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  1. Emergence in Solid State Physics and Biology.George F. R. Ellis - 2020 - Foundations of Physics 50 (10):1098-1139.
    There has been much controversy over weak and strong emergence in physics and biology. As pointed out by Phil Anderson in many papers, the existence of broken symmetries is the key to emergence of properties in much of solid state physics. By carefully distinguishing between different types of symmetry breaking and tracing the relation between broken symmetries at micro and macro scales, I demonstrate that the emergence of the properties of semiconductors is a case of strong emergence. This is due (...)
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  • From Allostatic Agents to Counterfactual Cognisers: Active Inference, Biological Regulation, and the Origins of Cognition.Andrew W. Corcoran, Giovanni Pezzulo & Jakob Hohwy - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (3):1-45.
    What is the function of cognition? On one influential account, cognition evolved to co-ordinate behaviour with environmental change or complexity. Liberal interpretations of this view ascribe cognition to an extraordinarily broad set of biological systems—even bacteria, which modulate their activity in response to salient external cues, would seem to qualify as cognitive agents. However, equating cognition with adaptive flexibility per se glosses over important distinctions in the way biological organisms deal with environmental complexity. Drawing on contemporary advances in theoretical biology (...)
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  • The Realm of Continued Emergence: The Semiotics of George Herbert Mead and its Implications to Biosemiotics, Semiotic Matrix Theory, and Ecological Ethics.Jorge Conesa Sevilla - 2005 - Sign Systems Studies 33 (1):27-50.
    This examination of the often-inaccessible work and semiotics of George Herbert Mead focuses first on his pivotal ideas of Sociality, Consciousness, and Communication. Mead’s insight of sociality as forced relatedness, or forced semiosis, appearing early in evolution, or appearing in simple systems, guarantees him a foundational place among biosemioticians. These ideas are Mead’s exemplar description of multiple referentiality afforded to social organisms, thus enabling passing from one umwelt to another, with relative ease. Although Mead’s comprehensive semiosis is basically sound, and (...)
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  • Three Problems of Intersubjectivity—And One Solution.Wendelin Reich - 2010 - Sociological Theory 28 (1):40-63.
    Social thinkers often use the concept of intersubjectivity to mark out a problem of theoretical sociology: If people are unable to look into each others' minds, why do they often understand each other nonetheless? This issue has been debated extensively by philosophers and sociologists in three largely disconnected discourses. The article investigates the three discourses for isolable ideas that can be fitted into a sociological answer to the problem of intersubjectivity. An interactional solution, fully coherent with key insights from the (...)
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  • Metaphorical “Networks” and Verbal Communication: A Semiotic Perspective of Human Discourse.Marcel Danesi - 2003 - Sign Systems Studies 31 (2):341-363.
    This paper presents the notion that verbal discourse is structured, in form and contents, by metaphorical reasoning. It discusses the concept of “metaphorical network” as a framework for relating the parts of a speech act to each other, since such an act seems to cohere into a meaningful text on the basis of “domains” that deliver common concepts. The basic finding of several research projects on this concept suggest that source domains allow speakers to derive sense from a verbal interaction (...)
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  • Three Generations of Complexity Theories: Nuances and Ambiguities.Michel Alhadeff‐Jones - 2008 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (1):66-82.
    The contemporary use of the term ‘complexity’ frequently indicates that it is considered a unified concept. This may lead to a neglect of the range of different theories that deal with the implications related to the notion of complexity. This paper, integrating both the English and the Latin traditions of research associated with this notion, suggests a more nuanced use of the term, thereby avoiding simplification of the concept to some of its dominant expressions only. The paper further explores the (...)
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  • Organizing Principles as Tools for Bridging the Gap Between System Theory and Biological Experimentation.Constantinos Mekios - 2016 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 38 (1):65-89.
