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  1. Hegel's Phenomenology: The Moral Failures of Asocial Man.Judith N. Shklar - 1973 - Political Theory 1 (3):259-286.
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  • Traditional Environmental Values as the Frameworks for Environmental Legislation in Russia.Elena Gladun & Olga V. Zakharova - 2020 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 23 (1):37-52.
    Sustainable development has increasingly found its way into the context of environmental legislation. Russian environmental legislation is not effective for transitioning toward sustainable develop...
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  • Caring for Parents: A Consequentialist Approach.William Sin - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (1):3-10.
    In this paper, I explain the demands of filial obligations from act and rule consequentialism. More specifically, I defend a rule-consequentialist explanation of filial obligations, and identify a few factors in relation to the determination of filial demands; they include the costs of internalization of filial obligations, and the proportions of the young and the old generations in a population pyramid. I believe that in a society with an aging population, we may accept a strong view of filial obligation. Towards (...)
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  • On Balance: Weighing Harms and Benefits in Fundamental Neurological Research Using Nonhuman Primates.Gardar Arnason & Jens Clausen - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (2):229-237.
    One of the most controversial areas of animal research is the use of nonhuman primates for fundamental research. At the centre of the controversy is the question of whether the benefits of research outweigh the harms. We argue that the evaluation of harms and benefits is highly problematic. We describe some common procedures in neurological research using nonhuman primates and the difficulties in evaluating the harm involved. Even if the harm could be quantified, it is unlikely that it could be (...)
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  • Global Justice, Capabilities Approach and Commercial Surrogacy in India.Sheela Saravanan - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (3):295-307.
    Inequalities, ineffective governance, unclear surrogacy regulations and unethical practices make India an ideal environment for global injustice in the process of commercial surrogacy. This article aims to apply the ‘capabilities approach’ to find possibilities of global justice through human fellowship in the context of commercial surrogacy. I draw primarily on my research findings supplemented by other relevant empirical research and documentary films on surrogacy. The paper reveals inequalities and inadequate basic entitlements among surrogate mothers as a consequence of which they (...)
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  • Theoretical Frameworks Used to Discuss Ethical Issues in Private Physiotherapy Practice and Proposal of a New Ethical Tool.Marie-Josée Drolet & Anne Hudon - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (1):51-62.
    In the past, several researchers in the field of physiotherapy have asserted that physiotherapy clinicians rarely use ethical knowledge to solve ethical issues raised by their practice. Does this assertion still hold true? Do the theoretical frameworks used by researchers and clinicians allow them to analyze thoroughly the ethical issues they encounter in their everyday practice? In our quest for answers, we conducted a literature review and analyzed the ethical theoretical frameworks used by physiotherapy researchers and clinicians to discuss the (...)
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  • The Principle of Proportionality Revisited: Interpretations and Applications. [REVIEW]Göran Hermerén - 2012 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (4):373-382.
    The principle of proportionality is used in many different contexts. Some of these uses and contexts are first briefly indicated. This paper focusses on the use of this principle as a moral principle. I argue that under certain conditions the principle of proportionality is helpful as a guide in decision-making. But it needs to be clarified and to be used with some flexibility as a context-dependent principle. Several interpretations of the principle are distinguished, using three conditions as a starting point: (...)
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  • Relieving Pain and Foreseeing Death: A Paradox About Accountability and Blame.Susana Nuccetelli & Gary Seay - 2000 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (1):19-25.
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  • Respecting the Dignity of Children with Disabilities in Clinical Practice.Adam Cureton & Anita Silvers - 2017 - HEC Forum 29 (3):257-276.
    Prevailing philosophies about parental and other caregiver responsibilities toward children tend to be protectionist, grounded in informed benevolence in a way that countenances rather than circumvents intrusive paternalism. And among the kinds of children an adult might be called upon to parent or otherwise care for, children with disabilities figure among those for whom the strongest and snuggest shielding is supposed be deployed. In this article, we examine whether this equation of securing well-being with sheltering by protective parents and other (...)
