Virtue Ethics

Edited by Jason Kawall (Colgate University)
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  1. Modern Views on Virtue Ethics.Carmen Dobre, Rosalind Hursthouse, G. E. M. Anscombe, Jeremy Bentham, Aristotle, Daniel Russell, Alasdair MacIntyre & John and Mendus Susan Horton - 2021 - Sofia Philosophical Review 14 (1):72-86.
    Abstract: This paper analyzes some influential ideas in virtue ethics. Alasdair MacIntyre, in his work After Virtue, and Elizabeth Anscombe, in his controversial essay “Modern Moral Philosophy”, brought fresh ideas into moral philosophy of their time changing views on contemporary morality. They strongly influenced moral philosophers who then followed their ideas. The two philosophers criticized contemporary moral philosophies such as emotivism, utilitarianism, deontology. Elizabeth Anscombe criticized also the use of the concepts of duty and moral obligation in the absence of (...)
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  2. (Introduction) Metodo 8. 2: Positive Feelings on the Border Between Phenomenology, Psychology and Virtue Ethics.Roberta Guccinelli - 2020 - Metodo. International Studies in Phenomenology and Philosophy 8 (2):7-28.
    The papers collected in this issue address diferent topics at play in the contemporary debate on positive feeling and emotion by virtue of both their primary function in everyday life and their embedded structure. Within this issue, specifc attention has been given to the intertwining of positive feeling and ethical issues according to diferent approaches whose goals consist in providing a description and clarifcation of the phenomena in question. The contributions gathered here give us a clear idea of the variety (...)
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  3. (Contents) Metodo. International Studies in Phenomenology and Philosophy (Vol. 8 Num. 2): Positive Feelings on the Border Between Phenomenology, Psychology and Virtue Ethics.Roberta Guccinelli - 2020 - Metodo International Studies in Phenomenology and Philosophy 8 (2):1-231.
    The papers collected in this issue address diferent topics at play in the contemporary debate on positive feeling and emotion by virtue of both their primary function in everyday life and their embedded structure. Within this issue, specifc attention has been given to the intertwining of positive feeling and ethical issues according to diferent approaches whose goals consist in providing a description and clarifcation of the phenomena in question. The contributions gathered here give us a clear idea of the variety (...)
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  4. Gardens and the Good Life in Confucianism and Daoism.Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - In Laura D’Olimpio, Panos Paris & Aidan Thompson (eds.), Educating Character Through the Arts. London: Routledge.
    Creating and caring for a garden is a long-term project whose success requires commitment and devotion and love and proper performance of a range of activities that involve virtues and sensibilities like attentiveness, carefulness, humility, imaginativeness, and sensitivity to the natures and needs of plants and animals. In this chapter, I elaborate this conception of gardens and explore its relationship to artistic activities, like composing poetry or performing music. My focus are Confucianism and Daosim and their accounts of the relationships (...)
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  5. Specificità e pluralità della Virtue Ethics.Angelo Campodonico - 2018 - Ragion Pratica: Rivista semestrale 50:161-178..
    The article concerns the specificity of contemporary Virtue Ethics, its main problems and its main streams.
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  6. Il ruolo sintetico della saggezza pratica.Angelo Campodonico - 2018 - Acta Philosophica:56-77..
    The topic concerns the role of phronesis or practical wisdom in ethics and epistemology.
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  7. Towards a More Credible Principle of Beneficence.Prasasti Pandit - 2021 - Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research 38 (3):407–422.
    My objective of this paper is to suggest and workout a more credible form of the Principle of Beneficence from the common essential elements of the three major ethical theories (Deontology, Utilitarianism and Virtue Ethics) that will try to overcome the over-demanding objection of Utilitarianism and the rigorism of Kant’s Deontology. After analyzing these three moral systems, I find that beneficence lies within the very essence of humanity. Human beings are superior to other creatures in the world due to rationality (...)
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  8. The Nature of Temptation and its Role in the Development of Moral Virtue.Kevin Snider - 2021 - Dissertation, Middlesex University
    In the last 70 years there has been an explosion of philosophical and theological work on the nature of virtue and the process of virtue formation. Yet philosophers and theologians have paid little attention to the phenomenon of temptation and its role in developing virtue. Indeed, little analytic work has been done on the nature of temptation. This study aims to fill this gap in moral philosophy and theology by offering an analytic moral conception of temptation and explicating its connection (...)