    Twentieth-century theoretical efforts towards the articulation of general system properties came short of having the significant impact on biological practice that their proponents envisioned. Although the latter did arrive at preliminary mathematical formulations of such properties, they had little success in showing how these could be productively incorporated into the research agenda of biologists. Consequently, the gap that kept system-theoretic principles cut-off from biological experimentation persisted. More recently, however, simple theoretical tools have proved readily applicable within the context of systems (...)
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  • Replication and Reproduction.John Wilkins & Pierrick Bourrat - 2018 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  • Philosophy in the Light of Ai: Hegel or Leibniz.Sjoerd Van Tuinen - 2020 - Angelaki 25 (4):97-109.
    Philosophy already has a long history of coming to terms with artificial intelligence. But if the future of the concept is indeed inseparable from artificial languages and ubiquitous computing...
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  • Machine and Ecology.Yuk Hui - 2020 - Angelaki 25 (4):54-66.
    This article investigates the relation between machine and ecology, and the philosophical and historical questions concealed in these two seemingly incompatible terms. The opposition between machin...
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  • Big Historical Foundations for Deep Future Speculations: Cosmic Evolution, Atechnogenesis, and Technocultural Civilization.Cadell Last - 2017 - Foundations of Science 22 (1):39-124.
    Big historians are attempting to construct a general holistic narrative of human origins enabling an approach to studying the emergence of complexity, the relation between evolutionary processes, and the modern context of human experience and actions. In this paper I attempt to explore the past and future of cosmic evolution within a big historical foundation characterized by physical, biological, and cultural eras of change. From this analysis I offer a model of the human future that includes an addition and/or reinterpretation (...)
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  • Digital Persona, Big Data E Sfera Pubblica. Quali Sfide Per la Democrazia Che Verrà.Rosanna De Rosa - 2019 - Laboratorio dell’ISPF 16.
    [Digital persona, Big Data and public sphere. What challenges for the democracy to come]. The datification of the society has opened up unthinkable possibilities to improve the quality of our life, but it also poses new challenges. How to ensure that data is not used to enforce invasive control of our lives? How to avoid that the algorithms decide for us even when we don’t want it? How to defend our freedom from cyber-elites as much powerful as they are obscure? (...)
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  • Economic Cycles, Crises, and the Global Periphery.Leonid Grinin, Arno Tausch & Andrey Korotayev (eds.) - 2016 - Switzerland: Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
    This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifi cally the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfi lms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this (...)
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  • Philosophical Analysis of the Meaning and Nature of Entropy and Negative Entropy Theories.Kun Wu, Qiong Nan & Tianqi Wu - 2020 - Complexity 2020:1-11.
    The interpretation of entropy and negative entropy theories on the nature of information is the first scientific paradigm on the interpretation of the nature of information at the beginning of the rise of contemporary information science. The information entropy or negative entropy theories are the relative measurement for the structuralization degree of the system at a specific level, which have certain characteristics of relativity, functionality, and quantification. Although the concepts of entropy, negative entropy, information, entropy increase, and entropy decrease often (...)
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  • On social machines for algorithmic regulation.Nello Cristianini & Teresa Scantamburlo - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):645-662.
    Autonomous mechanisms have been proposed to regulate certain aspects of society and are already being used to regulate business organisations. We take seriously recent proposals for algorithmic regulation of society, and we identify the existing technologies that can be used to implement them, most of them originally introduced in business contexts. We build on the notion of ‘social machine’ and we connect it to various ongoing trends and ideas, including crowdsourced task-work, social compiler, mechanism design, reputation management systems, and social (...)
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  • Bounded Rationality and Heuristics in Humans and in Artificial Cognitive Systems.Antonio Lieto - 2019 - Isonomía. Revista de Teoría y Filosofía Del Derecho 1 (4):1-21.
    In this paper I will present an analysis of the impact that the notion of “bounded rationality”, introduced by Herbert Simon in his book “Administrative Behavior”, produced in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In particular, by focusing on the field of Automated Decision Making (ADM), I will show how the introduction of the cognitive dimension into the study of choice of a rational (natural) agent, indirectly determined - in the AI field - the development of a line of research (...)