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  • Curiosity and Responsibility. Philosophy in Relation to Healthy Food and Living Conditions.Marcel Verweij - 2014 - Wageningen University.
    The curious philosopher often answers questions by raising further, more fundamental questions. How can this be fruitful and practical in the context of Wageningen University? Philosophy offers critical reflection on conceptual and normative assumptions in science and society, and that is necessary for responsible practices. I illustrate this by analyzing the concept of quality of life – a key value in the mission of our university – and by questioning current debates about responsibility for health.
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  • Equilibrium as Compatibility of Plans.Marek Hudik - 2020 - Theory and Decision 89 (3):349-368.
    This paper uses a game-theoretic framework to formalize the Hayekian notion of equilibrium as the compatibility of plans. To do so, it imposes more structure on the conventional model of strategic games. For each player, it introduces goals, goal-oriented strategies, and the goals’ probabilities of success, from which players’ payoffs are derived. The differences between the compatibility of plans and Nash equilibrium are identified and discussed. Furthermore, it is shown that the notion of compatibility of plans, in general, differs from (...)
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  • Valuing Humane Lives in Two-Level Utilitarianism.Nicolas Delon - 2020 - Utilitas 32 (3):276-293.
    I examine the two-level utilitarian case for humane animal agriculture (by R. M. Hare and Gary Varner) and argue that it fails on its own terms. The case states that, at the ‘intuitive level’ of moral thinking, we can justify raising and killing animals for food, regarding them as replaceable, while treating them with respect. I show that two-level utilitarianism supports, instead, alternatives to animal agriculture. First, the case for humane animal agriculture does not follow from a commitment to two-level (...)
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  • A Pluralist Account of the Basis of Moral Status.Giacomo Floris - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-19.
    Standard liberal theories of justice rest on the assumption that only those beings that hold the capacity for moral personality have moral status and therefore are right-holders. As many pointed out, this has the disturbing implication of excluding a wide range of entities from the scope of justice. Call this the under-inclusiveness objection. This paper provides a response to the under-inclusiveness objection and illustrates its implications for liberal theories of justice. In particular, the paper defends two claims: first, it argues (...)
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  • Regarding Rocky: A Theoretical and Ethnographic Exploration of Interspecies Intersubjectivity.Robert L. Young - 2013 - Society and Animals 21 (3):294-313.
    Both theoretical and empirical work in a variety of disciplines has resulted in a recent turn away from Cartesian and Meadian anthropocentrism in the direction of a radical reconsideration of nonhuman animal mind and agency. Central to sociology’s role in envisioning a repopulated social world is the analysis of nonhuman-human social interaction. Because all social action is predicated on certain assumptions regarding the minds of others, a theory of intersubjectivity must be at the core of any such project. It is (...)
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  • Utilitarianism and the Measurement and Aggregation of Quality €“ Adjusted Life Years.Paul Dolan - 2001 - Health Care Analysis 9 (1):65-76.
    It is widely accepted that one of the main objectives of government expenditure on health care is to generate health. Since health is a function of both length of life and quality of life, the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) has been developed in an attempt to combine the value of these attributes into a single index number. The QALY approach - and particularly the decision rule that healthcare resources should be allocated so as to maximise the number of QALYs generated - (...)
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  • Utility Contra Utilitarianism: Holbach’s International Ethics.Charles Devellennes - 2014 - Journal of International Political Theory 10 (2):188-205.
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  • Formal and Informal Benevolence in a Profit-Oriented Context.Guillaume Mercier & Ghislain Deslandes - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 165 (1):125-143.
    Faced with the disenchantment and disengagement expressed by their employees, business leaders are considering ways of incorporating more benevolence into managerial practices. Nevertheless, ‘benevolence’—care and concern for the well-being of others—has not yet been studied in an organizational profit-focused context. In this paper, we seek to investigate the emergence and practice of benevolence with an eye on profit and performance. We begin by investigating the main ethical approaches to benevolence—virtue ethical, utilitarian, and deontological. Then, based on an empirical study, we (...)