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  9. Solving the Puzzle of Partiality.Sungwoo Um - 2021 - Journal of Social Philosophy 52 (3):362-376.
    Journal of Social Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  10. Nancy E. Snow (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Virtue. [REVIEW]Matt Dougherty - 2021 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 18:562-565.
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  11. Jennifer Cole Wright (Ed.), Humility. [REVIEW]Cathy Mason - 2021 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 18:550-553.
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  12. The Defective Character Solution to the Non-Identity Problem.Ben Bramble - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy 118 (9):504-520.
    The non-identity problem is that some actions seem morally wrong even though, by affecting future people’s identities, they are worse for nobody. In this paper, I further develop and defend a lesser-known solution to the problem, one according to which when such actions are wrong, it is not because of what they do or produce, but rather just because of why they were performed. In particular, I argue that the actions in non-identity cases are wrong just when and because they (...)
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  13. Charlie Kurth, The Anxious Mind: An Investigation Into the Varieties and Virtues of Anxiety. [REVIEW]Daniel Kelly - 2021 - Ethics 132 (1):249-255.
    Kurth wants us to understand and appreciate our anxiety more than we typically do. His concise and crisply written monograph makes a good case that we should. It deepens our understanding of what anxiety is, and of how it animates different facets of our mental and moral lives. The case he builds that, roughly, anxiety is one of the brain’s ways of affectively signaling and responding to uncertainty is clearly argued and meticulously organized. Kurth hits the targets he sets for (...)
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  14. Virtue Ethics as Political Philosophy: The Structure of Ethical Theory in Early Chinese Philosophy.Yang Xiao - 2015 - In Michael Slote & Lorraine Besser-Jones (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Virtue Ethics. Routledge. pp. 471-489.
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  15. Wollstonecraft’s Feminist Virtue Ethics: Friendship and the Good Society.Justin P. Holt - 2021 - Academia Letters 717 (717):1-6.
    This paper will show that Mary Wollstonecraft developed a modern feminist version of virtue ethics. Virtue ethics is an all-encompassing moral theory which holds that the best life for individuals is commensurate with a good society. Simply, self-interest and our public duties are argued as identical and not at odds when we realize what is truly good for ourselves and for others. In the Western philosophic cannon, the most common version of virtue ethics is Aristotle’s, with the Nicomachean Ethics as (...)
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  16. Book Review: Rebecca DeYoung - Glittering Vices: A New Look at the Seven Deadly Sins and Their Remedies. [REVIEW]Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - Journal of Moral Philosophy.
    A review of Rebecca DeYoung's book, "Glittering Vices: A New Look at the Seven Deadly Sins and Their Remedies", 2nd ed.
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  17. Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics and Protestantism.David S. Sytsma - 2021 - Academia Letters 1650:1-8.
    This is a brief introduction to the origin and development of Protestant ethical works in the tradition of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics.
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  18. Narratives of Hope: A Philosophical Study of Moral Conversion.Alfredo Mac Laughlin - 2008 - Dissertation, Loyola University, Chicago
    This work explores the philosophical implications of moral conversion: the fact that, at some point in their lives, people may change their deep-seated convictions, attitudes and patterns of action regarding moral matters in rather unexpected and surprising ways. The fact of moral conversion and the common characteristics of the process are established through the analysis of a compilation of stories of moral conversion from various sources and settings. This analysis yields the definition of conversion as an “existential change” in the (...)
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  19. A Moral Defense of Prostitution.Rob Lovering - 2021 - New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Is prostitution immoral? In this book, Rob Lovering argues that it is not. Offering a careful and thorough critique of the many―twenty, to be exact―arguments for prostitution's immorality, Lovering leaves no claim unchallenged. Drawing on the relevant literature along with his own creative thinking, Lovering offers a clear and reasoned moral defense of the world's oldest profession. Lovering demonstrates convincingly, on both consequentialist and nonconsequentialist grounds, that there is nothing immoral about prostitution between consenting adults. The legal implications of this (...)