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  • Can Ai Be Intelligent?Kazimierz Trzęsicki - 2016 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 48 (1):103-131.
    The aim of this paper is an attempt to give an answer to the question what does it mean that a computational system is intelligent. We base on some theses that though debatable are commonly accepted. Intelligence is conceived as the ability of tractable solving of some problems that in general are not solvable by deterministic Turing Machine.
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  • A Case Study of the Productivity of the Prefix Cyber- in English and Greek Legal Languages.Hanna Ciszek & Aleksandra Matulewska - 2019 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 58 (1):35-57.
    The aim of the paper is to investigate the impact of the Greek language on modern legal languages in the United Kingdom and United States of America. The focus is placed on terms with the prefix cyber- of Greek origin that have recently enriched the English legal languages in connection with the fact that certain new phenomena have been regulated by laws as a result of the development of new technologies. Therefore, the authors have investigated the occurrence of terms with (...)
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  • Sign Vehicles for Semiotic Travels: Two New Handbooks.Susan Petrilli & Augusto Ponzio - 2002 - Semiotica 2002 (141).
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  • From What to How: An Initial Review of Publicly Available AI Ethics Tools, Methods and Research to Translate Principles Into Practices.Jessica Morley, Luciano Floridi, Libby Kinsey & Anat Elhalal - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-28.
    The debate about the ethical implications of Artificial Intelligence dates from the 1960s :741–742, 1960; Wiener in Cybernetics: or control and communication in the animal and the machine, MIT Press, New York, 1961). However, in recent years symbolic AI has been complemented and sometimes replaced by Neural Networks and Machine Learning techniques. This has vastly increased its potential utility and impact on society, with the consequence that the ethical debate has gone mainstream. Such a debate has primarily focused on principles—the (...)
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  • A Sociological Agenda for the Tech Age.John Torpey - forthcoming - Theory and Society.
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  • Advancing Nursing Practice for Improved Health Outcomes Using the Principles of Perceptual Control Theory.Robert Griffiths & Timothy A. Carey - 2020 - Nursing Philosophy 21 (3).
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  • Mechanisms and Psychological Explanation.Cory Wright & William Bechtel - 2007 - In Paul Thagard (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science. Elsevier.
    As much as assumptions about mechanisms and mechanistic explanation have deeply affected psychology, they have received disproportionately little analysis in philosophy. After a historical survey of the influences of mechanistic approaches to explanation of psychological phenomena, we specify the nature of mechanisms and mechanistic explanation. Contrary to some treatments of mechanistic explanation, we maintain that explanation is an epistemic activity that involves representing and reasoning about mechanisms. We discuss the manner in which mechanistic approaches serve to bridge levels rather than (...)
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  • Interpretative Pros Hen Pluralism: from Computer-Mediated Colonization to a Pluralistic Intercultural Digital Ethics.Charles Melvin Ess - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology:1-19.
    Intercultural Digital Ethics faces the central challenge of how to develop a global IDE that can endorse and defend some set of universal ethical norms, principles, frameworks, etc. alongside sustaining local, culturally variable identities, traditions, practices, norms, and so on. I explicate interpretive pros hen ethical pluralism ) emerging in the late 1990s and into the twenty-first century in response to this general problem and its correlates, including conflicts generated by “computer-mediated colonization” that imposed homogenous values, communication styles, and so (...)
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  • Consciousness as a Contextually Emergent Property of Self-Sustaining Systems.J. Scott Jordan & Marcello Ghin - 2006 - Mind and Matter 4 (1):45-68.
    The concept of contextual emergence has been introduced as a speci?c kind of emergence in which some, but not all of the conditions for a higher-level phenomenon exist at a lower level. Further conditions exist in contingent contexts that provide stability conditions at the lower level, which in turn accord the emergence of novelty at the higher level. The purpose of the present paper is to propose that consciousness is a contextually emergent property of self-sustaining systems. The core assumption is (...)
