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Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals

Oxford University Press (1785/2002)

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  1. Sexuality, Rationality, and Spirituality.Winnifred A. Tomm - 1990 - Zygon 25 (2):219-238.
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  • Transformable Goods and the Limits of What Money Can Buy.David G. Dick - 2017 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 4 (1):121-140.
    There are some things money literally cannot buy. Invariably transformable goods are such things because when they are exchanged for money, they become something else. These goods are destroyed rather than transferred in monetary exchanges. They mark out an impassable limit beyond which money and the market cannot reach. They cannot be for sale, in the strongest and most literal sense. Variably transformable goods are similar. They can be destroyed when offered or exchanged for money, but they differ in their (...)
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  • Deliberative Business Ethics.Ryan Burg - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S4):665 - 683.
    Social norms are an important input for ethical decisions in any business context. However, the cross-cultural discovery of extant social norms presents a special challenge to international management because norms may be inscrutable to outsiders. This article considers the contribution of Integrative Social Contracts Theory (ISCT) to the analysis of social norms in business ethics. It questions the origins and dynamics of norms from a sociological perspective, and identifies a tension between prescriptive efforts to make norms obligatory and positivist accounts (...)
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  • Antigone's Nature.William Robert - 2010 - Hypatia 25 (2):412 - 436.
    Antigone fascinates G. W. F. Hegel and Luce Irigaray, both of whom turn to her in their explorations and articulations of ethics. Hegel and Irigaray make these re-turns to Antigone through the double and related lenses of nature and sexual difference. This essay investigates these figures of Antigone and the accompanying ethical accounts of nature and sexual difference as a way of examining Irigaray's complex relation to and creative uses of Hegel's thought.
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  • Spirituality, Morality, and Criticism in Education: A Response to Kevin Gary. [REVIEW]Hanan A. Alexander - 2006 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 25 (4):327-334.
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  • The Ladies of Besiktas: An Example of Moral and Ideological Ambiguity?Paul Davis - 2012 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 6 (1):4-15.
    The Ladies of Besiktas are a discrete group of followers of Turkey's Besiktas FC. They propose a different ethos from that of the dominant fan culture. They refuse to downplay their femininity, they wear natty black-and-white garb to games, they make breezy videos and they blow whistles when they hear Besiktas fans express foul or insulting sentiments during matches. It seems that the Ladies have motivated most of the offending Besiktas fans to moderate their behaviour in their presence. This discussion (...)
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  • Redefining Ecological Ethics: Science, Policy, and Philosophy at Cape Horn.Robert Frodeman - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (4):597-610.
    In the twentieth century, philosophy (especially within the United States) embraced the notion of disciplinary expertise: philosophical research consists of working with and writing for other philosophers. Projects that involve non-philosophers earn the deprecating title of “applied” philosophy. The University of North Texas (UNT) doctoral program in philosophy exemplifies the possibility of a new model for philosophy, where graduate students are trained in academic philosophy and in how to work with scientists, engineers, and policy makers. This “field” (rather than “applied”) (...)
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  • Contemplative Leadership: The Possibilities for the Ethics of Leadership Theory and Practice.Gina Grandy & Martyna Sliwa - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 143 (3):423-440.
    In this paper, we offer a conceptualization of leadership as contemplative. Drawing on MacIntyre’s perspective on virtue ethics and Levinas’ and Gilligan’s work on the ethics of responsibility and care, we propose contemplative leadership as virtuous activity; reflexive, engaged, relational, and embodied practice that requires knowledge from within context and practical wisdom. More than simply offering another way to conceptualize the ethics of leadership, this research contributes to understanding the ethics of leadership in practice. Empirically, we analyze the narratives of (...)
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  • Changing the Paradigm for Engineering Ethics.Jon Alan Schmidt - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (4):985-1010.