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  • Punishment and Reform.Steven Sverdlik - 2014 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 8 (3):619-633.
    The reform of offenders is often said to be one of the morally legitimate aims of punishment. After briefly surveying the history of reformist thinking I examine the ‘quasi-reform’ theories, as I call them, of H. Morris, J. Hampton and A. Duff. I explain how they conceive of reform, and what role they take it to have in the criminal justice system. I then focus critically on one feature of their conception of reform, namely, the claim that a reformed offender (...)
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  • Economic Behavior—Evolutionary Versus Behavioral Perspectives.Ulrich Witt - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (4):388-398.
    Behavioral economics focuses mainly on how limitations of the human cognitive apparatus, risk attitudes, and human sociality affect decision making. The former two lead to deviations from rationality standards, the latter to deviations from rational self-interest. Some of these research interests are also shared by evolutionary psychology which, however, explains the observed deviations by features of the human genetic endowment conjectured to have evolved under fierce selection pressure in early human phylogeny. Important as the decision-making theoretical perspective of the two (...)
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  • Incapacitation, Reintegration, and Limited General Deterrence.Derk Pereboom - 2020 - Neuroethics 13 (1):87-97.
    The aim of this article is to set out a theory for treatment of criminals that rejects retributive justification for punishment; does not fall afoul of a plausible prohibition on using people merely as means; and actually works in the real world. The theory can be motivated by free will skepticism. But it can also be supported without reference to the free will issue, since retributivism faces ethical challenges in its own right. In past versions of the account I’ve emphasized (...)
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  • A Moral Defense of Trophy Hunting and Why It Fails.S. P. Morris - forthcoming - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy:1-14.
    This is a critique of Timothy Hsiao’s ‘A Moral Defense of Trophy Hunting.’ I argue that Hsiao’s arguments on pain, consciousness, behavior, cruelty, and necessity all fail. More importantly, I argu...
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  • Rights and Virtues: The Groundwork of a Virtue-Based Theory of Rights.Ondřej Micka - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Glasgow
    The dissertation investigates whether virtue ethics can provide the normative ground for the justification of rights. Most justificatory accounts of rights consist in different explanations of the function of rights. On the view I will defend, rights have a plurality of functions and one of the main functions of rights is to make the right-holder more virtuous. The idea that the possession of rights leads to the development of virtues, called the function of virtue acquisition, is the core of a (...)
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  • Leaks and the Limits of Press Freedom.Eric R. Boot - 2019 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 22 (2):483-500.
    Political philosophical work on whistleblowing has thus far neglected the role of journalists. A curious oversight, given that the whistleblower’s objective - informing the public about government wrongdoing - can typically not be realized without the media. The present article, therefore, aims to start remedying this neglect by exploring some of the most pressing questions. Accordingly, the paper will be structured as follows: Section 1 will explain why the authorities have treated whistleblowers far more harshly than the journalists who publish (...)
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  • Government is Good for You.Ross Harrison - 2000 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 100 (1):159-173.
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  • From Homo-Economicus to Homo-Virtus: A System-Theoretic Model for Raising Moral Self-Awareness.Julian Friedland - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (1):191-205.
    There is growing concern that a global economic system fueled predominately by financial incentives may not maximize human flourishing and social welfare externalities. If so, this presents a challenge of how to get economic actors to adopt a more virtuous motivational mindset. Relying on historical, psychological, and philosophical research, we show how such a mindset can be instilled. First, we demonstrate that historically, financial self-interest has never in fact been the only guiding motive behind free markets, but that markets themselves (...)
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  • Measuring the Hedonimeter.Brian Skyrms & Louis Narens - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (12):3199-3210.
    We revisit classical Utilitarianism by connecting and generalizing two ideas. The first is that there is a representation theorem possible for hedonic value similar to, but also importantly different from, the one provided by von Neumann and Morgenstern to measure decision utility. The idea is to use objective time, in place of objective chance, to measure hedonic value. This representation for hedonic value delivers a stronger kind of scale than von Neumann–Morgenstern utility, a ratio scale rather than merely an interval (...)