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  20. Practical Structure and Moral Skill.Joshua Shepherd - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly.
    I argue that moral skill is limited and precarious. It is limited because global moral skill – the capacity for morally excellent behavior within an über action domain, such as the domain of living, or of all-things-considered decisions, or the same kind of capacity applied across a superset of more specific action domains – is not to be found in humans. It is precarious because relatively local moral skill, while possible, is prone to misfire. My arguments depend upon the diversity (...)
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  21. Ressentiment.Andrew Huddleston - 2021 - Ethics 131 (4):670-696.
    Nietzsche famously discusses a psychological condition he calls ressentiment, a condition involving toxic, vengeful anger. I offer a free-standing theory in philosophical psychology of the familiar...
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  22. Nietzsche’s Compassion.Vasfi O. Özen - 2021 - Nietzsche-Studien 50 (1):244-274.
    Nietzsche is known for his penetrating critique of Mitleid. He seems to be critical of all compassion but at times also seems to praise a different form of compassion, which he refers to as “our compassion” and contrasts it with “your compassion”. Some commentators have interpreted this to mean that Nietzsche’s criticism is not as unconditional as it may seem – that he does not condemn compassion entirely. I disagree and contend that even though Nietzsche appears to speak favorably of (...)
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  23. Vocation to Love: Supererogation in Aquinas.James Dominic Rooney - forthcoming - International Journal of Systematic Theology.
    Thomas Aquinas’ account of religious vocation has been interpreted as involving a qualified duty, where ordinary people fall short of living up to the moral ideal of becoming a monk or nun. Such an account of religious vocation makes a hash of Aquinas’ thought and misses important aspects of his ethics. Aquinas holds that religious life is praiseworthy, but not morally required, because there are multiple sources of normativity. I conclude by proposing that, while elements of Aquinas’ notion of supererogation (...)
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  24. Paradoxien der Kontingenz. Alasdair MacIntyre und Hans Blumenberg auf der Suche nach einer neuen gesellschaftlichen Verbindlichkeit.Maximilian Runge - manuscript
    Since at least Luhmann, contingency – whose conceivability must be reduced to a great extent by means of “reduction of complexity“ in order to assure stability of social and psychological systems – has been an important topos of sociological theory. What is a genuinely philosophical approach of the past decades, on the other hand, is the idea of its conceivability as being conducive for the purpose of individual autonomy. If both assumptions held equally true, collectivity and mature individuality would effectively (...)
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  25. Iris Murdoch and the Power of Love.Anil Gomes - 2019 - TLS.
    Anil Gomes considers Murdoch's view that morality is real and that, with the right conceptual resources, we can perceive it.
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  26. The Guise of Good Reason.Ulf Hlobil - 2021 - Philosophical Explorations 24 (2):204-224.
    The paper argues for a version of the Guise of the Good thesis, namely the claim that if someone acts as the result of practical reasoning, then she takes her premises to jointly provide a sufficient and undefeated reason for her action. I argue for this by showing, first, that it is an application of Boghossian's Taking Condition on inference to practical reasoning and, second, that the motivations for the Taking Condition for theoretical reasoning carry over to practical reasoning. I (...)
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  27. Character, Corruption, and ‘Cultures of Speed’ in Higher Education.Ian Kidd - forthcoming - In Philosophical Perspectives on the Contemporary University: In Shadows and Light. Springer.
    This chapter offers a character-based criticism of ‘the culture of speed’ condemned by the Canadian literary scholars, Maggie Berg and Barbara Seeber in their influential polemic, The Slow Professor. Central to their criticisms of speed and praise of slowness are, I argue, substantive concerns about their effects on moral and intellectual character. I argue that a full reckoning of the wrongs of academic cultures of speed must include appreciation of the ways they promote a host of accelerative vices and failings (...)
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  28. On the Analogy Between Business and Sport: Towards an Aristotelian Response to The Market Failures Approach to Business Ethics.Matthew Sinnicks - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-13.
    This paper explores the notion that business calls for an adversarial ethic, akin to that of sport. On this view, because of their competitive structure, both sport and business call for behaviours that are contrary to ‘ordinary morality’, and yet are ultimately justified because of the goods they facilitate. I develop three objections to this analogy. Firstly, there is an important qualitative difference between harms risked voluntarily and harms risked involuntarily. Secondly, the goods achieved by adversarial relationships in sport go (...)
