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Studies in the Way of Words

Synthese 84 (1):153-161 (1989)

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  1. We’ve discovered that projection across conjunction is asymmetric.Matthew Mandelkern, Jérémy Zehr, Jacopo Romoli & Florian Schwarz - 2020 - Linguistics and Philosophy 43 (5):473-514.
    Is the mechanism behind presupposition projection and filtering fundamentally asymmetric or symmetric? This is a foundational question for the theory of presupposition which has been at the centre of attention in recent literature :287–316, 2008b. https://doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2008.021, Semant Pragmat 2:1–78, 2009. https://doi.org/10.3765/sp.2.3; Rothschild in Semant Pragmat 4:1–43, 2011/2015. https://doi.org/10.3765/sp.4.3 a.o.). It also bears on broader issues concerning the source of asymmetries observed in natural language: are these simply rooted in superficial asymmetries of language use ; or are they, at least in (...)
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  • On the Infinite Regress of a Speaker’s Intentions.Nayuta Miki - 2020 - Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 29:41-56.
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  • Varieties of Quotation Revisited.Herman Cappelen & Ernie Lepore - 2003 - Belgian Journal of Linguistics (17):51-75.
    This paper develops the view presented in our 1997 paper "Varieties of Quotation". In the first part of the paper we show how phenomena such as scare-quotes, echoing and mimicry can be treated as what we call Speech Act Heuristics. We then defend a semantic account of mixed quotation. Along the way we discuss the role of indexicals in mixed quotation and the noncancelability of reference to words in mixed quotation. We also respond to some objections raised by Recanati, Saka, (...)
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  • Omissions and Their Effects.Martin Montminy - forthcoming - Journal of the American Philosophical Association:1-15.
    According to what I call the identity view, omissions are actual events. For example, the nominal ‘Ali's non-jogging’ denotes whatever Ali is doing at the time she is said not to be jogging. Some have objected that omissions cannot be events, since the two do not have the same causal relations. I show how advocates of the identity view can offer a pragmatic account of the data the objection relies on.
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  • Imagining Organizational Transformation Through Linguistic Suggestion.Parthasarathi Banerjee - 2003 - Journal of Human Values 9 (1):3-18.
    Organization emerges as reality only through language. Transformation is such an emergence and it must get over the present context. A descriptive or implicative language fails to transcend the context. Linguistic suggestion of imageries and linguistic communion through imagination take departure from the present context and emerge as the new pleasurable transformed reality of organization. Linguistic holds the key to organizational transformation.
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  • Roasting Ethics.Luvell Anderson - 2020 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 78 (4):451-464.
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  • Enciclopédia de Termos Lógico-Filosóficos.João Branquinho, Desidério Murcho & Nelson Gonçalves Gomes (eds.) - 2006 - São Paulo, SP, Brasil: Martins Fontes.
    Esta enciclopédia abrange, de uma forma introdutória mas desejavelmente rigorosa, uma diversidade de conceitos, temas, problemas, argumentos e teorias localizados numa área relativamente recente de estudos, os quais tem sido habitual qualificar como «estudos lógico-filosóficos». De uma forma apropriadamente genérica, e apesar de o território teórico abrangido ser extenso e de contornos por vezes difusos, podemos dizer que na área se investiga um conjunto de questões fundamentais acerca da natureza da linguagem, da mente, da cognição e do raciocínio humanos, bem (...)
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  • Wittgenstein’s Influence on Austin’s Philosophy of Language.Daniel W. Harris & Elmar Unnsteinsson - 2018 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 26 (2):371-395.
    Many philosophers have assumed, without argument, that Wittgenstein influenced Austin. More often, however, this is vehemently denied, especially by those who knew Austin personally. We compile and assess the currently available evidence for Wittgenstein’s influence on Austin’s philosophy of language. Surprisingly, this has not been done before in any detail. On the basis of both textual and circumstantial evidence we show that Austin’s work demonstrates substantial engagement with Wittgenstein’s later philosophy. In particular, Austin’s 1940 paper, ‘The Meaning of a Word’, (...)
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  • No More Charity, Please! Enthymematic Parsimony and the Pitfall of Benevolence.Fabio Paglieri - 2007 - In Christopher W. Tindale Hans V. Hansen (ed.), Dissensus and the Search for Common Ground. Ossa. pp. 1--26.
