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Cosmos + Taxis (2017)

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  1. A User Profiling Component with the Aid of User Ontologies.Istvan-Tibor Nébel - 2003 - In Proceedings of Learning - Teaching - Knowledge - Adaptivity. University of Karlsruhe.
    What follows is a contribution to the field of user modeling for adaptive teaching and learning programs especially in the medical field. The paper outlines existing approaches to the problem of extracting user information in a form that can be exploited by adaptive software. We focus initially on the so-called stereotyping method, which allocates users into classes adaptively, reflecting characteristics such as physical data, social background, and computer experience. The user classifications of the stereotyping method are however ad hoc and (...)
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  • The Ontology of Epistemology.Barry Smith - 1987 - Reports in Philosophy 11:57-66.
    Ingarden’s puzzle is: how can we come to know what is essentially involved in an act of knowing? As starting point he takes what he holds to be a particular good candidate example of such an act, namely an act of perceiving an apple. Here we have act and object standing in a certain first-level relation to each other. We now in a second level act of reflection, make this first-level relation into an object, and strive to apprehend this object (...)
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  • The Benefits of Realism: A Realist Logic with Applications.Barry Smith - 2008 - In Katherine Munn & Barry Smith (eds.), Applied Ontology: An Introduction. Ontos. pp. 109-124.
    We propose a formalization of a realist ontology using first order logic with identity and allowing quantification over terms representing both individuals and universals. In addition to identity, the ontology includes also relational predicates such as subtype, instantiation, parthood, location, and inherence. Inspired in part by Davidson’s treatment of events, the ontology includes also various relations linking events to their participants and to the times at which they occur.
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  • Strategies for Referent Tracking in Electronic Health Records.Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2006 - Journal of Biomedical Informatics 39 (3):362-378.
    The goal of referent tracking is to create an ever-growing pool of data relating to the entities existing in concrete spatiotemporal reality. In the context of Electronic Healthcare Records (EHRs) the relevant concrete entities are not only particular patients but also their parts, diseases, therapies, lesions, and so forth, insofar as these are salient to diagnosis and treatment. Within a referent tracking system, all such entities are referred to directly and explicitly, something which cannot be achieved when familiar concept-based systems (...)
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  • HL7 RIM: An Incoherent Standard.Barry Smith & Werner Ceusters - 2006 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 124 (Proceedings of MIE 2006):133–138.
    The Health Level 7 Reference Information Model (HL7 RIM) is lauded by its authors as ‘the foundation of healthcare interoperability’. Yet even after some 10 years of development work, the RIM is still subject to a variety of logical and ontological flaws which have placed severe obstacles in the way of those who are called upon to develop implementations. We offer evidence that these obstacles are insurmountable and that the time has come to abandon an unworkable paradigm.
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  • Granular Partitions and Vagueness.Thomas Bittner & Barry Smith - 2003 - In Chris Welty & Barry Smith (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems (FOIS). New York, USA: ACM Press. pp. 309-320.
    There are some who defend a view of vagueness according to which there are intrinsically vague objects or attributes in reality. Here, in contrast, we defend a view of vagueness as a semantic property of names and predicates. All entities are crisp, on this view, but there are, for each vague name, multiple portions of reality that are equally good candidates for being its referent, and, for each vague predicate, multiple classes of objects that are equally good candidates for being (...)
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  • Kraus on Weininger, Kraus on Women, Kraus on Serbia.Barry Smith - 2003 - In Wolfgang Huemer & Marc-Oliver Schuster (eds.), Writing the Austrian Traditions: Relations Between Philosophy and Literature. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press. pp. 81-100.
    Otto Weininger’s Sex and Character interprets Kant’s categorical imperative in a way which takes it to imply that all human relations, including human sexual relations, are immoral; it is thus in a certain sense impossible to lead a moral life on this earth. We discuss Weininger’s ideas on man, woman, value and intellect, and describe their influence among the Central European intellectuals of his day, including Wittgenstein, and also including Karl Kraus.
