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  1. Algebraic Foundations for the Semantic Treatment of Inquisitive Content.Floris Roelofsen - 2013 - Synthese 190 (S1):1-24.
    In classical logic, the proposition expressed by a sentence is construed as a set of possible worlds, capturing the informative content of the sentence. However, sentences in natural language are not only used to provide information, but also to request information. Thus, natural language semantics requires a logical framework whose notion of meaning does not only embody informative content, but also inquisitive content. This paper develops the algebraic foundations for such a framework. We argue that propositions, in order to embody (...)
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  • Modified Numerals as Post-Suppositions.A. Brasoveanu - 2013 - Journal of Semantics 30 (2):155-209.
    The paper provides a compositional account of cumulative readings with non-increasing modified numerals (aka van Benthem's puzzle), for example, Exactly 3 boys saw exactly 5 movies. The main proposal is that modified numerals make two kinds of semantic contributions. Their asserted/at-issue contribution is a maximization operator that introduces the maximal set of entities that satisfies their restrictor and nuclear scope. The second contribution is a post-supposition, that is, a cardinality constraint that needs to be satisfied relative to the context that (...)
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  • Friends and Colleagues: Plurality, Coordination, and the Structure of DP.Caroline Heycock & Roberto Zamparelli - 2005 - Natural Language Semantics 13 (3):201-270.
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  • Number-Neutral Bare Plurals and the Multiplicity Implicature.Eytan Zweig - 2009 - Linguistics and Philosophy 32 (4):353-407.
    Bare plurals (dogs) behave in ways that quantified plurals (some dogs) do not. For instance, while the sentence John owns dogs implies that John owns more than one dog, its negation John does not own dogs does not mean “John does not own more than one dog”, but rather “John does not own a dog”. A second puzzling behavior is known as the dependent plural reading; when in the scope of another plural, the ‘more than one’ meaning of the plural (...)
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  • Same and Different: Some Consequences for Syntax and Semantics. [REVIEW]Greg N. Carlson - 1987 - Linguistics and Philosophy 10 (4):531 - 565.
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  • Ontological Symmetry in Language: A Brief Manifesto.Philippe Schlenker - 2006 - Mind and Language 21 (4):504–539.
    In the tradition of quantified modal logic, it was assumed that significantly different linguistic systems underlie reference to individuals, to times and to 'possible worlds'. Various results from recent research in formal semantics suggest that this is not so, and that there is in fact a pervasive symmetry between the linguistic means with which we refer to these three domains. Reference to individuals, times and worlds is uniformly effected through generalized quantifiers, definite descriptions, and pronouns, and in each domain grammatical (...)
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  • Numerals and Quantifiers in X-Bar Syntax and Their Semantic Interpretation.Henk J. Verkuyl - 1981 - In Jeroen A. G. Groenendijk, Theo M. V. Janssen & Martin B. Stokhof (eds.), Formal Methods in the Study of Language Volume 2. U of Amsterdam. pp. 567-599.
    The first aim of the paper is to show that under certain conditions generative syntax can be made suitable for Montague semantics, based on his type logic. One of the conditions is to make branching in the so-called X-bar syntax strictly binary, This makes it possible to provide an adequate semantics for Noun Phrases by taking them as referring to sets of collections of sets of entities ( type <ett,t>) rather than to sets of sets of entities (ett).
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  • Free Choice and the Theory of Scalar Implicatures* MIT,.Danny Fox - manuscript
    This paper will be concerned with the conjunctive interpretation of a family of disjunctive constructions. The relevant conjunctive interpretation, sometimes referred to as a “free choice effect,” (FC) is attested when a disjunctive sentence is embedded under an existential modal operator. I will provide evidence that the relevant generalization extends (with some caveats) to all constructions in which a disjunctive sentence appears under the scope of an existential quantifier, as well as to seemingly unrelated constructions in which conjunction appears under (...)
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  • Choice Functions and the Scopal Semantics of Indefinites.Yoad Winter - 1997 - Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (4):399-467.
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  • What Do Quantifier Particles Do?Anna Szabolcsi - 2015 - Linguistics and Philosophy 38 (2):159-204.
