sometimes repents. Few philosophers and theologians, however, have embraced the thought that God repents. The primary reason for rejecting this idea seems to be that repenting conflicts with being perfectly good and being omniscient, properties that are characteristically ascribed to God. I suggest that the issue can well be approached in terms of a paradox: it seems simultaneously (i) that God repents (this is (...)
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  8. Schellenberg on Propositional Faith.Daniel Howard-Snyder - 2013 - Religious Studies (2):181-194.
    This paper assesses J. L. Schellenberg’s account of propositional faith and, in light of that assessment, sketches an alternative that avoids certain objections and coheres better with Schellenberg’s aims.
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  9. Holy Fear.Rebecca DeYoung - 2012 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 86 (1):1-22.
    In this essay I will contend that there is something called holy fear, which expresses love for God. First I distinguish holy fear from certain types of unholy fear and from the type of fear regulated by the virtue of courage. Next, relying on the work of Thomas Aquinas, I consider the roles love and power play in holy and unholy fear and extend his analysis of the passion of fear by analogy to the capital vices. I conclude that this (...)
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  10. Agapeic Theism: Personifying Evidence and Moral Struggle.Paul K. Moser - 2010 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 2 (2):1 - 18.
    The epistemology of monotheism offered by philosophers has given inadequate attention to the kind of foundational evidence to be expected of a personal God whose moral character is ’agapeic’, or perfectly loving, toward all other agents. This article counters this deficiency with the basis of a theistic epistemology that accommodates the distinctive moral character of a God worthy of worship. It captures the widely neglected ’agonic’, or struggle-oriented, character of a God who seeks, by way of personal witness and intentional (...)
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  11. Swinburne on the Simplicity of Theism.Bruce Langtry - 2011 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 3 (2):409 - 426.
    This paper argues that (1) Richard Swinburne’s general account of the simplicity of empirical hypotheses fails because it involves a deeply problematic notion of postulating a property, while there is a wide range of hypotheses where the assessment of simplicity rests entirely on the number and kinds of postulated properties, (2) Swinburne’s main argument in ’The Christian God’ for the simplicity of theism, the one based on considerations about pure limitless intentional power, is significantly weaker than he seems to believe. (...)
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  12. In Defence of Anthropomorphic Theism.Peter Forrest - 2011 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 3 (1):105 - 122.
    I reply to seven objections to anthropomorphic theism: (1) That anthropomorphic theism is idolatrous. In reply I rely on the concept/conception distinction. (2) That faith requires certainty. In reply I argue that full belief may be based on probable inference. (3) That the truly infinite is incomprehensible. In reply I distinguish two senses of knowing what you mean. (4) "You Kant say that!" In reply I distinguish shallow from deep Kantianism. (5) "Shall Old Aquinas be forgot?" In reply I discuss (...)
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  13. Theism in Historical Perspective.Timothy Chappell - 2011 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 3 (1):123 - 138.
    I will discuss some familiar problems in the philosophy of religion which arise for theistic belief. I will argue that it may be most worthwhile to focus on a particular sort of theistic belief, capital-T ’Theism’, central to which is a particular conception both of God and of the believer’s relation to God. At the heart of ’Theism’ in this sense is the continuing experience of God, both individual and collective. Compared with the evidence for Theistic belief that is provided (...)
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  14. The Guilty Mind.William E. Mann - 2009 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 1 (1):41 - 63.
    The doctrine of mens rea can be expressed in this way: MRP: If A is culpable for performing phi, then A performs phi intentionally in circumstances in which it is impermissible to perform phi. The Sermon on the Mount suggests the following principle: SMP: If A intends to perform phi in circumstances in which it would be impermissible for A to perform phi, then A’s intending to perform phi makes A as culpable as A would be were A to perform (...)
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  15. Beauty and Metaphysics.William Hasker - 2009 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 1 (1):65 - 76.