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  • Social Ontology.Brian Epstein - 2018 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Social ontology is the study of the nature and properties of the social world. It is concerned with analyzing the various entities in the world that arise from social interaction. -/- A prominent topic in social ontology is the analysis of social groups. Do social groups exist at all? If so, what sorts of entities are they, and how are they created? Is a social group distinct from the collection of people who are its members, and if so, how is (...)
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  • Reduction, Integration, and the Unity of Science: Natural, Behavioral, and Social Sciences and the Humanities.William P. Bechtel & Andrew Hamilton - 2007 - In T. Kuipers (ed.), Philosophy of Science: Focal Issues (Volume 1 of the Handbook of the Philosophy of Science). Elsevier.
    1. A Historical Look at Unity 2. Field Guide to Modern Concepts of Reduction and Unity 3. Kitcher's Revisionist Account of Unification 4. Critics of Unity 5. Integration Instead of Unity 6. Reduction via Mechanisms 7. Case Studies in Reduction and Unification across the Disciplines.
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  • The Shoulders of Our Giants: Claude Lévi-Strauss and His Legacy in Current Anthropology.Albert Doja - 2006 - Social Science Information 45 (1):79-107.
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  • Imitation or Efficiency? Aesthetics of Artificial Intelligence.Zheng Chen & Yu He - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-12.
    Artificial intelligence is regarded in the context of the tasks that are delegated to it during the development of technical projects and the features of the implementation of tasks that must be performed in real time without the possibility of interruption. The relevance of the study is determined by the fact that artificial intelligence sees as its main task the formalisation of decision-making with little or no human involvement. The basis of the methodological search are biological and prognostic methods. The (...)
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  • A Defence of Informational Structural Realism.Luciano Floridi - 2008 - Synthese 161 (2):219 - 253.
    This is the revised version of an invited keynote lecture delivered at the 1st Australian Computing and Philosophy Conference (CAP@AU; the Australian National University in Canberra, 31 October–2 November, 2003). The paper is divided into two parts. The first part defends an informational approach to structural realism. It does so in three steps. First, it is shown that, within the debate about structural realism (SR), epistemic (ESR) and ontic (OSR) structural realism are reconcilable. It follows that a version of OSR (...)
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  • Agency, Embodiment and Enactment in Psychosomatic Theory and Practice.Laurence J. Kirmayer & Ana Gómez-Carrillo - 2019 - Medical Humanities 45 (2):169-182.
    In this paper, we examine some of the conceptual, pragmatic and moral dilemmas intrinsic to psychosomatic explanation in medicine, psychiatry and psychology. Psychosomatic explanation invokes a social grey zone in which ambiguities and conflicts about agency, causality and moral responsibility abound. This conflict reflects the deep-seated dualism in Western ontology and concepts of personhood that plays out in psychosomatic research, theory and practice. Illnesses that are seen as psychologically mediated tend also to be viewed as less real or legitimate. New (...)
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  • Philosophy of Socio-Technical Systems.Günter Ropohl - 1999 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 4 (3):186-194.
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  • Analogue Ontology and Digital Disruption.Robert Hassan - forthcoming - Educational Philosophy and Theory:1-10.
    Pervasive digitality reveals us as analogue creatures that are unprepared for a world and a logic generated increasingly through automation. Promulgated by capitalism, digitality has created a new...
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  • From the Cellular Standpoint: Is DNA Sequence Genetic ‘Information’?Steven S. dC Rubin - 2017 - Biosemiotics 10 (2):247-264.
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  • Noise and Synthetic Biology: How to Deal with Stochasticity?Miguel Prado Casanova - 2020 - NanoEthics 14 (1):113-122.
    This paper explores the functional role of noise in synthetic biology and its relation to the concept of randomness. Ongoing developments in the field of synthetic biology are pursuing the re-organisation and control of biological components to make functional devices. This paper addresses the distinction between noise and randomness in reference to the functional relationships that each may play in the evolution of living and/or synthetic systems. The differentiation between noise and randomness in its constructive role, that is, between noise (...)
