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Modal Logic. An Introduction

Tehran: Hermes Publishers (2002)

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  1. On Neighbourhood Product of Some Horn Axiomatizable Logics.Andrey Kudinov - 2018 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 26 (3):316-338.
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  • A Quick Guided Tour to the Modal Logic S4.2.Aggeliki Chalki, Costas D. Koutras & Yorgos Zikos - 2018 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 26 (4):429-451.
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  • Meeting Floridi's Challenge to Artificial Intelligence From the Knowledge-Game Test for Self-Consciousness.Selmer Bringsjord - 2010 - Metaphilosophy 41 (3):292-312.
    Abstract: In the course of seeking an answer to the question "How do you know you are not a zombie?" Floridi (2005) issues an ingenious, philosophically rich challenge to artificial intelligence (AI) in the form of an extremely demanding version of the so-called knowledge game (or "wise-man puzzle," or "muddy-children puzzle")—one that purportedly ensures that those who pass it are self-conscious. In this article, on behalf of (at least the logic-based variety of) AI, I take up the challenge—which is to (...)
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  • Disappearing Diamonds: Fitch-Like Results in Bimodal Logic.Weng Kin San - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-14.
    Augment the propositional language with two modal operators: □ and ■. Define \ to be the dual of ■, i.e. \. Whenever is of the form φ → ψ, let ) be \. ) can be thought of as the modally qualified counterpart of —for instance, under the metaphysical interpretation of \, where says φ implies ψ, ) says φ implies possiblyψ. This paper shows that for various interesting instances of, fairly weak assumptions suffice for ) to imply —so, the (...)
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  • An Infinitary Graded Modal Logic.Maurizio Fattorosi-Barnaba & Silvano Grassotti - 1995 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 41 (4):547-563.
    We prove a completeness theorem for Kmath image, the infinitary extension of the graded version K0 of the minimal normal logic K, allowing conjunctions and disjunctions of countable sets of formulas. This goal is achieved using both the usual tools of the normal logics with graded modalities and the machinery of the predicate infinitary logics in a version adapted to modal logic.
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  • Methodological Empiricism and the Choice of Measurement Models in Social Sciences.Clayton Peterson - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 8 (3):831-854.
    Realism is generally assumed as the correct position with regards to psychological research and the measurement of psychological attributes in psychometrics. Borsboom et al., 203–219 2003), for instance, argued that the choice of a reflective measurement model necessarily implies a commitment to the existence of psychological constructs as well as a commitment to the belief that empirical testing of measurement models can justify their correspondence with real causal structures. Hood :739–761 2013) deemphasized Borsboom et al.’s position and argued that the (...)
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  • Contrary-to-Duty Paradoxes and Counterfactual Deontic Logic.Daniel Rönnedal - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-36.
    In this paper, I will discuss some examples of the so-called contrary-to-duty paradox, a well-known puzzle in deontic logic. A contrary-to-duty obligation is an obligation telling us what ought to be the case if something forbidden is true, for example: ‘If she is guilty, she should confess’. Contrary-to-duty obligations are important in our moral and legal thinking. Therefore, we want to be able to find an adequate symbolisation of such obligations in some logical system, a task that has turned out (...)
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  • Conflicting Intentions: Rectifying the Consistency Requirements.Hein Duijf, Jan Broersen & John-Jules Ch Meyer - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (4):1097-1118.
    Many philosophers are convinced that rationality dictates that one’s overall set of intentions be consistent. The starting point and inspiration for our study is Bratman’s planning theory of intentions. According to this theory, one needs to appeal to the fulfilment of characteristic planning roles to justify norms that apply to our intentions. Our main objective is to demonstrate that one can be rational despite having mutually inconsistent intentions. Conversely, it is also shown that one can be irrational despite having a (...)
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  • The Consequences of Taking Consequentialism Seriously.Philip E. Tetlock - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):31.
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  • Normative, Descriptive and Prescriptive Responses.Jonathan Baron - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):32.
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  • Actions, Inactions and the Temporal Dimension.Karl Halvor Teigen - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):30.
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  • What Goals Are to Count?Mark D. Spranca - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):29.
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  • Goals, Values and Benefits.Frederic Schick - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):29.
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  • Can Goals Be Uniquely Defined?Ilana Ritov - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):28.
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  • Broadening the Base for Bringing Cognitive Psychology to Bear on Ethics.Peter Railton - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):27.