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  29. The Virtues of Economic Rescue Legislation: Distributive Justice, Civil Law, and the Troubled Asset Relief Program.Henry S. Kuo - 2021 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 8 (1):305-329.
    This study constitutes an ethical analysis through the lens of distributive justice in the case of the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP), which was enacted in the midst of the Great Recession of 2007–2009. It begins by engaging with the visions of justice constructed by John Rawls and Robert Nozick, using their insights to locate the injustices of TARP according to their moral imaginations. However, this study argues that Rawls’ and Nozick’s theories of justice primarily envision the nature of law (...)
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  30. Why You Cannot Make People Better by Telling Them What is Good.Ulf Hlobil - 2020 - European Journal of Philosophy 28 (4):986-996.
    So-called optimists about moral testimony argue, against pessimists, that, ceteris paribus, we ought to accept and act in accordance with trustworthy, pure moral testimony. I argue that even if we grant this, we need to explain why moral testimony cannot make us more virtuous. I offer an explanation that appeals to the fact that we cannot share inferential abilities via testimony. This explanation is compatible with the core commitments of optimism, but it also allows us to see what is right (...)
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  31. What Does Character Education Mean to Character Education Experts? A Prototype Analysis of Expert Opinions.Robert E. McGrath, Hyemin Han, Mitch Brown & Peter Meindl - forthcoming - Journal of Moral Education:1-19.
    Having an agreed-upon definition of character education would be useful for both researchers and practitioners in the field. However, even experts in character education disagree on how they would define it. We attempted to achieve greater conceptual clarity on this issue through a prototype analysis in which the features perceived as most central to character education were identified. In Study 1 (N = 77), we asked character education experts to enumerate features of character education. Based on these lists, we identified (...)
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  32. Wirtliche Ökonomie. Philosophische und dichterische Quellen [Hospitable Economics. Philosophical and Poetic Sources], Volume II, Elementa Œconomica 1.2.Ivo De Gennaro, Sergiusz Kazmierski, Ralf Lüfter & Robert Simon (eds.) - 2016 - Nordhausen: Verlag Traugott Bautz.
    Dieser Band stellt die erste Fortsetzung der 2013 begonnenen Publikation zur „Wirtlichen Ökonomie“ dar. Er dient der sich fortsetzenden Frage nach der Wirtlichkeit. Zu dieser Frage gehört es, das Ökonomische aus einer notwendig gewordenen Zurückhaltung gegenüber dem methodischen Vorgriff der modernen Wirtschaftswissenschaften zu denken. Die Zurückhaltung verleiht, indem sie den Fragebereich der Wirtlichkeit eröffnet, den hier versammelten Beiträgen ihren wahren Zusammenhang.
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  33. Totalidad en la entrega - Amor en perspectiva personalista.Pablo Cristóbal Jiménez Lobeira - manuscript
    El presente capítulo presenta un análisis teórico del tipo de amor que involucra la sexualidad, las altas expectativas que genera y la incertidumbre de que se cumplan. Para esclarecer el estudio se distingue entre sexualidad, impulso amoroso (“eros”) y amor propiamente dicho (“ágape”) y se echa mano de conceptos tomados de la filosofía personalista incluidos los de naturaleza, persona, racionalidad, relación y los varios tipos de amor. A final de cuentas se propone que sólo cuando se vuelve conyugal puede el (...)
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  34. Merleau-Ponty, Moral Perception, and Metaethical Internalism.Bryan Lueck - 2020 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 34 (3):265-273.
    Two of the most basic commitments of virtue ethics, both ancient and contemporary, are that virtue is knowledge and that this knowledge is a kind of moral sensitivity that is best understood on the model of perception. On this account, the virtuous agent perceives moral goodness and badness in something like the way we perceive that a smiling person is happy or that a raging bull is dangerous. This is opposed to the more widely held view of moral experience, according (...)
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  35. The Virtue of Piety in Medical Practice.David McPherson - 2021 - Philosophia 49 (3):923-931.