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  • Referent Tracking for Command and Control Messaging Systems.Shahid Manzoor, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2009 - CEUR, Volume 555.
    The Joint Battle Management Language (JBML) is an XML-based language designed to allow Command and Control (C2) systems to interface easily with Modeling and Simulation (M&S) systems. While some of the XML-tags defined in this language correspond to types of entities that exist in reality, others are mere syntactic artifacts used to structure the messages themselves. Because these two kinds of tags are not formally distinguishable, JBML messages in effect confuse data with what the data represent. In this paper we (...)
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  • Beyond Paper.David Koepsell & Barry Smith - 2014 - The Monist 97 (2):222–235.
    The authors outline the way in which documents as social objects have evolved from their earliest forms to the electronic documents of the present day. They note that while certain features have remained consistent, processes regarding document authentication are seriously complicated by the easy reproducibility of digital entities. The authors argue that electronic documents also raise significant questions concerning the theory of ‘documentality’ advanced by Maurizio Ferraris, especially given the fact that interactive documents seem to blur the distinctions between the (...)
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  • Propositional Logic of Supposition and Assertion.John T. Kearns - 1997 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 38 (3):325-349.
    This presentation of a system of propositional logic is a foundational paper for systems of illocutionary logic. The language contains the illocutionary force operators '' for assertion and ' ' for supposition. Sentences occurring in proofs of the deductive system must be prefixed with one of these operators, and rules of take account of the forces of the sentences. Two kinds of semantic conditions are investigated; familiar truth conditions and commitment conditions. Accepting a statement A or rejecting A commits a (...)
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  • Urteilstheorien Und Sachverhalte.Artur Rojszczak & Barry Smith - 2001 - In Satz Und Sachverhalt. Academia Verlag. pp. 9-72.
    The dominant theory of judgment in 1870 was one or other variety of combination theory: the act of judgment is an act of combining concepts or ideas in the mind of the judging subject. In the decades to follow a succession of alternative theories arose to address defects in the combination theory, starting with Bolzano’s theory of propositions in themselves, Brentano’s theory of judgment as affirmation or denial of existence, theories distinguishing judgment act from judgment content advanced by Brentano’s students (...)
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  • Abstract Vs. Social Roles–Towards a General Theoretical Account of Roles.Frank Loebe - 2007 - Applied Ontology 2 (2):127-158.
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  • Franz Brentano on the Ontology of Mind.Kevin Mulligan & Barry Smith - 1985 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 45 (4):627-644.
    This is a review article on Franz Brentano’s Descriptive Psychology published in 1982. We provide a detailed exposition of Brentano’s work on this topic, focusing on the unity of consciousness, the modes of connection and the types of part, including separable parts, distinctive parts, logical parts and what Brentano calls modificational quasi-parts. We also deal with Brentano’s account of the objects of sensation and the experience of time.
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  • Living High and Letting Die.Barry Smith & Berit Brogaard - 2001 - Philosophy 76 (3):435-442.
    Imagine that your body has become attached, without your permission, to that of a sick violinist. The violinist is a human being. He will die if you detach him. Such detachment seems, nonetheless, to be morally permissible. Thomson argues that an unwantedly pregnant woman is in an analogous situation. Her argument is considered by many to have established the moral permissibility of abortion even under the assumption that the foetus is a human being. Another popular argument is that presented by (...)
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  • The Ontogenesis of Mathematical Objects.Barry Smith - 1975 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 6 (2):91-101.
    Mathematical objects are divided into (1) those which are autonomous, i.e., not dependent for their existence upon mathematicians’ conscious acts, and (2) intentional objects, which are so dependent. Platonist philosophy of mathematics argues that all objects belong to group (1), Brouwer’s intuitionism argues that all belong to group (2). Here we attempt to develop a dualist ontology of mathematics (implicit in the work of, e.g., Hilbert), exploiting the theories of Meinong, Husserl and Ingarden on the relations between autonomous and intentional (...)