    Modern philosophy recognizes two major ethical theories: deontology, which encourages adherence to rules and fulfillment of duties or obligations; and consequentialism, which evaluates morally significant actions strictly on the basis of their actual or anticipated outcomes. Both involve the systematic application of universal abstract principles, reflecting the culturally dominant paradigm of technical rationality. Professional societies promulgate codes of ethics with which engineers are expected to comply, while courts and the public generally assign liability to engineers primarily in accordance with the (...)
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  • Morality and Leadership: Examining the Ethics of Transformational Leadership. [REVIEW]Sen Sendjaya - 2005 - Journal of Academic Ethics 3 (1):75-86.
    Morality is a critical factor in leadership that its absence could turn an otherwise powerful leadership model (i.e. transformational leadership) into a disastrous outcome. The importance of morality for leaders is self-evident in light of the far-reaching effects of leaders' actions or inaction on other people. Such proposition necessitates the discourse in the objectivity of universal moral principles as the legitimate basis of a sound understanding of moral leadership. Examining transformational leadership from a moral-laden perspective, this paper argues that morality (...)
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  • The Role of Caring in a Theory of Nursing Ethics.Sara T. Fry - 1989 - Hypatia 4 (2):88 - 103.
    The development of nursing ethics as a field of inquiry has largely relied on theories of medical ethics that use autonomy, beneficence, and/or justice as foundational ethical principles. Such theories espouse a masculine approach to moral decision-making and ethical analysis. This paper challenges the presumption of medical ethics and its associated system of moral justification as an appropriate model for nursing ethics. It argues that the value foundations of nursing ethics are located within the existential phenomenon of human caring within (...)
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  • Environmental Justice: A Louisiana Case Study. [REVIEW]Daniel C. Wigley & Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 1996 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 9 (1):61-82.
    The paper begins with a brief analysis of the concepts of environmental justice and environmental racism and classism. The authors argue that pollution- and environment-related decision-making is prima facie wrong whenever it results in inequitable treatment of individuals on the basis of race or socio-economic status. The essay next surveys the history of the doctrine of free informed consent and argues that the consent of those affected is necessary for ensuring the fairness of decision-making for siting hazardous facilities. The paper (...)
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  • Development of a Tissue Engineered Heart Valve for Pediatrics: A Case Study in Bioengineering Ethics.W. David Merryman - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (1):93-101.
    The following hypothetical case study was developed for bioengineering students and is concerned with choosing between two devices used for development of a pediatric tissue engineered heart valve (TEHV). This case is intended to elicit assessment of the devices, possible future outcomes, and ramifications of the decision making. It is framed in light of two predominant ethical theories: utilitarianism and rights of persons. After the case was presented to bioengineering graduate students, they voted on which device should be released. The (...)
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  • Respecting Human Embryos Within Stem Cell Research: Seeking Harmony.Bertha Alvarez Manninen - 2007 - Metaphilosophy 38 (2-3):226-244.
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  • Rethinking the Concept of Sustainability.Alexis J. Banon Gomis, Manuel Guillén Parra, W. Michael Hoffman & Robert E. McNulty - 2011 - Business and Society Review 116 (2):171-191.
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  • Identity Rights: A Structural Void in Inclusive Growth.Mukesh Sud & Craig V. VanSandt - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 132 (3):589-601.
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  • Existentialist Ethics: From Nietzsche to Sartre and Beyond.Neil Thompson - 2008 - Ethics and Social Welfare 2 (1):10-23.
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  • Why Kant and Ecofeminism Don't Mix.Jeanna Moyer - 2001 - Hypatia 16 (3):79-97.
    : This paper consists of two sections. In section one, I explore Val Plumwood's description of the features of normative dualism, and briefly discuss how these features are manifest in Immanuel Kant's view of nature. In section two, I evaluate the claims of Holly L. Wilson, who argues that Kant is not a normative dualist. Against Wilson, I will argue that Kant maintains normative dualisms between humans/nature, humans/animals, humans/culture, and men/women. As such, Kant's philosophy is antithetical to the aims of (...)