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  • How Disunity Matters to the History of Cybernetics in the Human Sciences in the United States, 1940–80.Ronald Kline - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (1):12-35.
    Rather than assume a unitary cybernetics, I ask how its disunity mattered to the history of the human sciences in the United States from about 1940 to 1980. I compare the work of four prominent social scientists – Herbert Simon, George Miller, Karl Deutsch, and Talcott Parsons – who created cybernetic models in psychology, economics, political science, and sociology with the work of anthropologist Gregory Bateson, and relate their interpretations of cybernetics to those of such well-known cyberneticians as Norbert Wiener, (...)
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  • What is the ‘Cybernetic’ in the ‘History of Cybernetics’? A French Case, 1968 to the Present.Jacob Krell - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (1):188-211.
    This article examines the history of cybernetics in France, and the history of French cybernetics in the context of the emergent field of the history of cybernetics. Drawing upon an unfamiliar group of intellectuals and sources, I discuss the way in which French cybernetics was not primarily the hyper-philosophical strain we have come to associate with names such as Derrida and Lévi-Strauss, but an approach to thinking through political and social problems that some on the left would even deign to (...)
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  • Who Wrote the Book of Life? Information and the Transformation of Molecular Biology, 1945–55.Lily E. Kay - 1995 - Science in Context 8 (4):609-634.
    The ArgumentThis paper focuses on the opening of a discursive space: the emergence of informational and scriptural representations of life and their self-negating consequences for the construction of biological meaning. It probes the notion of writing and the book of life and shows how molecular biology's claims to a status of language and texuality undermines its own objective of control. These textual significations were historically contingent. The informational representations of heredity and life were not an outcome of the internal cognitive (...)
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  • Tecnologia, Ignor'ncia E Violência.Pablo Rubén Mariconda - 2019 - Discurso 49 (2).
    Esta é uma versão ligeiramente modificada da aula inaugural do Departamento de Filosofia para o ano acadêmico de 2019, proferida em 19/03/2019.
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  • Learning System Thinking : The Role of Semiotic and Cognitive Resources.Maria Larsson - 2009 - Lund University Cognitive Studies 145.
    In the course of our educational life we are introduced to various subject areas, each with its specific way of representing knowledge. The challenge for the learner is to be able to think in ways that are supported by, and match, the representational format. A fundamental question for the science of learning concerns how this is achieved. In this thesis, it will be argued that by observing individuals collaboratively constructing their own graphic representations in a subject area that is new (...)
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  • Evolutionary Epistemology: Reviewing and Reviving with New Data the Research Programme for Distributed Biological Intelligence.Predrag Slijepcevic - 2018 - Biosystems 163:23-35.
    Numerous studies in microbiology, eukaryotic cell biology, plant biology, biomimetics, synthetic biology, and philosophy of science appear to support the principles of the epistemological theory inspired by evolution, also known as “Evolutionary Epistemology”, or EE. However, that none of the studies acknowledged EE suggests that its principles have not been formulated with sufficient clarity and depth to resonate with the interests of the empirical research community. In this paper I review evidence in favor of EE, and also reformulate EE principles (...)
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  • The Computational Boundary of a “Self”: Developmental Bioelectricity Drives Multicellularity and Scale-Free Cognition.Michael Levin - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Affekt Macht Netz. Auf dem Weg zu einer Sozialtheorie der Digitalen Gesellschaft (Hg. Breljak/ Mühlhoff/ Slaby).Rainer Mühlhoff, Anja Breljak & Jan Slaby (eds.) - 2019 - Bielefeld: transcript.
    -/- Shitstorms, Hate Speech oder virale Videos, die zum Klicken, Liken, Teilen bewegen: Die vernetzte Gesellschaft ist von Affekten getrieben und bringt selbst ganz neue Affekte hervor. -/- Die Beiträge des Bandes nehmen die medientechnologischen Entwicklungen unserer Zeit in den Blick und untersuchen sie aus der Perspektive einer kritischen Affekt- und Sozialphilosophie. Sie zeigen: Soziale Medien und digitale Plattformen sind nicht nur Räume des Austauschs, sie erschaffen Affektökonomien – und darin liegt auch ihre Macht. Indem sie neue Formen des sozialen (...)