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  • Thank Goodness That's Over.A. N. Prior - 1959 - Philosophy 34 (128):12 - 17.
    In a pair of very important papers, namely “Space, Time and Individuals” in the Journal of Philosophy for October 1955 and “The Indestructibility and Immutability of Substances” in Philosophical Studies for April 1956, Professor N. L. Wilson began something which badly needed beginning, namely the construction of a logically rigorous “substance-language” in which we talk about enduring and changing individuals as we do in common speech, as opposed to the “space-time” language favoured by very many mathematical logicians, perhaps most notably (...)
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  • Mindfulness and Mindlessness in Early Chan.Robert Sharf - 2014 - Philosophy East and West 64 (4):933-964.
    The Chan tradition is renowned as the “meditation” school of East Asia. Indeed, the Chinese term chan 禪 is an abbreviated transliteration of dhyāna, the Sanskrit term arguably closest to the modern English word “meditation.” Scholars typically date the emergence of this tradition to the early Tang dynasty , although Chan did not reach institutional maturity until the Song period . In time, Chinese Chan spread throughout East Asia, giving birth to the various Zen, Sŏn, and Thiền lineages of Japan, (...)
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  • Analysis and Metaphysics.G. E. M. Anscombe & P. F. Strawson - 1994 - Philosophical Quarterly 44 (177):528.
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  • The Truth About Fiction.Josef Seifert & Barry Smith - 1994 - In Kunst Und Ontologie: Für Roman Ingarden zum 100. Geburtstag. Amsterdam: Rodopi. pp. 97-118.
    Ingarden distinguishes four strata making up the structure of the literary work of art: the stratum of word sounds and sound-complexes; the stratum of meaning units; the stratum of represented objectivities (characters, actions, settings, and so forth); and the stratum of schematized aspects (perspectives under which the represented objectivities are given to the reader). It is not only works of literature which manifest this four-fold structure but also certain borderline cases such as newspaper articles, scientific works, biographies, and so forth. (...)
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  • There is No 'Truthmaker' Argument Against Nominalism.Josh Parsons - 1999 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (3):325 – 334.
    In his two recent books on ontology, Universals: an Opinionated Introduction, and A World of States of Affairs, David Armstrong gives a new argument against nominalism. That argument seems, on the face of it, to be similar to another argument that he used much earlier against Rylean behaviourism: the Truthmaker Argument, stemming from a certain plausible premise, the Truthmaker Principle. Other authors have traced the history of the truthmaker principle, its appearance in the work of Aristotle [10], Bradley [16], and (...)
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  • Towards an Ontology of Pain.Barry Smith, Werner Ceusters, Louis J. Goldberg & Richard Ohrbach - 2011 - In Proceedings of the Conference on Ontology and Analytical Metaphysics. Keio University Press.
    We present an ontology of pain and of other pain-related phenomena, building on the definition of pain provided by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). Our strategy is to identify an evolutionarily basic canonical pain phenomenon, involving unpleasant sensory and emotional experience based causally in localized tissue damage that is concordant with that experience. We then show how different variant cases of this canonical pain phenomenon can be distinguished, including pain that is elevated relative to peripheral trauma, (...)
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  • Aristotle, Menger, Mises: An Essay in the Metaphysics of Economics.Barry Smith - 1990 - History of Political Economy, Annual Supplement 22:263-288.
    There are, familiarly, a range of distinct and competing accounts of the methodological underpinnings of Menger' s work. These include Leibnizian, Kantian, Millian, and even Popperian readings; but they include also readings of an Aristotelian sort, and I have myself made a number of contributions in clarification and defence of the latter. Not only, I have argued, does the historical situation in which Menger found himself point to the inevitability of the Aristotelian reading; this reading fits also very naturally to (...)