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  • Respect for Persons, Identity, and Information Technology.Robin S. Dillon - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (1):17-28.
    There is surprisingly little attention in Information Technology ethics to respect for persons, either as an ethical issue or as a core value of IT ethics or as a conceptual tool for discussing ethical issues of IT. In this, IT ethics is very different from another field of applied ethics, bioethics, where respect is a core value and conceptual tool. This paper argues that there is value in thinking about ethical issues related to information technologies, especially, though not exclusively, issues (...)
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  • “The Thing To Do” Implies “Can”.Nicholas Southwood - 2016 - Noûs 50 (1):61-72.
    A familiar complaint against the principle that “ought” implies “can” is that it seems that agents can intentionally make it the case that they cannot perform acts that they nonetheless ought to perform. I propose a related principle that I call the principle that “the thing to do” implies “can.” I argue that the principle that “the thing to do” implies “can” is implied by important but underappreciated truths about practical reason, and that it is not vulnerable to the familiar (...)
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  • Subjectivity and Vulnerability: Reflections on the Foundation of Ethical Sensibility.Per Nortvedt - 2003 - Nursing Philosophy 4 (3):222-230.
    This paper investigates the possibility of understanding the rudimentary elements of clinical sensitivity by investigating the works of Edmund Husserl and Emmanuel Levinas on sensibility. Husserl's theory of intentionality offers significant reflections on the role of pre-reflective and affective intuition as a condition for intentionality and reflective consciousness. These early works of Husserl, in particular his works on the constitution of phenomenological time and subjective time-consciousness, prove to be an important basis for Levinas’ works on an ethics of alterity and (...)
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  • Political Liberalism and Citizenship Education.Blain Neufeld - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (9):781-797.
    John Rawls claims that the kind of citizenship education required by political liberalism demands ‘far less’ than that required by comprehensive liberalism. Many educational and political theorists who have explored the implications of political liberalism for education policy have disputed Rawls's claim. Writing from a comprehensive liberal perspective, Amy Gutmann contends that the justificatory differences between political and comprehensive liberalism generally have no practical significance for citizenship education. Political liberals such as Stephen Macedo and Victoria Costa maintain that political liberalism (...)
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  • Deliberation Incompatibilism.Edmund Henden - 2010 - Dialectica 64 (3):313-333.
    Deliberation incompatibilism is the view that an agent being rational and deliberating about which of (mutually excluding) actions to perform, is incompatible with her believing that there exist prior conditions that render impossible the performance of either one of these actions. However, the main argument for this view, associated most prominently with Peter van Inwagen, appears to have been widely rejected by contemporary authors on free will. In this paper I argue first that a closer examination of van Inwagen's argument (...)
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  • Highlighting Moral Courage in the Business Ethics Course.Debra R. Comer & Michael Schwartz - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 146 (3):703-723.
    At the end of their article in the September 2014 issue of the Journal of Business Ethics, Douglas R. May, Matthew T. Luth, and Catherine E. Schwoerer state that they are “hopeful in outlook” about the “evidence that business ethics instructors are….able to encourage students…to develop the courage to come forward even when pressures in organizations dictate otherwise”. We agree with May et al. that it is essential to augment students’ moral courage. However, it seems overly optimistic to believe that (...)
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  • Terrorism, Evil, and Everyday Depravity.Bat-ami Bar On - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):157-163.
    : This essay expresses ambivalence about the use of the term "evil" in analyses of terrorism in light of the association of the two in speeches intended to justify the United States' "war on terrorism." At the same time, the essay suggests that terrorism can be regarded as "evil" but only when considered among a multiplicity of "evils" comparable to it, for example: rape, war crimes, and repression.
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  • Robot Decisions: On the Importance of Virtuous Judgment in Clinical Decision Making.Petra Gelhaus - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):883-887.
