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  1. Simply providential: a Thomistic response to Schmid’s providential collapse argument against classical theism.Daniel Shields - 2024 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 95 (1):77-91.
    Classical theism is often said to suffer from the problem of modal collapse: if God is necessary and simple then all of his effects (creatures) are also necessary. Many classical theists have turned to extrinsic predication in response: God’s simple and necessary act is compatible with any number of possible effects or no effects, and is only said to be an act of creating in virtue of the existence of the universe itself. Leftow and Schmid criticize this solution for leading (...)
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