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  • The Ontology of the Gene Ontology.Barry Smith, Jennifer Williams & Steffen Schulze-Kremer - 2003 - In AMIA 2003 Symposium Proceedings. Washington, DC: AMIA. pp. 609-613.
    The rapidly increasing wealth of genomic data has driven the development of tools to assist in the task of representing and processing information about genes, their products and their functions. One of the most important of these tools is the Gene Ontology (GO), which is being developed in tandem with work on a variety of bioinformatics databases. An examination of the structure of GO, however, reveals a number of problems, which we believe can be resolved by taking account of certain (...)
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  • Fiat and Bona Fide Boundaries: Towards an Ontology of Spatially Extended Objects.Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi - 1997 - In Stephen Hirtle & Andrew U. Frank (eds.), Spatial Information Theory: International Conference COSIT ‘97. Springer. pp. 103–119.
    Human cognitive acts are directed towards objects extended in space of a wide range of different types. What follows is a new proposal for bringing order into this typological clutter. The theory of spatially extended objects should make room not only for the objects of physics but also for objects at higher levels, including the objects of geography and of related disciplines. It should leave room for different types of boundaries, including both the bona fide boundaries which we find in (...)
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  • The Role of Foundational Relations in the Alignment of Biomedical Ontologies.Barry Smith & Cornelius Rosse - 2004 - In M. Fieschi, E. Coiera & Y.-C. J. Li (eds.), Medinfo. IOS Press. pp. 444-448.
    The Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) symbolically represents the structural organization of the human body from the macromolecular to the macroscopic levels, with the goal of providing a robust and consistent scheme for classifying anatomical entities that is designed to serve as a reference ontology in biomedical informatics. Here we articulate the need for formally clarifying the is-a and part-of relations in the FMA and similar ontology and terminology systems. We diagnose certain characteristic errors in the treatment of these relations (...)
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  • Wüsteria.Barry Smith, Werner Ceusters & Rita Temmerman - 2005 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 116:647-652.
    The last two decades have seen considerable efforts directed towards making Electronic Health Records interoperable through improvements in medical ontologies, terminologies and coding systems. Unfortunately, these efforts have been hampered by a number of influential ideas inherited from the work of Eugen Wüster, the father of terminology standardization and the founder of ISO TC 37. We here survey Wüster’s ideas – which see terminology work as being focused on the classification of concepts in people’s minds – and we argue that (...)
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  • Ontology-Based Error Detection in SNOMED-CT.Werner Ceusters, Barry Smith, Anand Kumar & Christoffel Dhaen - 2004 - Proceedings of Medinfo 2004:482-6.
    Quality assurance in large terminologies is a difficult issue. We present two algorithms that can help terminology developers and users to identify potential mistakes. We demon­strate the methodology by outlining the different types of mistakes that are found when the algorithms are applied to SNOMED-CT. On the basis of the results, we argue that both formal logical and linguistic tools should be used in the development and quality-assurance process of large terminologies.
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  • No Philosophy. No Transformation. No Theses.Barry Smith - 1992 - Ethik Und Sozialwissenschaften 3 (4):571-573.
    Peer commentary on Herta Nagl-Docekal, “The Feminist Transformation of Philosophy”.
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  • The Ontology of Documents.Barry Smith - 2011 - In Mitsuhiro Okada (ed.), Proceedings of the Conference on Ontology and Analytical Metaphysics, February 24-25, 2011. Tokyo, Japan: Keio University Press. pp. 1-6.
    As is well known, speech acts such as acts of promising can have ontological consequences. For example an act of promising can give rise to a mutually correlated claim and obligation. Increasingly, speech acts in the narrow sense are being augmented by the use of documents of multiple different sorts. In this paper we analyze the results of this augmenta-tion from the ontological point of view, considering especially the domains of law and com-merce. We show how document acts are not (...)
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  • John Searle.Barry Smith (ed.) - 2003 - Cambridge University Press.