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  • Intellectual Autonomy.Linda Zagzebski - 2013 - Philosophical Issues 23 (1):244-261.
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  • On the Division Between Reason and Unreason in Kant.Motohide Saji - 2009 - Human Studies 32 (2):201-223.
    This article examines Kant’s discussion of the division between reason and unreason in his Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View . On the one hand, Kant says that there is a normative, clear, and definite division between reason and unreason. On the other hand, Kant offers three arguments showing that we cannot draw such a division. First, we cannot explain the normative grounds for the division. Second, both reason and unreason are present in everyone to varying degrees in different (...)
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  • Agreeing in Ignorance: Mapping the Routinisation of Consent in ICT-Services.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (4):1097-1110.
    Many ICT services require that users explicitly consent to conditions of use and policies for the protection of personal information. This consent may become ‘routinised’. We define the concept of routinisation and investigate to what extent routinisation occurs as well as the factors influencing routinisation in a survey study of internet use. We show that routinisation is common and that it is influenced by factors including gender, age, educational level and average daily internet use. We further explore the reasons users (...)
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  • Rüdiger Bittner on Autonomy.Thomas E. Hill - 2013 - Erkenntnis (S7):1-10.
    Rüdiger Bittner surveys with a skeptical eye classic and contemporary ideas of Kantian autonomy. He allows that we can be more or less free in a modest (quasi-Hobbesian) sense and that many people may want more of this freedom from impediments that make it difficult or impossible to do various things. He argues, however, that high-minded general affirmations of human freedom are unfounded and not likely to retain their grip on our thinking. While acknowledging the value of Bittner’s challenges, I (...)
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  • Evil's Place in the Ethics of Social Work.Jon Vegar Hugaas - 2010 - Ethics and Social Welfare 4 (3):254-279.
    This article argues that the concept of evil is needed in normative ethics in general as well as in the professional ethics of social work. Attention is drawn to certain shortcomings in the classical theories of normative ethics when it comes to recognizing the profound destructiveness of certain types of acts that exceed the mere ?bad? or ?wrong? applied in the most common theories of moral philosophy. Having established the category of morally evil acts in general, the author turns to (...)
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  • Morality and the Philosophy of Life in Guyau and Bergson.Keith Ansell-Pearson - 2014 - Continental Philosophy Review 47 (1):59-85.
    In this essay I examine the contribution a philosophy of life is able to make to our understanding of morality, including our appreciation of its evolution or development and its future. I focus on two contributions, namely, those of Jean-Marie Guyau and Henri Bergson. In the case of Guyau I show that he pioneers the naturalistic study of morality through a conception of life; for him the moral progress of humanity is bound up with an increasing sociability, involving both the (...)
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  • The Effects of Victim Anonymity on Unethical Behavior.Kai Chi Yam & Scott J. Reynolds - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 136 (1):13-22.
    We theorize that victim anonymity is an important factor in ethical decision making, such that actors engage in more self-interested and unethical behaviors toward anonymous victims than they do toward identifiable victims. Three experiments provided empirical support for this argument. In Study 1, participants withheld more life-saving products from anonymous than from identifiable victims. In Study 2, participants allocated a sum of payment more unfairly when interacting with an anonymous than with an identifiable partner. Finally, in Study 3, participants cheated (...)
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  • Is Species Integrity a Human Right? A Rights Issue Emerging From Individual Liberties with New Technologies.Lantz Fleming Miller - 2014 - Human Rights Review 15 (2):177-199.
    Currently, some philosophers and technicians propose to change the fundamental constitution of Homo sapiens, as by significantly altering the genome, implanting microchips in the brain, and pursuing related techniques. Among these proposals are aspirations to guide humanity’s evolution into new species. Some philosophers have countered that such species alteration is unethical and have proposed international policies to protect species integrity; yet, it remains unclear on what basis such right to species integrity would rest. An answer may come from an unexpected (...)