    Following the Introduction, the second section of this essay lays out Tom Cavanaugh’s helpful and convincing account of the enduring significance of the Hippocratic Oath in terms of how it responds to the problem of iatrogenic harm. The third section discusses something underemphasized in Cavanaugh’s account, namely, the key role of the virtue of piety within the Oath and the profession it establishes, and argues that this virtue should be regarded as integral to an authentic Hippocratic ethic. The fourth and (...)
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  36. John Calvin and Virtue Ethics: Augustinian and Aristotelian Themes.David S. Sytsma - 2020 - Journal of Religious Ethics 48 (3):519-556.
    Many scholars have argued that the Protestant Reformation generally departed from virtue ethics, and this claim is often accepted by Protestant ethicists. This essay argues against such discontinuity by demonstrating John Calvin’s reception of ethical concepts from Augustine and Aristotle. Calvin drew on Augustine’s concept of eudaimonia and many aspects of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics , including concepts of choice, habit, virtue as a mean, and the specific virtues of justice and prudence. Calvin also evaluated the problem of pagan virtue in (...)
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  37. Consent Is Not Enough: A Case Against Liberal Sexual Ethics.David McPherson - 2020 - In Bob Fischer (ed.), College Ethics: A Reader on Moral Issues that Affect You, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press.
    The standard liberal sexual ethic maintains that consent is the only requirement for ethical sexual relations. While consent is certainly necessary for an adequate sexual ethic (and it’s important to know what it involves), I argue that it’s far from sufficient. The key claims that I advance are the following: (1) The consent-only model of sexual ethics affirms a “casual” view of sex and therefore it can’t make sense of and properly combat what’s worst in the sexual domain: namely, the (...)
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  38. Virtuous Contempt (Wu 惡) in the Analects.Hagop Sarkissian - forthcoming - In Justin Tiwald (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Chinese Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Much is said about what Kongzi liked or cherished. Kongzi revered the rituals of the Zhou. He cherished tradition and classical music. He loved the Odes. Far less is said, however, about what he despised or held in contempt (wu 惡). Yet contempt appears in the oldest stratum of the Analects as a disposition or virtue of moral exemplars. In this chapter, I argue that understanding the role of despising or contempt in the Analects is important in appreciating Kongzi’s dao (...)
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  39. Reframing the Purpose of Business Education: Crowding-in a Culture of Moral Self-Awareness.Julian Friedland & Tanusree Jain - forthcoming - Journal of Management Inquiry.
    Numerous high-profile ethics scandals, rising inequality, and the detrimental effects of climate change dramatically underscore the need for business schools to instill a commitment to social purpose in their students. At the same time, the rising financial burden of education, increasing competition in the education space, and overreliance on graduates’ financial success as the accepted metric of quality have reinforced an instrumentalist climate. These conflicting aims between social and financial purpose have created an existential crisis for business education. To resolve (...)
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  40. Compassion for Enemies.Michael Skerker & John Sattler - 2019 - In David Whetham, Michael Skerker & Donald Carrick (eds.), Military Virtues. London, UK:
    A case study exploring the importance of compassion for enemies appealing to a series of targeting decisions, co-written with the senior Marine in Iraq in 2003-4.
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  41. Cannibals, Gun-Deckers, and Good Idea Fairies: Structural Incentives to Deceive in the Military.Michael Skerker - 2019 - In Michael Skerker, David Whetham & Donald Carrick (eds.), Military Virtues. London, UK:
    Case studies about institutional pressures encouraging dishonesty in the US Navy.
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  42. The Satanic and the Theomimetic: Distinguishing and Reconciling "Sacrifice" in René Girard and Gregory the Great.Jordan Joseph Wales - 2020 - Contagion: Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture 27 (1):177-214.
    Compelling voices charge that the theological notion of “sacrifice” valorizes suffering and fosters a culture of violence by the claim that Christ’s death on the Cross paid for human sins. Beneath the ‘sacred’ violence of sacrifice, René Girard discerns a concealed scapegoat-murder driven by a distortion of human desire that itself must lead to human self-annihilation. I here ask: can one speak safely of sacrifice; and can human beings somehow cease to practice the sacrifice that must otherwise destroy them? Drawing (...)