    It is shown through examples ranging from Parmenides and Plato to Whitehead and Wittgenstein that beauty is central among the values that have made metaphysical theories appealing and credible. A common attitude would be that the aesthetic properties of metaphysical theories may be important for effective presentation but are irrelevant to the cognitive value of the theories. This however is question-begging, since it assumes without argument that ultimate reality is indifferent to ’value considerations’ such as beauty. If on the contrary (...)
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  16. The Pagan Dogma of the Absolute Unchangeableness of God.Rem B. Edwards - 1978 - Religious Studies 14 (3):305 - 313.
    In his Edifying Discourses , Soren Kierkegaard published a sermon entitled ‘The Unchangeableness of God’ in which he reiterated the dogma which dominated Catholic, Protestant and even Jewish expressions of classical supernaturalist theology from the first century A.D. until the advent of process theology in the twentieth century. The dogma that as a perfect being, God must be totally unchanging in every conceivable respect was expressed by Kierkegaard in such ways as: He changes all, Himself unchanged. When everything seems stable (...)
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  17. Hume on Divine Amorality.Jerry L. Walls - 1990 - Religious Studies 26 (2):257 - 266.
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  18. Middle Knowledge and Human Freedom.David Basinger - 1987 - Faith and Philosophy 4 (3):330-336.
    The concept of middle knowledge---God’s knowledge of what would in fact happen in every conceivable situation---is just beginning to receive the attention it deserves, For example, it is just now becoming clear to many that classical theism requires the affirmation of middle knowledge. But this concept is also coming under increasing criticism. The most significant of these, I believe, has been developed in a recent discussion by William Hasker, in which he argues that the concept of a true counterfactual of (...)
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  19. Review of David O'Connor, God and Inscrutable Evil. [REVIEW]Daniel Howard-Snyder - 2001 - Philosophical Review.
    This is a critical review of David O'Connor's book, God and Inscrutable Evil.
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Monotheism
  1. Metaphysics and the Tri-Personal God, by William Hasker.Daniel Howard-Snyder - 2015 - Faith and Philosophy 32 (1):106-115.
    Here are some questions about Hasker's "social trinitarian" metaphysics of the Trinity.
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  2. My Understanding of the Biblical God: A Brief 'Transreligious' Reflection.Richard Oxenberg - 2015 - Interreligious Insight 25.
    In this brief paper I reflect upon the Bible's portrayal of God as pointing beyond itself toward a notion of divinity many religions can embrace, but one only imperfectly expressed in the biblical portrait itself. I argue that a fuller recognition of the *fallibility* of the biblical portrait can lead us to a deeper and more satisfying appreciation of the Bible itself.
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  3. Christopher Stead.Catherine Rowett - 2013 - Studia Patristica 53 (1):17-30.
    Professor Christopher Stead was Ely Professor of Divinity from 1971 until his retirement in 1980 and one of the great contributors to the Oxford Patristic Conferences for many years. In this paper I reflect on his work in Patristics, and I attempt to understand how his interests diverged from the other major contributors in the same period, and how they were formed by his philosophical milieu and the spirit of the age. As a case study to illustrate and diagnose his (...)
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  4. Is God Good by Definition?Graham Oppy - 1992 - Religious Studies 28 (4):467 - 474.
    As a matter of historical fact, most philosophers and theologians who have defended traditional theistic views have been moral realists. Some "divine command" theorists have held that the good is constituted by the content of divine approval -i.e. that things are good because, and insofar as, they have divine approval. However, even amongst those theists who hold that the good is independently constituted -i.e. those who hold that God's pattern of approval is explained by the fact that he approves of (...)
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Polytheism
  1. ONT Vol 6.Paul Bali - manuscript
    contents -/- i. short review: The Intern -/- ii. the confusion of Chinatown -/- iii. we'll remember water, in Theology -/- iv. Respironics versus ResMed -/- v. i'd bet my life, my home and happiness -/- vi. hypothetic as a deaththreat -/- vii. the Mad Max deity -/- viii. they'd kill my rat, not heal him .