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  • Right to Know, Press Freedom, Public Discourse.Candace Cummins Gauthier - 1999 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 14 (4):197-212.
    The people's right to know and press rights to gather and publish information remain dominant justifications for controversial media activities. Yet, the power of the media to set the agenda for public discourse in our country warrants a careful analysis of these rights, their corresponding responsibilities, and their moral limits. This article examines the right to know and press freedom from the perspective of their shared purpose, facilitation of informed decision making. This article also demonstrates moral justification of limits on (...)
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  • Deception in Research: Distinctions and Solutions From the Perspective of Utilitarianism.David J. Pittenger - 2002 - Ethics and Behavior 12 (2):117-142.
    The use of deception in psychological research continues to be a controversial topic. Using Rawls's explication of utilitarianism, I attempt to demonstrate how professional organizations, such as the American Psychological Association, can provide more specific standards that determine the permissibility of deception in research. Specifically, I argue that researchers should examine the costs and benefits of creating and applying specific rules governing deception. To that end, I offer 3 recommendations. First, that researchers who use deception provide detailed accounts of the (...)
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  • The Ethical Ideologies of Psychologists and Physicians: A Preliminary Comparison.Shannon Fuchs-Lacelle, Donald Sharpe, David C. Malloy & Thomas Hadjistavropoulos - 2003 - Ethics and Behavior 13 (1):97-104.
    The ethical ideologies of psychologists and physicians were compared using the Ethics Position Questionnaire. The findings reveal that psychologists tend to be less relativistic than physicians. Further, we explored the degree to which physicians and psychologists report being influenced by a variety of factors in their ethical decision making. Psychologists were more influenced by their code of ethics and less influenced by family views, religious background, and peer attitudes than were physicians. We argue that these differences reflect the varied professional (...)
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  • The Ethics of Payday Loan Practices.Dinah Payne & Cecily Raiborn - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (2):117-132.
    This article focuses on the ethics of payday lending. We present information about the payday lending industry, a range of legal and best practices guidelines for the industry, and finally our own presentation of the most appropriate practices to be used to satisfy both legal and ethical edicts. This effort is made with the hope that business people in general, professionals in the payday lending industry, lawmakers, educators, and even potential consumers may benefit by understanding the driving economic, legal, and (...)
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  • Split Allegiance: Small-Town Newspaper Community Involvement.Kristie Bunton Northington - 1992 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 7 (4):220 – 232.
    This article outlines the concept of community involvement by small-town editors and publishers in the 20th century to provide context for a discussion of one small newspaper's experience in treading the line between editorial advocacy and community activism. The article offers a model to use in assessing the risks of activism, applying the model to the case. The model is based on four broad moral values: (a) acting to create intrinsic goods, (b) cultivating citizenship, (c) respecting persons as ends, and (...)
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  • A Case for the Cast Approach: An Essay Review by David Boeyink.David Boeyink - 1995 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 10 (3):178 – 183.
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  • The Arizona Project as a Macintyrean Moment.James Aucoin - 1992 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 7 (3):169 – 183.
    Some of the best journalism - investigative reporting in particular - results from personal feelings of wanting revenge, which can be an aspect of the ethical duty to promote justice. It may be either wanting revenge for a wrong against society or rather against journalism and freedom of speech and press. Using the Arizona Project as an example in which investigative reporters and editors responded to the murder of reporter Don Bolles, I suggest that journalists, adhering to the virtues of (...)
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  • Reporting and Referring Research Participants: Ethical Challenges for Investigators Studying Children and Youth.Celia B. Fisher - 1994 - Ethics and Behavior 4 (2):87 – 95.
    Researchers studying at-risk and socially disenfranchised child and adolescent populations are facing ethical dilemmas not previously encountered in the laboratory or the clinic. One such set of ethical challenges involves whether to: (a) share with guardians research derived information regarding participant risk, (b) provide participants with service referrals, or (c) report to local authorities problems uncovered during the course of investigation. The articles assembled for this special section address the complex issues of deciding if, when, and how to report or (...)