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  43. Matt Stichter, The Skillfulness of Virtue: Improving Our Moral and Epistemic Lives, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018), 201 Pages. ISBN: 978-1108472371. Hardback: $ 105.00. [REVIEW]Sungwoo Um - forthcoming - Journal of Moral Philosophy.
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  44. Capitalism After Covid: How the Pandemic Might Inspire a More Virtuous Economy.Julian Friedland - 2020 - The Philosophers' Magazine 2 (89):12-15.
    Today, dramatically increasing economic inequality, imminent climatological calamity, and a global pandemic now place the timeless debate over capitalism into stark relief. Though many seek to pin the blame on capitalism’s excesses, they would do well to recall the historical record of socialism’s deficiencies, namely, stifling innovation, lumbering inefficiency, and stagnation. Fortunately, our moral psychology affords a middle way between these two extremes. For while economic incentives have a tendency to let our civic and prosocial impulses atrophy from disuse, these (...)
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  45. Spirituality and the Good Life: Philosophical Approaches, Edited by David McPherson. [REVIEW]Megan Fritts - 2020 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 17 (1):115-18.
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  46. A Comparison of Approaches to Virtue for Nursing Ethics.Matt Ferkany & Roger Newham - 2019 - Ethical Perspectives 26 (3):427-457.
    As in many other fields of practical ethics, virtue ethics is increasingly of interest within nursing ethics. Nevertheless, the virtue ethics literature in nursing ethics remains relatively small and underdeveloped. This article aims to categorize which broad theoretical approaches to virtue have been taken, to undertake some initial comparative assessment of their relative merits given the peculiar ethical dilemmas facing nurse practitioners, and to highlight the prob- lem areas for virtue ethics in the nursing context. We find the most common (...)
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  47. From Biological Functions to Natural Goodness.Parisa Moosavi - 2019 - Philosophers' Imprint 19.
    Neo-Aristotelian ethical naturalism aims to place moral virtue in the natural world by showing that moral goodness is an instance of natural goodness—a kind of goodness supposedly also found in the biological realm of plants and non-human animals. One of the central issues facing neo-Aristotelian naturalists concerns their commitment to a kind of function ascription based on the concept of the flourishing of an organism that seems to have no place in modern biology. In this paper, I offer a novel (...)
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  48. Agency and Virtues.Zahra Khazaei - 2019 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 21 (3):119-140.
    In the philosophy of action, agency manifests the capacity of the agent to act. An agent is one who acts voluntarily, consciously and intentionally. This article studies the relationship between virtues and agency to learn to what extent agency is conceptually and metaphysically dependent on moral or epistemic virtues; whether virtue is a necessary condition for action and agency, besides the belief, desire and intention? Or are virtues necessary merely for the moral or epistemic character of the agent and not (...)
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  49. Aristotle on Wittiness.Matthew D. Walker - 2019 - In Pierre Destrée & Franco V. Trivigno (eds.), Laughter, Humor, and Comedy in Ancient Philosophy. Oxford, UK: pp. 103-121.
    This chapter offers a complete account of Aristotle’s underexplored treatment of the virtue of wittiness (eutrapelia) in Nicomachean Ethics IV.8. It addresses the following questions: (1) What, according to Aristotle, is this virtue and what is its structure? (2) How do Aristotle’s moral psychological views inform Aristotle’s account, and how might Aristotle’s discussions of other, more familiar virtues, enable us to understand wittiness better? In particular, what passions does the virtue of wittiness concern, and how might the virtue (and its (...)
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  50. “Interest-based Open-Mindedness: Advocating the Role of Interests in the Formation of Human Character”. [REVIEW]Nadav Berman, S. - 2018 - Katharsis 30:146-165.
    Ayalon Eidelstein’s Openness and Faith focuses on the centrality of the idea of openness, or open-mindedness, to the educational sphere. The first half presents the challenges in modern ‘divided-consciousness’ and its consequences of egoism, materialism, and hedonism on the one hand, and religious fanatism on the other. Eidelstein’s main audience is the Israeli secular public, to which he proposes an educational and philosophical middle-way rooted in sincere human and inter-human openness. This openness is inspired by the idea of disinterestedness that (...)
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