    In many languages, the same particles that form quantifier words also serve as connectives, additive and scalar particles, question markers, roots of existential verbs, and so on. Do these have a unified semantics, or do they merely bear a family resemblance? Are they aided by silent operators in their varied roles―if yes, what operators? I dub the particles “quantifier particles” and refer to them generically with capitalized versions of the Japanese morphemes. I argue that both MO and KA can be (...)
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  • The Interaction of Compositional Semantics and Event Semantics.Lucas Champollion - 2015 - Linguistics and Philosophy 38 (1):31-66.
    Davidsonian event semantics is often taken to form an unhappy marriage with compositional semantics. For example, it has been claimed to be problematic for semantic accounts of quantification Proceedings of the 16th Amsterdam Colloquium, 2007), for classical accounts of negation Semantics and contextual expression, 1989), and for intersective accounts of verbal coordination. This paper shows that none of this is the case, once we abandon the idea that the event variable is bound at sentence level, and assume instead that verbs (...)
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  • Bare NPs: Kind-Referring, Indefinites, Both, or Neither?Manfred Krifka - 2003 - Semantics and Linguistic Theory 13:180.
    It is generally assumed that there are two types of genericity, called characterizing statements and kind reference in Krifka et al. (1995). Characterizing statements express generalizations about sets of entities or situations, cf. (1); kind reference involves reference to an entity that is related to specimens, cf. (2).
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  • At Least Some Determiners Aren't Determiners.Manfred Krifka - 1999 - In Ken Turner (ed.), The Semantics/Pragmatics Interface From Different Points of View. Elsevier. pp. 1--257.
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  • Plurality, Conjunction and Events.Peter Nathan Lasersohn - 1995 - Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Plurality, Conjunction and Events presents a novel theory of plural and conjoined phrases, in an event-based semantic framework. It begins by reviewing options for treating the alternation between `collective' and `distributive' readings of sentences containing plural or conjoined noun phrases, including analyses from both the modern and the premodern literature. It is argued that plural and conjoined noun phrases are unambiguously group-denoting, and that the collective/distributive distinction therefore must be located in the predicates with which these noun phrases combine. More (...)
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  • On The Interpretation of Wide-Scope Indefinites.Lisa Matthewson - 1998 - Natural Language Semantics 7 (1):79-134.
    This paper argues, on the basis of data from St'át'imcets (Lillooet Salish), for a theory of wide-scope indefinites which is similar, though not identical, to that proposed by Kratzer (1998). I show that a subset of S'át'imcets indefinites takes obligatory wide scope with respect to if-clauses, negation, and modals, and is unable to be distributed over by quantificational phrases. These wide-scope effects cannot be accounted for by movement, but require an analysis involving choice functions (Reinhart 1995, 1997). However, Reinhart's particular (...)
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  • Free Choice Disjunction and Epistemic Possibility.Thomas Ede Zimmermann - 2000 - Natural Language Semantics 8 (4):255-290.
    This paper offers an explanation of the fact that sentences of the form (1) ‘X may A or B’ may be construed as implying (2) ‘X may A and X may B’, especially if they are used to grant permission. It is suggested that the effect arises because disjunctions are conjunctive lists of epistemic possibilities. Consequently, if the modal may is itself epistemic, (1) comes out as equivalent to (2), due to general laws of epistemic logic. On the other hand, (...)
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  • The Proper Treatment of Quantification in Ordinary English.Richard Montague - 1973 - In Patrick Suppes, Julius Moravcsik & Jaakko Hintikka (eds.), Approaches to Natural Language. Dordrecht. pp. 221--242.
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  • Some Remarks on Choice Functions and Lf-Movement.Arnim von Stechow - unknown
    It is well known that indefinite phrases are more liberal in taking scope than other quantifying phrases. In general, the scope of indefinites is not limited by the finite clause in which they occur, although the scope of universal quantifiers is. Wh-phrases behave very much like indefinites: in languages with wh in situ, their scope need not be restricted by anything like clause boundedness.
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  • Move and Accommodate: A Solution to Haddock's Puzzle.Lucas Champollion - unknown
    What licenses the use of a definite description? The formal and philosophical literature has approached this question in two ways. The uniqueness approach (Frege, 1892; Russell, 1905; Strawson, 1950) holds that we may use a definite determiner only if the property denoted by its complement holds of exactly one individual in some domain: Sentence (1) and (2) can only be true if there is exactly one king of France, and exactly one American governor, respectively. Since this is not the case (...)