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  2. EDUCATION AS MYTHIC IMAGE.Gregory Nixon - 2002 - Spring: A Journal of Archetype and Culture 69:91-113.
    Mythopoetry, the imagistic voice of the muses which manifests in myth and natural poetry, has been invoked as an impression of ideal curriculum with which to cherish intimate, vital experience (and to oppose its exile from educational life). In this statement, I intend to see through the pleasant surface of the label, mythopoetry, to see what image may lie just out of sight, beyond the "inspired writing" that mythopoetry implies. Beyond words themselves, meaning is found in sound and in expressive (...)
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  3. Plotinian Henadology.Edward P. Butler - 2016 - Kronos 5:143-159.
    Plotinus’ famous treatise against the Gnostics (33), together with contemporary and thematically related treatises on Intelligible Beauty (31), on Number (34), and on Free Will and the Will of the One (39), can be seen as providing the essential components of a Plotinian defense of polytheism against conceptual moves that, while associated for him primarily with Gnostic sectarians overlapping with Platonic philosophical circles, will become typical of monotheism in its era of hegemony. When Plotinus’ Gnostics ‘contract’ divinity into a single (...)
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  4. Two Peas in a Single Polytheistic Pod: Richard Swinburne and John Hick.Daniel Howard-Snyder - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Research 41:17-32.
    A descriptive polytheist thinks there are at least two gods. John Hick and Richard Swinburne are descriptive polytheists. In this respect, they are like Thomas Aquinas and many other theists. What sets Swinburne and Hick apart from Aquinas, however, is that unlike him they are normative polytheists. That is, Swinburne and Hick think that it is right that we, or at least some of us, worship more than one god. However, the evidence available to me shows that only Swinburne, and (...)
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  5. Polytheism and the Euthyphro.Edward P. Butler - 2016 - Walking the Worlds: A Biannual Journal of Polytheism and Spiritwork 2 (2).
    In this reading of the Euthyphro, Socrates and Euthyphro are seen less in a primordial conflict between reason and devotion, than as sincere Hellenic polytheists engaged in an inquiry based upon a common intuition that, in addition to the irreducible agency of the Gods, there is also some irreducible intelligible content to holiness. This reading is supported by the fact that Euthyphro does not claim the authority of revelation for his decision to prosecute his father, but rather submits it to (...)
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  6. The Metaphysics of Polytheism in Proclus.Edward P. Butler - 2004 - Dissertation, New School University
    This dissertation seeks to demonstrate that Proclus articulates a metaphysics not merely compatible with his polytheism, but to which in fact polytheism is integral. For Proclus the One Itself, which according to the First Hypothesis of the Parmenides neither is, nor is one, is instead as each henad, that is, as each God. The henads or Gods thus form a multiplicity unlike any other. Ontic multiplicities always exhibit mediation, in accord with a logic subordinating the many to the one. Correlatively, (...)
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  7. The Second Intelligible Triad and the Intelligible-Intellective Gods.Edward P. Butler - 2010 - Méthexis 23:137-157.
    Continuing the systematic henadological interpretation of Proclus' Platonic Theology begun in "The Intelligible Gods in the Platonic Theology of Proclus" (Methexis 21, 2008, pp. 131-143), the present article treats of the basic characteristics of intelligible-intellective (or noetico-noeric) multiplicity and its roots in henadic individuality. Intelligible-intellective multiplicity (the hypostasis of Life) is at once a universal organization of Being in its own right, and also transitional between the polycentric henadic manifold, in which each individual is immediately productive of absolute Being, and (...)
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Pantheism
  1. Das mächtige Niedere und das machtlose Höchste. Über den Anthropomorphismus und das Werden Gottes in Max Schelers Spätphilosophie.Maximilian Runge - manuscript
    Max Scheler's concept of the “becoming god” and its implication of mankind as his “ally” has been a long-time target of relentless criticism. The strongest objections were made mainly against the tendency of overestimating the human share in the affairs of being, culminating in the groundless self-idealization of mankind. Put aside these fierce reactions, Scheler's notion of “being in progress” however seems to be accurate overall: If the spheres of being can be described as matter, life and spirit, and the (...)