    From his groundbreaking book Speech Acts to his most recent studies of consciousness, freedom and rationality John Searle has been a dominant and highly influential figure amongst contemporary philosophers. This systematic introduction to the full range of Searle's work begins with the theory of speech acts and proceeds with expositions of Searle's writings on intentionality, consciousness and perception, as well as a careful presentation of the so-called Chinese Room argument. The volume considers Searle's recent work on social ontology and his (...)
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  • III-A Unified Solution to Some Paradoxes.Laurence Goldstein - 2000 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 100 (1):53-74.
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  • A Taxonomy of Part‐Whole Relations.Morton E. Winston, Roger Chaffin & Douglas Herrmann - 1987 - Cognitive Science 11 (4):417-444.
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  • Ontology, Ontologies, and Science.Gary H. Merrill - 2011 - Topoi (1):71-83.
    Philosophers frequently struggle with the relation of metaphysics to the everyday world, with its practical value, and with its relation to empirical science. This paper distinguishes several different models of the relation between philosophical ontology and applied (scientific) ontology that have been advanced in the history of philosopy. Adoption of a strong participation model for the philosophical ontologist in science is urged, and requirements and consequences of the participation model are explored. This approach provides both a principled view and justification (...)
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  • Ontologies of Cellular Networks.Arp Robert & Barry Smith - 2008 - Science Signalling 1 (50):1--3.
    A comparison of six alternative definitions of the term 'cellular pathway' against the background of ontological realism.
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  • Revising the UMLS Semantic Network.Steffen Schulze-Kremer, Barry Smith & Anand Kumar - 2004 - In MedInfo.
    The integration of standardized biomedical terminologies into a single, unified knowledge representation system has formed a key area of applied informatics research in recent years. The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is the most advanced and most prominent effort in this direction, bringing together within its Metathesaurus a large number of distinct source-terminologies. The UMLS Semantic Network, which is designed to support the integration of these source-terminologies, has proved to be a highly successful combination of formal coherence and broad scope. (...)
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  • Controlled and Uncontrolled English for Ontology Editing.Brian Donohue, Douglas Kutach, Robert Ganger, Ron Rudnicki, Tien Pham, Geeth de Mel, Dave Braines & Barry Smith - 2015 - Semantic Technology for Intelligence, Defense and Security 1523:74-81.
    Ontologies formally represent reality in a way that limits ambiguity and facilitates automated reasoning and data fusion, but is often daunting to the non-technical user. Thus, many researchers have endeavored to hide the formal syntax and semantics of ontologies behind the constructs of Controlled Natural Languages (CNLs), which retain the formal properties of ontologies while simultaneously presenting that information in a comprehensible natural language format. In this paper, we build upon previous work in this field by evaluating prospects of implementing (...)
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  • Puntel on Truth, Or: Old Idealistic Wine in New Semantic Bottles.Barry Smith - 1992 - Ethik Und Sozialwissenschaften 3 (2):166-169.
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  • Parts. A Study in Ontology.Peter Simons - 1989 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 179 (1):131-132.
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  • Brentano and Marty: An Inquiry Into Being and Truth.Barry Smith - 1990 - In Kevin Mulligan (ed.), Mind, Meaning and Metaphysics: The Philosophy and Theory of Language of Anton Marty. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 111-149.
    See revised version in Barry Smith, Austrian Philosophy, chapter 4; available online at: http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/book/austrian_philosophy/.
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  • Introduction: Truth and Truth-Making.Adolf Rami - 2009 - In E. J. Lowe & A. Rami (eds.), Truth and Truth-Making. Montreal: McGill-Queen's. pp. 1-36.
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  • Philosophy and Feminist Politics: A Brief Guide.Ellen Klein & Barry Smith - 1995 - Free Inquiry 16:60-64.