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  • Research on Group Differences in Intelligence: A Defense of Free Inquiry.Nathan Cofnas - 2020 - Philosophical Psychology 33 (1):125-147.
    In a very short time, it is likely that we will identify many of the genetic variants underlying individual differences in intelligence. We should be prepared for the possibility that these variants are not distributed identically among all geographic populations, and that this explains some of the phenotypic differences in measured intelligence among groups. However, some philosophers and scientists believe that we should refrain from conducting research that might demonstrate the (partly) genetic origin of group differences in IQ. Many scholars (...)
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  • More of Me! Less of Me!: Reflexive Imperativism About Affective Phenomenal Character.Luca Barlassina & Max Khan Hayward - 2019 - Mind 128 (512):1013-1044.
    Experiences like pains, pleasures, and emotions have affective phenomenal character: they feel pleasant or unpleasant. Imperativism proposes to explain affective phenomenal character by appeal to imperative content, a kind of intentional content that directs rather than describes. We argue that imperativism is on the right track, but has been developed in the wrong way. There are two varieties of imperativism on the market: first-order and higher-order. We show that neither is successful, and offer in their place a new theory: reflexive (...)
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  • How to Be an Epistemic Consequentialist.Daniel J. Singer - 2018 - Philosophical Quarterly 68 (272):580-602.
    Epistemic consequentialists think that epistemic norms are about believing the truth and avoiding error. Recently, a number of authors have rejected epistemic consequentialism on the basis that it incorrectly sanctions tradeoffs of epistemic goodness. Here, I argue that epistemic consequentialists should borrow two lessons from ethical consequentialists to respond to these worries. Epistemic consequentialists should construe their view as an account of right belief, which they distinguish from other notions like rational and justified belief. Epistemic consequentialists should also make their (...)
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  • Is Reliabilism a Form of Consequentialism?Jeffrey Dunn & Kristoffer Ahlstrom-Vij - 2017 - American Philosophical Quarterly.
    Reliabilism -- the view that a belief is justified iff it is produced by a reliable process -- is often characterized as a form of consequentialism. Recently, critics of reliabilism have suggested that, since a form of consequentialism, reliabilism condones a variety of problematic trade-offs, involving cases where someone forms an epistemically deficient belief now that will lead her to more epistemic value later. In the present paper, we argue that the relevant argument against reliabilism fails because it equivocates. While (...)
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  • Umweltprobleme und Philosophie?Anja Leser - 2012 - Swiss Philosophical Preprints.
    Dieses Heft präsentiert philosophische Perspektiven zu Umweltproblemen. Hierbei sollen einerseits die fünf Hauptpositionen der Umweltethik (Anthropozentrismus, Pathozentrismus, Biozentrismus, Holismus & Tiefen-Ökologie) vorgestellt werden. An- dererseits wird anhand der Erhöhung der Grimselstaumauer die Relevanz der Philosophie hinsichtlich des Dilemmas zwischen Nutzen für den Menschen und Schaden an der Natur deutlich gemacht.
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  • Robots and Us: Towards an Economics of the ‘Good Life’.C. W. M. Naastepad & Jesse M. Mulder - 2018 - Review of Social Economy:1-33.
    (Expected) adverse effects of the ‘ICT Revolution’ on work and opportunities for individuals to use and develop their capacities give a new impetus to the debate on the societal implications of technology and raise questions regarding the ‘responsibility’ of research and innovation (RRI) and the possibility of achieving ‘inclusive and sustainable society’. However, missing in this debate is an examination of a possible conflict between the quest for ‘inclusive and sustainable society’ and conventional economic principles guiding capital allocation (including the (...)
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  • Et Forsvar for Kvantitativ Hedonisme.Rasmus Bysted Møller - 2010 - Res Cogitans 7 (1).
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  • I—The Presidential AddressEquality and Hierarchy.Jonathan Wolff - 2019 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 119 (1):1-23.