    Why are enthymemes so frequent? Are we dumb arguers, smart rhetoricians, or parsimonious reasoners? This paper investigates systematic use of enthymemes, criticizing the application of the principle of charity to their interpretation. In contrast, I propose to analyze enthymematic argumentation in terms of parsimony, i.e. as a manifestation of the rational tendency to economize over scant resources. Consequences of this view on the current debate on enthymemes and on their rational reconstruction are discussed.
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  • Strawson on 'If' and ⊃.Gunnar Björnsson - 2008 - South African Journal of Philosophy 27 (3):24-35.
    This paper is concerned with Sir Peter Strawson’s critical discussion of Paul Grice’s defence of the material implication analysis of conditionals. It argues that although Strawson’s own ‘consequentialist’ suggestion concerning the meaning of conditionals cannot be correct, a related and radically contextualist account is able to both account for the phenomena that motivated Strawson’s consequentialism, and to undermine the material implication analysis by providing a simpler account of the processes that we go through when interpreting conditionals.
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  • The Radical Account of Bare Plural Generics.Anthony Nguyen - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (5):1303-1331.
    Bare plural generic sentences pervade ordinary talk. And yet it is extremely controversial what semantics to assign to such sentences. In this paper, I achieve two tasks. First, I develop a novel classification of the various standard uses to which bare plurals may be put. This “variety data” is important—it gives rise to much of the difficulty in systematically theorizing about bare plurals. Second, I develop a novel account of bare plurals, the radical account. On this account, all bare plurals (...)
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  • Anchoring Utterances.Herbert H. Clark - forthcoming - Topics in Cognitive Science.
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  • Truth, Testimony, and Self-Deception.David Zapero - 2020 - Philosophical Explorations 23 (3):281-291.
    The essay explores Richard Moran’s conception of the self-relation that certain social interactions involve. My focus is on the following question: how much room is there for being deceived about h...
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  • Being at the Centre: Self-Location in Thought and Language.Clas Weber - 2016 - In M. Garcia-Carpintero & S. Torre (eds.), About Oneself: De Se Thought and Communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 246-271.
    Self-locating attitudes and assertions provide a challenge to the received view of mental and linguistic intentionality. In this paper I try to show that the best way to meet this challenge is to adopt relativistic, centred possible worlds accounts for both belief and communication. First, I argue that self-locating beliefs support a centred account of belief. Second, I argue that self-locating utterances support a complementary centred account of communication. Together, these two claims motivate a unified centred conception of belief and (...)
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  • Fictional Characters, Transparency, and Experiential Sharing.Marco Caracciolo - 2018 - Topoi 39 (4):811-817.
    How can providing less textual information about a fictional character make his or her mind more transparent and accessible to the reader? This is the question that emerges from an empirical study of reader response conducted by Kotovych et al. Taking my cue from this study, I discuss the role of implied information in readers’ interactions with characters in prose fiction. This is the textual strategy I call ‘character-centered implicature.’ I argue that the inferential work cued by implicature creates an (...)
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  • Wyrażenia ocenne – próba klasyfikacji.Natalia Karczewska - 2016 - Studia Semiotyczne 30 (2):129-153.
    W niniejszym artykule proponuję pewną klasyfikację wyrażeń ocennych. Uznaję, że podstawowym kryterium odróżnienia ich od wyrażeń deskryptywnych jest test bezbłędnej niezgody. Następnie omawiam kilka zjawisk, które mogłyby podawać w wątpliwość linię tego podziału: zależność kontekstową, nieostrość i używanie wyrażeń deskryptywnych do wyrażania sądów ocennych. Przytaczam propozycję Christophera Kennedy’ego, zgodnie z którą przymiotniki stopniowalne mogą wyrażać dwa rodzaje subiektywności. Modyfikuję to stanowisko przez postulat wyróżnienia dodatkowego podrodzaju wyrażeń subiektywnych, które nie są ocenne i proponuję test językowy, który pozwala je identyfikować. W (...)
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  • Embodied Language Comprehension Requires an Enactivist Paradigm of Cognition.Michiel van Elk, Marc Slors & Harold Bekkering - 2010 - Frontiers in Psychology 1.