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  2. Pantheism and Atheism in Schelling's Freiheitsschrift.Ashley Vaught - 2011 - In Anthony Paul Smith Daniel Whistler (ed.), After the Postsecular and the Postmodern: New Essays in the Continental Philosophy of Religion. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 64-80.
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  3. Review: Saving God From Saving God. [REVIEW]Andrew Chignell & Dean Zimmerman - 2012 - Books and Culture 15 (3).
    Mark Johnston’s book, Saving God (Princeton University Press, 2010) has two main goals, one negative and the other positive: (1) to eliminate the gods of the major Western monotheisms (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) as candidates for the role of “the Highest One”; (2) to introduce the real Highest One, a panentheistic deity worthy of devotion and capable of extending to us the grace needed to transform us from inwardly-turned sinners to practitioners of agape. In this review, we argue that Johnston’s (...)
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  4. Raymond Ruyer, la Biologie Et la Théologie Naturelle [Raymond Ruyer, Biology, and Natural Theology].Philippe Gagnon - 2012 - In Ronny Desmet & Michel Weber (eds.), Chromatikon VIII: Annales de la philosophie en procès — Yearbook of Philosophy in Process. Éditions Chromatika.
    This is the outline: Introduction : le praticien d’une science-philosophie; Épiphénoménisme retourné et subjectivité délocalisée; Dieu est-il jamais inféré par la science ?; La question du panthéisme; Le pilotage axiologique et la parabole mécaniste; L'unité domaniale comme ce qui reste en dehors de la science.
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  5. Hollows of Memory: From Individual Consciousness to Panexperientialism & Beyond.Gregory Nixon - 2010 - QuantumDream.
    The question under discussion is metaphysical and truly elemental. It emerges in two aspects – how did we come to be conscious of our own existence, and, as a deeper corollary, do existence and awareness necessitate each other? I am bold enough to explore these questions and I invite you to come along; I make no claim to have discovered absolute answers. However, I do believe I have created here a compelling interpretation. You’ll have to judge for yourself.
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  6. Daniel A. Dombrowski. A Platonic Philosophy of Religion: A Process Perspective. [REVIEW]Yujin Nagasawa - 2009 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 1 (1):177 - 181.
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  7. Pantheism, Quantification and Mereology.Graham Oppy - 1997 - The Monist 80 (2):320-336.
    I provide a classification of varieties of pantheism. I argue that there are two different kinds of commitments that pantheists have. On the one hand, there is an ontological commitment to the existence of a sum of all things. On the other hand, there is an ideological commitment: either collectively or distributively, the sum of all things is divine.
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  8. Berkeley's Pantheistic Discourse.Stephen H. Daniel - 2001 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 49 (3):179-194.
    Berkeley's immaterialism has more in common with views developed by Henry More, the mathematician Joseph Raphson, John Toland, and Jonathan Edwards than those of thinkers with whom he is commonly associated (e.g., Malebranche and Locke). The key for recognizing their similarities lies in appreciating how they understand St. Paul's remark that in God "we live and move and have our being" as an invitation to think to God as the space of discourse in which minds and ideas are identified. This (...)
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Panentheism
  1. Judaism, Panentheism and Spinoza’s Intellectual Love of God.Richard Mather - 2017
    It is a popular misconception that Spinoza was a pantheist or even an atheist. He was not. Like the medieval Kabbalists, Spinoza was a panentheist.
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The Number of Gods, Misc
  1. Metaphysics and the Tri-Personal God, by William Hasker.Daniel Howard-Snyder - 2015 - Faith and Philosophy 32 (1):106-115.
    Here are some questions about Hasker's "social trinitarian" metaphysics of the Trinity.
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