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  • Measuring Opportunity: Toward a Contractarian Measure of Individual Interest*: Robert Sugden.Robert Sugden - 1998 - Social Philosophy and Policy 15 (2):34-60.
    Liberals have often been attracted by contractarian modes of argument— and with good reason. Any system of social organization requires that some constraints be imposed on individuals' freedom of action; it is a central problem for any liberal political theory to show which constraints can be justified, and which cannot. A contractarian justification works by showing that the constraints in question can be understood as if they were the product of an agreement, voluntarily entered into by every member of society. (...)
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  • Panpsychism, Intuitions, and the Great Chain of Being.Luke Roelofs & Jed Buchanan - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (11):2991-3017.
    Some philosophical theories of consciousness imply consciousness in things we would never intuitively think are conscious—most notably, panpsychism implies that consciousness is pervasive, even outside complex brains. Is this a reductio ab absurdum for such theories, or does it show that we should reject our original intuitions? To understand the stakes of this question as clearly as possible, we analyse the structured pattern of intuitions that panpsychism conflicts with. We consider a variety of ways that the tension between this intuition (...)
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  • Moral Law.Paul Formosa - 2015 - In Michael Gibbons (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Political Thought. pp. 2438-2455.
    What is the moral law and what role does it and should it play in political theory and political practice? In this entry we will try to answer these important questions by first examining what the moral law is, before investigating the different ways in which the relationship between morality and politics can be conceptualized.
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  • Mill's Political Perception of Liberty: Idiosyncratic, Perfectionist but Essentially Liberal.Leonidas Makris - 2018 - Public Reason 10 (1).
    There is a dominant perception of liberty among most contemporary liberals. It is one close to empiricism’s portrayal of freedom as a natural right of every person to advance her interests. According to this view, there are no demanding conditions under which people can be regarded as free agents but their unfettered behaviour from external inhibitions. It is widely thought that Mill’s liberalism does not deviate considerably from this tradition. The present text suggests a different reading of the gist of (...)
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  • The Step to Rationality: The Efficacy of Thought Experiments in Science, Ethics, and Free Will.Roger N. Shepard - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (1):3-35.
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  • “Emotion”: The History of a Keyword in Crisis.Thomas Dixon - 2012 - Emotion Review 4 (4):1754073912445814.
    The word “emotion” has named a psychological category and a subject for systematic enquiry only since the 19th century. Before then, relevant mental states were categorised variously as “appetites,” “passions,” “affections,” or “sentiments.” The word “emotion” has existed in English since the 17th century, originating as a translation of the French émotion, meaning a physical disturbance. It came into much wider use in 18th-century English, often to refer to mental experiences, becoming a fully fledged theoretical term in the following century, (...)
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  • J. S. Mill's Conception of Utility.Ben Saunders - 2010 - Utilitas 22 (1):52-69.
    Mill's most famous departure from Bentham is his distinction between higher and lower pleasures. This article argues that quality and quantity are independent and irreducible properties of pleasures that may be traded off against each other higher pleasures’ lexically dominate lower ones, and that the distinction is compatible with hedonism. I show how this interpretation not only makes sense of Mill but allows him to respond to famous problems, such as Crisp's Haydn and the oyster and Nozick's experience machine.
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  • Commodification in Law: Ideologies, Intractabilities, and Hyperboles. [REVIEW]Nick Smith - 2009 - Continental Philosophy Review 42 (1):101-129.
    In this paper I first aim to identify, from a perspective mindful of both analytic and Continental traditions, the central normative issues at stake in the various debates concerning commodification in law. Although there now exists a wealth of thoughtful literature in this area, I often find myself disoriented within the webs of moral criteria used to analyze the increasingly ubiquitous practice of converting legal goods into monetary values. I therefore attempt to distinguish and organize these often conflated conceptual distinctions (...)
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  • Back to the Future? Temporality and Society in Indian Constitutional Law: A Closer Look at Section 377 and Sabarimala Decisions and the Genealogy of Legal Reasoning.Jean-Philippe Dequen - 2020 - Journal of Human Values 26 (1):17-29.