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  • A “Should” Too Many.Paul M. Pietroski - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):26.
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  • Side Effects: Limitations of Human Rationality.Keith Oatley - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):24.
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  • Some Examples of Nonconsequentialist Decisions.Gerald M. Phillips - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):25.
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  • Does Consequentialism Pay?Adam Morton - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):24.
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  • Consequentialism in Haste.Roger A. McCain - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):23.
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  • Jonathan Baron, Consequentialism and Error Theory.Sanford S. Levy - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):22.
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  • On Begging the Question When Naturalizing Norms.Leonard D. Katz - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):21.
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  • Departing From Consequentialism Versus Departing From Decision Theory.Frank Jackson - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):21.
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  • Elicitation Rules and Incompatible Goals.Julie R. Irwin - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):20.
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  • Truth or Consequences.John Heil - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):19.
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  • Consequences of Consequentialism.Rick Grush - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):18.
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  • Is Consequentialism Better Regarded as a Form of Reasoning or as a Pattern of Behavior?Steve Fuller - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):16.
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  • Moral Errors.Clark Glymour - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):17.
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  • Consequentialism and Utility Theory.Deborah Frisch - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):16.
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  • Normative and Descriptive Consequentialism.Jonathan St B. T. Evans - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):15.
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  • Why Care Where Moral Intuitions Come From?Susan Dwyer - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):14.
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  • Correct Decisions and Their Good Consequences.Steven Daniel - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):13.
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  • Do, or Should, All Human Decisions Conform to the Norms of a Consumer-Oriented Culture?L. Jonathan Cohen - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):12.
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  • Inappropriate Judgements: Slips, Mistakes or Violations?Peter Ayton & Nigel Harvey - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):12.
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  • Three Reservations About Consequentialism.Hal R. Arkes - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):11.
    According to a simple form of consequentialism, we should base decision on our judgments about their consequences for achieving out goals. Our goals give us reason to endorse consequentialism as a standard of decision making. Alternative standards invariably lead to consequences that are less good in this sense. Yet some people knowingly follow decision rules that violate consequentialism. For example, they prefer harmful omissions to less harmful acts, they favor the status quo over alternatives they would otherwise judge to be (...)
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  • Fairness to Policies, Distinctions and Intuitions.Jonathan E. Adler - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):10.
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  • Nonconsequentialist decisions.Jonathan Baron - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):1.
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  • Syntactic Foundations for Unawareness of Theorems.Spyros Galanis - 2011 - Theory and Decision 71 (4):593-614.
    We provide a syntactic model of unawareness. By introducing multiple knowledge modalities, one for each sub-language, we specifically model agents whose only mistake in reasoning (other than their unawareness) is to underestimate the knowledge of more aware agents. We show that the model is a complete and sound axiomatization of the set-theoretic model of Galanis (University of Southampton Discussion paper 709, 2007) and compare it with other unawareness models in the literature.
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  • Quantified Modal Logic with Neighborhood Semantics.Geir Waagbø & G. Waagbø - 1992 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 38 (1):491-499.
    The paper presents a semantics for quantified modal logic which has a weaker axiomatization than the usual Kripke semantics. In particular, the Barcan Formula and its converse are not valid with the proposed semantics. Subclasses of models which validate BF and other interesting formulas are presented. A completeness theorem is proved, and the relation between this result and completeness with respect to Kripke models is investigated.
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  • A Modal Theorem-Preserving Translation of a Class of Three-Valued Logics of Incomplete Information.D. Ciucci & D. Dubois - 2013 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 23 (4):321-352.
    There are several three-valued logical systems that form a scattered landscape, even if all reasonable connectives in three-valued logics can be derived from a few of them. Most papers on this subject neglect the issue of the relevance of such logics in relation with the intended meaning of the third truth-value. Here, we focus on the case where the third truth-value means unknown, as suggested by Kleene. Under such an understanding, we show that any truth-qualified formula in a large range (...)
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  • Models for Normal Intuitionistic Modal Logics.Milan Božić & Kosta Došen - 1984 - Studia Logica 43 (3):217 - 245.
    Kripke-style models with two accessibility relations, one intuitionistic and the other modal, are given for analogues of the modal systemK based on Heyting's prepositional logic. It is shown that these two relations can combine with each other in various ways. Soundness and completeness are proved for systems with only the necessity operator, or only the possibility operator, or both. Embeddings in modal systems with several modal operators, based on classical propositional logic, are also considered. This paper lays the ground for (...)