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  • Porphyrii Isagoge Et in Aristotelis Categorias Commentarium.Adolfus Busse - 1962 - In Pars I: Porphyrii Isagoge Et in Aristotelis Categorias Commentarium. Pars Ii: Dexippi in Aristotelis Categorias Commentarium. Pars Iii: Ammonius in Porphyrii Isagogen Sive V Voces. De Gruyter. pp. 1-22.
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  • The Politics of National Diversity.Wolfgang Grassl & Barry Smith - 1987 - Salisbury Review 5:33--37.
    On the consequences of the interplay between the diversity of ethnic, national, cultural and linguistic groupings in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
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  • Metaphysics and Truthmakers.Jean-Maurice Monnoyer (ed.) - 2007 - Ontos Verlag.
    The essays collected in this volume concern the general question of truthmaking.
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  • A Natural History of Negation.Laurence Horn - 1989 - University of Chicago Press.
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  • The HL7 Approach to Semantic Interoperability.Jobst Landgrebe & Barry Smith - 2011 - In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Ontology. CEUR, vol. 833. pp. 139-146.
    Health Level 7 (HL7) is an international standards development organisation in the domain of healthcare information technology. Initially the mission of HL7 was to enable data exchange via the creation of syntactic standards which supported point-to-point messaging. Currently HL7 sees its mission as one of creating standards for semantic interoperability in healthcare IT on the basis of its flagship “version 3” (v3). Unfortunately, v3 has been plagued by quality and consistency issues, and it has not been able to keep pace (...)
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  • Preface: Austrian Economics From Menger to Hayek.Smith Barry - 2010 - In Austrian Economics: Historical and Philosophical Background. Routledge.
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  • Wittgenstein und das ethische Gesetz.Barry Smith - 1985 - In Armin Burkhardt & Dieter Birnbacher (eds.), Sprachspiel Und Methode: Zum Stand der Wittgenstein-Diskussion. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 191-211.
    Der vorliegende Aufsatz stellt den Versuch dar, die normative Seite von Wittgensteins Frühwerk herauszuarbeiten und dabei an seinem Ansatz insofern Kritik zu üben, als gezeigt wird, wie sehr dessen Implikationen mit unseren üblichen ethischen Vorstellungen in Konflikt stehen. Die Arbeit hat aber auch einen etwas wohlwollenderen Aspekt: Sie versucht zu zeigen, wie Wittgensteins scheinbar widersinnige Ansichten so formuliert werden können, daß sie zumindest begreifbar erscheinen. Zu diesem Zweck beginnen wir mit der Untersuchung des demjenigen Wittgensteins erstaunlich ähnlichen ethischen Ansatzes, wie (...)
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  • Introduction to the Logic of Definitions.Barry Smith - 2013 - In International Workshop on Definitions in Ontologies, organized in conjunction with the Fourth International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO), Montreal, July 7, 2013, (CEUR, 1061). pp. 1-2.
    What follows is a summary of basic principles pertaining to the definitions used in constructing an ontology. A definition is a statement of necessary and sufficient conditions. What this means in the simplest case can be understood as follows. To say that ɸ‐ing is a necessary condition for being an A is just another way of saying that every A ɸ’s; to say that ɸ‐ing is a sufficient condition for being an A is just another way of saying that everything (...)
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  • Bioportal: Ontologies and Integrated Data Resources at the Click of the Mouse.L. Whetzel Patricia, H. Shah Nigam, F. Noy Natalya, Dai Benjamin, Dorf Michael, Griffith Nicholas, Jonquet Clement, Youn Cherie, Callendar Chris, Coulet Adrien, Barry Smith, Chris Chute & Mark Musen - 2011 - In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Ontology, Buffalo, NY. pp. 292-293.
    BioPortal is a Web portal that provides access to a library of biomedical ontologies and terminologies developed in OWL, RDF(S), OBO format, Protégé frames, and Rich Release Format. BioPortal functionality, driven by a service-oriented architecture, includes the ability to browse, search and visualize ontologies (Figure 1). The Web interface also facilitates community-based participation in the evaluation and evolution of ontology content.
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