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  • Dooyeweerd’s Understanding of Meaning.Andrew Basden & Sina Joneidy - 2019 - Philosophia Reformata 84 (2):141-170.
    Meaning is important in everyday life, and each science focuses on certain ways in which reality is meaningful. This article discusses practical implications of Herman Dooyeweerd’s understanding of meaning for everyday experience, scientific theories, scientific methodology, and philosophical underpinning. It uses eight themes related to meaning in Dooyeweerd’s philosophy, which are discussed philosophically in the first article. This article ends with a case study in which the themes are applied together to understanding Thomas Kuhn’s notion of paradigms.
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  • Norwich’s Entropy Theory: How Not to Go From Abstract to Actual.Lance Nizami - 2011 - Kybernetes 40:1102-1118.
    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ask whether a first-order-cybernetics concept, Shannon’s Information Theory, actually allows a far-reaching mathematics of perception allegedly derived from it, Norwich et al.’s “Entropy Theory of Perception”. Design/methodology/approach – All of The Entropy Theory, 35 years of publications, was scrutinized for its characterization of what underlies Shannon Information Theory: Shannon’s “general communication system”. There, “events” are passed by a “source” to a “transmitter”, thence through a “noisy channel” to a “receiver”, that passes (...)
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  • Philosophy as Conceptual Engineering: Inductive Logic in Rudolf Carnap's Scientific Philosophy.Christopher F. French - 2015 - Dissertation, University of British Columbia
    My dissertation explores the ways in which Rudolf Carnap sought to make philosophy scientific by further developing recent interpretive efforts to explain Carnap’s mature philosophical work as a form of engineering. It does this by looking in detail at his philosophical practice in his most sustained mature project, his work on pure and applied inductive logic. I, first, specify the sort of engineering Carnap is engaged in as involving an engineering design problem and then draw out the complications of design (...)
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  • On Social Machines for Algorithmic Regulation.Nello Cristianini & Teresa Scantamburlo - manuscript
    Autonomous mechanisms have been proposed to regulate certain aspects of society and are already being used to regulate business organisations. We take seriously recent proposals for algorithmic regulation of society, and we identify the existing technologies that can be used to implement them, most of them originally introduced in business contexts. We build on the notion of 'social machine' and we connect it to various ongoing trends and ideas, including crowdsourced task-work, social compiler, mechanism design, reputation management systems, and social (...)
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  • Information and Information Flow.Manuel Bremer & Daniel Cohnitz - 2004 - De Gruyter.
    This book is conceived as an introductory text into the theory of syntactic and semantic information, and information flow.
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  • My Social Networking Profile: Copy, Resemblance, or Simulacrum? A Poststructuralist Interpretation of Social Information Systems.David Kreps - 2010 - European Journal of Information Systems 19:104-115.
    This paper offers an introduction to poststructuralist interpretivist research in information systems, through a poststructuralist theoretical reading of the phenomenon and experience of social networking websites, such as Facebook. This is undertaken through an exploration of how loyally a social networking profile can represent the essence of an individual, and whether Platonic notions of essence, and loyalty of copy, are disturbed by the nature of a social networking profile, in ways described by poststructuralist thinker Deleuze’s notions of the reversal of (...)
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  • How to Knit Your Own Markov Blanket.Andy Clark - 2017 - Philosophy and Predictive Processing.
    Hohwy (Hohwy 2016, Hohwy 2017) argues there is a tension between the free energy principle and leading depictions of mind as embodied, enactive, and extended (so-called ‘EEE1 cognition’). The tension is traced to the importance, in free energy formulations, of a conception of mind and agency that depends upon the presence of a ‘Markov blanket’ demarcating the agent from the surrounding world. In what follows I show that the Markov blanket considerations do not, in fact, lead to the kinds of (...)
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