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  • Creating Embryos for Use in Stem Cell Research.Dan W. Brock - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):229-237.
    In this paper I will address whether the restriction on the creation of human embryos solely for the purpose of research in which they will be used and destroyed in the creation of human stem cell lines is ethically justified. Of course, a cynical but perhaps accurate reading of the new Obama policy is that leaving this restriction in place was done for political, not ethical, reasons, in light of the apparent public opposition to creating embryos for use in this (...)
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  • All Donations Should Not Be Treated Equally: A Response to Jeffrey Kahn's Commentary.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (3):448-451.
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  • The Family and Neoliberalism: Time to Revive a Critique.Bob Brecher - 2012 - Ethics and Social Welfare 6 (2):157-167.
    I argue that the family remains integral to neoliberal capitalism. First, I identify two tensions in the neoliberals' advocacy of the traditional family: that the ?family values? advocated run directly counter to the homo economicus of the ?free market?; and the fact that the increasingly strident rhetoric of the family belies its decreasing popularity. The implications of these tensions for how we might think of the family, I then propose, suggest that earlier critiques are worth revisiting for what they have (...)
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  • Troubles with the Causal Homeostasis Theory of Reference.Charles Nussbaum - 2001 - Philosophical Psychology 14 (2):155 – 178.
    While purely causal theories of reference have provided a plausible account of the meanings of names and natural kind terms, they cannot handle vacuous theoretical terms. The causal homeostasis theory can but incurs other difficulties. Theories of reference that are intensional and not purely causal tend to be molecularist or holist. Holist theories threaten transtheoretic reference, whereas molecularist theories must supply a principled basis for selecting privileged meaning-determining relations between terms. The causal homeostasis theory is a two-factor molecularist theory, but (...)
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  • Floridi’s Fourth Revolution and the Demise of Ethics.Michael Byron - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):135-147.
    Luciano Floridi has proposed that we are on the cusp of a fourth revolution in human self-understanding. The information revolution with its prospect of digitally enhancing human beings opens the door to engineering human nature. Floridi has emphasized the importance of making this transition as ethically smooth as possible. He is quite right to worry about ethics after the fourth revolution. The coming revolution, if it unfolds as he envisions, spells the demise of traditional ethical theorizing.
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  • Dignity's Gauntlet.Remy Debes - 2009 - Philosophical Perspectives 23 (1):45-78.
    The philosophy of “ human dignity” remains a young, piecemeal endeavor with only a small, dedicated literature. And what dedicated literature exists makes for a rather slapdash mix of substantive and formal metatheory. Worse, ironically we seem compelled to treat this existing theory both charitably and casually. For how can we definitively assess any of it? Existing suggestions about the general features of dignity are necessarily contentious in virtue of being more or less blissfully uncritical of themselves. Because none of (...)
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  • Motive and Right Action.Liezl van Zyl - 2010 - Philosophia 38 (2):405-415.
    Some philosophers believe that a change in motive alone is sometimes sufficient to bring about a change in the deontic status (rightness or wrongness) of an action. I refer to this position as ‘weak motivism’, and distinguish it from ‘strong’ and ‘partial motivism’. I examine a number of cases where our intuitive judgements appear to support the weak motivist’s thesis, and argue that in each case an alternative explanation can be given for why a change in motive brings about (or, (...)
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  • Caring and Incapacity.Jeffrey Seidman - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 147 (2):301 - 322.
    This essay seeks to explain a morally important class of psychological incapacity—the class of what Bernard Williams has called “incapacities of character.” I argue for two main claims: (1) Caring is the underlying psychological disposition that gives rise to incapacities of character. (2) In competent, rational adults, caring is, in part, a cognitive and deliberative disposition. Caring is a mental state which disposes an agent to believe certain considerations to be good reasons for deliberation and action. And caring is a (...)
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