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  • The Epistemic Structure of a Theory of a Game.Michael Bacharach - 1994 - Theory and Decision 37 (1):7-48.
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  • Points of View Beyond Models: Towards a Formal Approach to Points of View as Access to the World. [REVIEW]Fernando Charro & Juan J. Colomina - 2014 - Foundations of Science 19 (2):137-151.
    According to Vázquez and Liz (Found Sci 16(4): 383–391, 2011), Points of View (PoV) can be considered in two different ways. On the one hand, they can be explained following the model of propositional attitudes. This model assumes that the internal structure of a PoV is constituted by a subject, a set of contents, and a set of relations between the subject and those contents. On the other hand, we can analyze points of view taking as a model the notions (...)
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  • Infinitary S5‐Epistemic Logic.Aviad Heifetz - 1997 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 43 (3):333-342.
    It is known that a theory in S5-epistemic logic with several agents may have numerous models. This is because each such model specifies also what an agent knows about infinite intersections of events, while the expressive power of the logic is limited to finite conjunctions of formulas. We show that this asymmetry between syntax and semantics persists also when infinite conjunctions are permitted in the language. We develop a strengthened S5-axiomatic system for such infinitary logics, and prove a strong completeness (...)
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  • The Logic of the Knowledge Norm of Assertion.Julian J. Schlöder - 2018 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 7 (1):49-57.
    The knowledge norm of assertion is the subject of a lively debate on when someone is in a position to assert something. However, not much has been said about the logic that underlies such debate. In this paper, I propose a formalisation of the knowledge norm in a deontic logic that aims to be explanatory and conceptually sound. Afterwards, I investigate some problems that this formalisation makes visible. This reveals some significant limitations of the underlying logic: it can neither contain (...)
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  • Agents Necessitating Effects in Newtonian Time and Space: From Power and Opportunity to Effectivity.Jan Broersen - 2019 - Synthese 196 (1):31-68.
    We extend stit logic by adding a spatial dimension. This enables us to distinguish between powers and opportunities of agents. Powers are agent-specific and do not depend on an agent’s location. Opportunities do depend on locations, and are the same for every agent. The central idea is to define the real possibility to see to the truth of a condition in space and time as the combination of the power and the opportunity to do so. The focus on agent-relative powers (...)
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  • Research in Progress: Report on the ICAIL 2017 Doctoral Consortium.Maria Dymitruk, Réka Markovich, Rūta Liepiņa, Mirna El Ghosh, Robert van Doesburg, Guido Governatori & Bart Verheij - 2018 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 26 (1):49-97.
    This paper arose out of the 2017 international conference on AI and law doctoral consortium. There were five students who presented their Ph.D. work, and each of them has contributed a section to this paper. The paper offers a view of what topics are currently engaging students, and shows the diversity of their interests and influences.
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  • Proof Theory for Functional Modal Logic.Shawn Standefer - 2018 - Studia Logica 106 (1):49-84.
    We present some proof-theoretic results for the normal modal logic whose characteristic axiom is \. We present a sequent system for this logic and a hypersequent system for its first-order form and show that these are equivalent to Hilbert-style axiomatizations. We show that the question of validity for these logics reduces to that of classical tautologyhood and first-order logical truth, respectively. We close by proving equivalences with a Fitch-style proof system for revision theory.
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  • Reasoning with Moral Conflicts.John F. Horty - 2003 - Noûs 37 (4):557–605.
    Let us say that a normative conflict is a situation in which an agent ought to perform an action A, and also ought to perform an action B, but in which it is impossible for the agent to perform both A and B. Not all normative conflicts are moral conflicts, of course. It may be that the agent ought to perform the action A for reasons of personal generosity, but ought to perform the action B for reasons of prudence: perhaps (...)
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  • The Many Faces of Closure and Introspection.Patrick Allo - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (1):91-124.
    In this paper I present a more refined analysis of the principles of deductive closure and positive introspection. This analysis uses the expressive resources of logics for different types of group knowledge, and discriminates between aspects of closure and computation that are often conflated. The resulting model also yields a more fine-grained distinction between implicit and explicit knowledge, and places Hintikka’s original argument for positive introspection in a new perspective.
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