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  • Cross-Linguistic Variation in the Meaning of Quantifiers: Implications for Pragmatic Enrichment.Penka Stateva, Arthur Stepanov, Viviane Déprez, Ludivine Emma Dupuy & Anne Colette Reboul - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Language and Other Artifacts: Socio-Cultural Dynamics of Niche Construction.Chris Sinha - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Why Language Really is Not a Communication System: A Cognitive View of Language Evolution.Anne C. Reboul - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Social Interaction, Languaging and the Operational Conditions for the Emergence of Observing.Vincenzo Raimondi - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Seeing Some One.Wolfgang Prinz - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Binding Lies.Avraham Merzel, Ilana Ritov, Yaakov Kareev & Judith Avrahami - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Creative Argumentation: When and Why People Commit the Metaphoric Fallacy.Francesca Ervas, Antonio Ledda, Amitash Ojha, Giuseppe Antonio Pierro & Bipin Indurkhya - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Some Pieces Are Missing: Implicature Production in Children.Sarah F. V. Eiteljoerge, Nausicaa Pouscoulous & Elena V. M. Lieven - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Context in Generalized Conversational Implicatures: The Case of Some.Ludivine E. Dupuy, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Anne Cheylus & Anne C. Reboul - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Bayesian Reasoning with Ifs and Ands and Ors.Nicole Cruz, Jean Baratgin, Mike Oaksford & David E. Over - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Recursive Subsystems in Aphasia and Alzheimer's Disease: Case Studies in Syntax and Theory of Mind.Zoltán Bánréti, Ildikó Hoffmann & Veronika Vincze - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • How Contrast Situations Affect the Assignment of Causality in Symmetric Physical Settings.Sieghard Beller & Andrea Bender - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Context as Relevance-Driven Abduction and Charitable Satisficing.Salvatore Attardo - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • The Place of Development in the History of Psychology and Cognitive Science.Gabriella Airenti - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Writing, Graphic Codes, and Asynchronous Communication.Olivier Morin, Piers Kelly & James Winters - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (2):727-743.
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  • To Say the Least: Where Deceptively Withholding Information Ends and Lying Begins.Marta Dynel - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (2):555-582.
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  • Meaning: An Intersemiotic Perspective.Horst Ruthrof - 1995 - Semiotica 104 (1-2):23-44.
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  • Communicative Context Affects Use of Referential Prosody.Christina Y. Tzeng, Laura L. Namy & Lynne C. Nygaard - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (11).
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  • The Relation Between Factual and Counterfactual Conditionals.Ana Cristina Quelhas, Célia Rasga & P. N. Johnson-Laird - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2205-2228.
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  • The Influence of Shared Visual Context on the Successful Emergence of Conventions in a Referential Communication Task.Thomas F. Müller, James Winters & Olivier Morin - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (9).
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  • Facts and Possibilities: A Model‐Based Theory of Sentential Reasoning.Sangeet S. Khemlani, Ruth M. J. Byrne & Philip N. Johnson‐Laird - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):1887-1924.
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  • The Truth of Conditional Assertions.Geoffrey P. Goodwin & P. N. Johnson‐Laird - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2502-2533.
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  • The Test of Truth: An Experimental Investigation of the Norm of Assertion.John Turri - 2013 - Cognition 129 (2):279-291.
    Assertion is fundamental to our lives as social and cognitive beings. Philosophers have recently built an impressive case that the norm of assertion is factive. That is, you should make an assertion only if it is true. Thus far the case for a factive norm of assertion been based on observational data. This paper adds experimental evidence in favor of a factive norm from six studies. In these studies, an assertion’s truth value dramatically affects whether people think it should be (...)
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  • When Children Are More Logical Than Adults: Experimental Investigations of Scalar Implicature.Ira A. Noveck - 2001 - Cognition 78 (2):165-188.
    A conversational implicature is an inference that consists in attributing to a speaker an implicit meaning that goes beyond the explicit linguistic meaning of an utterance. This paper experimentallyinvestigates scalar implicature, a paradigmatic case of implicature in which a speaker's use of a term like Some indicates that the speaker had reasons not to use a more informative one from the samescale, e.g. All; thus, Some implicates Not all. Pragmatic theorists like Grice would predict that a pragmatic interpretation is determined (...)