    ‘On the 26th of January 1950, we are going to enter into a life of contradictions. In politics we will have equality and in social and economic life we will have inequality’. B. R. Ambedkar’s famou...
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  • Current Emotion Research in Economics.Klaus Wälde & Agnes Moors - 2017 - Emotion Review 9 (3):271-278.
    Positive and negative feelings were central to the development of economics, especially in utility theory in classical economics. While neoclassical utility theory ignored feelings, behavioral economics more recently reintroduced feelings in utility theory. Beyond feelings, economic theorists use full-fledged specific emotions to explain behavior that otherwise could not be understood or they study emotions out of interest for the emotion itself. While some analyses display a strong overlap between psychological thinking and economic modelling, in most cases there is still a (...)
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  • Un buen medio para un buen fin: una visión utilitarista de la democracia.Blanca Rodríguez López - 2010 - Telos: Revista Iberoamericana de Estudios Utilitaristas 17 (2):189-208.
    Utilitarianism and democracy had always been related, to the point that for same authors democracy is nothing but political utilitarianism. Though his claim can be challenged, utilitarians had always supported democracy. However, their main arguments and proposals had been remarkably different. In this paper we analyze these differences in terms both of the intrinsic differences in their theoretical proposals and of the changing historical and political context.
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  • Meritocratic Matching Can Dissolve the Efficiency-Equality Tradeoff: The Case of Voluntary Contributions.Heinrich H. Nax, Stefano Balietti, Ryan O. Murphy & Dirk Helbing - unknown
    One of the fundamental tradeoffs underlying society is that between efficiency and equality. The challenge for institutional design is to strike the right balance between these two goals. Game-theoretic models of public-goods provision under ‘meritocratic matching’ succinctly capture this tradeoff: under zero meritocracy, theory predicts maximal inefficiency but perfect equality; higher levels of meritocracy are predicted to improve efficiency but come at the cost of growing inequality. We conduct an experiment to test this tradeoff behaviorally and make the astonishing finding (...)
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  • Jerarquías especistas en el pensamiento occidental.Sandra Baquedano Jer - 2017 - Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 27:251-271.
    RESUMEN Si bien se han sondeado diversas fuentes a través de las cuales la tradición judeo-cristiana ha legitimado el especismo, seria injustamente parcial sostener que Occidente debe únicamente a su religión más popular e influyente el trato lesivo y discriminatorio hacia las demás especies. En diversas variantes, a partir de todo tipo de argumentos y supuestos, las jerarquías discriminatorias de especies no han constituido la excepción, sino más bien la regla. Esta tendencia, que está presente en diferentes cosmovisiones occidentales -y (...)
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  • The Replaceability Argument in the Ethics of Animal Husbandry.Nicolas Delon - 2016 - Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics.
    Most people agree that inflicting unnecessary suffering upon animals is wrong. Many fewer people, including among ethicists, agree that painlessly killing animals is necessarily wrong. The most commonly cited reason is that death (without pain, fear, distress) is not bad for them in a way that matters morally, or not as significantly as it does for persons, who are self-conscious, make long-term plans and have preferences about their own future. Animals, at least those that are not persons, lack a morally (...)
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  • Diversity Ethics. An Alternative to Peter Singer's Ethics.Caroline Guibet Lafaye & Javier Romañach Cabrero - 2010 - Dilemata 3.
    Contemporary moral philosophy has different approaches to provide justice and equality to groups that are traditionally discriminated on the grounds of gender, religion, age, sexual orientation, etc. On the other hand, functionally diverse (disabled) people have had a parallel approach to their discrimination, excluded from mainstream diversities. Including functional diversity and the diversity model in modern recognition and redistribution theories, as another human diversity, provides an extended ethical approach: diversity ethics. This general framework also includes other fundamental ideas for equality (...)
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  • The Proper: Discourses of Purity.Margaret Davies - 1998 - Law and Critique 9 (2):147-173.
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