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  • Spatial Reasoning in Tenejapan Mayans.Peggy Li, Linda Abarbanell, Lila Gleitman & Anna Papafragou - 2011 - Cognition 120 (1):33-53.
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  • Are Children with Specific Language Impairment Competent with the Pragmatics and Logic of Quantification?Napoleon Katsos, Clara Andrés Roqueta, Rosa Ana Clemente Estevan & Chris Cummins - 2011 - Cognition 119 (1):43-57.
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  • When Some is Actually All: Scalar Inferences in Face-Threatening Contexts.Jean-François Bonnefon, Aidan Feeney & Gaëlle Villejoubert - 2009 - Cognition 112 (2):249-258.
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  • The Semantics and Acquisition of Number Words: Integrating Linguistic and Developmental Perspectives.Julien Musolino - 2004 - Cognition 93 (1):1-41.
    This article brings together two independent lines of research on numerally quantified expressions, e.g. two girls. One stems from work in linguistic theory and asks what truth conditional contributions such expressions make to the utterances in which they are used--in other words, what do numerals mean? The other comes from the study of language development and asks when and how children learn the meaning of such expressions. My goal is to show that when integrated, these two perspectives can both constrain (...)
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  • La théorie des ressources communes : cadre interprétatif pour les institutions publiques?Alain Létourneau - 2015 - Éthique Publique 17 (2).
    Les systèmes sociaux complexes étudiés par Elinor Ostrom et les chercheurs associés caractérisent souvent des réseaux de petite ou de moyenne échelle, tant pour des ressources matérielles qu’informationnelles. Mais d’un point de vue citoyen, les outils, institutions des collectifs sociopolitiques peuvent-ils être pensés sous l’angle des ressources communes et, à ce titre, donner lieu à l’émergence d’une gouvernance participative, en étant vus comme à préserver par les concernés? Pour favoriser une telle lecture, il nous faut clarifier quelques apports de l’école (...)
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  • Recognizing Communicative Intentions in Infancy.Gergely Csibra - 2010 - Mind and Language 25 (2):141-168.
    I make three related proposals concerning the development of receptive communication in human infants. First, I propose that the presence of communicative intentions can be recognized in others' behaviour before the content of these intentions is accessed or inferred. Second, I claim that such recognition can be achieved by decoding specialized ostensive signals. Third, I argue on empirical bases that, by decoding ostensive signals, human infants are capable of recognizing communicative intentions addressed to them. Thus, learning about actual modes of (...)
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  • Game Theory, Cheap Talk and Post‐Truth Politics: David Lewis Vs. John Searle on Reasons for Truth‐Telling.S. M. Amadae - 2018 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 48 (3):306-329.
    I offer two potential diagnoses of the behavioral norms governing post‐truth politics by comparing the view of language, communication, and truth‐telling put forward by David Lewis (extended by game theorists), and John Searle. My first goal is to specify the different ways in which Lewis, and game theorists more generally, in contrast to Searle (in the company of Paul Grice and Jurgen Habermas), go about explaining the normativity of truthfulness within a linguistic community. The main difference is that for Lewis (...)
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  • Gossip as a Burdened Virtue.Mark Alfano & Brian Robinson - 2017 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 20 (3):473-82.
    Gossip is often serious business, not idle chitchat. Gossip allows those oppressed to privately name their oppressors as a warning to others. Of course, gossip can be in error. The speaker may be lying or merely have lacked sufficient evidence. Bias can also make those who hear the gossip more or less likely to believe the gossip. By examining the social functions of gossip and considering the differences in power dynamics in which gossip can occur, we contend that gossip may (...)
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  • Intending is Believing: A Defense of Strong Cognitivism.Berislav Marušić & John Schwenkler - 2018 - Analytic Philosophy 59 (3):309-340.
    We argue that intentions are beliefs—beliefs that are held in light of, and made rational by, practical reasoning. To intend to do something is neither more nor less than to believe, on the basis of one’s practical reasoning, that one will do it. The identification of the mental state of intention with the mental state of belief is what we call strong cognitivism about intentions. It is a strong form of cognitivism because we identify intentions with beliefs, rather than maintaining (...)
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