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  • Quantifier Particles and Compositionality.Anna Szabolcsi - 2013 - Proceedings of the 19th Amsterdam Colloquium.
    In many languages, the same particles build quantifier words and serve as connectives, additive and scalar particles, question markers, existential verbs, and so on. Do the roles of each particle form a natural class with a stable semantics? Are the particles aided by additional elements, overt or covert, in fulfilling their varied roles? I propose a unified analysis, according to which the particles impose partial ordering requirements (glb and lub) on the interpretations of their hosts and the immediate larger contexts, (...)
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  • Type-Logical Semantics.Bob Carpenter - 1997 - MIT Press.
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  • Boolean Semantics for Natural Language.Lawrence S. Moss - 1987 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 52 (2):554-555.
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  • Quantification.Anna Szabolcsi - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book surveys research in quantification starting with the foundational work in the 1970s. It paints a vivid picture of generalized quantifiers and Boolean semantics. It explains how the discovery of diverse scope behavior in the 1990s transformed the view of quantification, and how the study of the internal composition of quantifiers has become central in recent years. It presents different approaches to the same problems, and links modern logic and formal semantics to advances in generative syntax. A unique feature (...)
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  • Quantifier Scope: How Labor is Divided Between QR and Choice Functions. [REVIEW]Tanya Reinhart - 1997 - Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (4):335-397.
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  • Cross-Categorial Semantics for Conjoined Common Nouns.Merrie Bergmann - 1982 - Linguistics and Philosophy 5 (3):399 - 401.
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  • Parasitic Scope.Chris Barker - 2007 - Linguistics and Philosophy 30 (4):407-444.
    I propose the first strictly compositional semantic account of same. New data, including especially NP-internal uses such as two men with the same name, suggests that same in its basic use is a quantificational element taking scope over nominals. Given type-lifting as a generally available mechanism, I show that this follows naturally from the fact that same is an adjective. Independently-motivated assumptions extend the analysis to standard examples such as Anna and Bill read the same book via a mechanism I (...)
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  • Towards a Variable-Free Semantics.Pauline Jacobson - 1999 - Linguistics and Philosophy 22 (2):117-185.
    The Montagovian hypothesis of direct model-theoretic interpretation of syntactic surface structures is supported by an account of the semantics of binding that makes no use of variables, syntactic indices, or assignment functions & shows that the interpretation of a large portion of so-called variable-binding phenomena can dispense with the level of logical form without incurring equivalent complexity elsewhere in the system. Variable-free semantics hypothesizes local interpretation of each surface constituent; binding is formalized as a type-shifting operation on expressions that denote (...)
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  • General Semantics.David K. Lewis - 1970 - Synthese 22 (1-2):18--67.
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  • Generalized Quantifiers and Natural Language.John Barwise & Robin Cooper - 1981 - Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (2):159--219.
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  • Inquisitive Logic.Ivano Ciardelli & Floris Roelofsen - 2011 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (1):55-94.
    This paper investigates a generalized version of inquisitive semantics. A complete axiomatization of the associated logic is established, the connection with intuitionistic logic and several intermediate logics is explored, and the generalized version of inquisitive semantics is argued to have certain advantages over the system that was originally proposed by Groenendijk (2009) and Mascarenhas (2009).
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  • A Cross-Categorial Semantics for Coordination.Gerald Gazdar - 1979 - Linguistics and Philosophy 3 (3):407 - 409.
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  • Semantics in Generative Grammar.Irene Heim & Angelika Kratzer - 1998 - Blackwell.
    Written by two of the leading figures in the field, this is a lucid and systematic introduction to semantics as applied to transformational grammars of the ...
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  • Universal Grammar.Richard Montague - 1970 - Theoria 36 (3):373--398.
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  • The Semantics of Non-Boolean “And”.Jack Hoeksema - 1988 - Journal of Semantics 6 (1):19-40.
    The meaning of “and” in noun phrase conjunctions differs from its ordinary Boolean interpretation in other cases of conjunction, such as sentential and predicate conjunction. More precisely, this is the case when the noun phrases conjoined are referrring terms. A regular Boolean interpretation is still possible whenever two or more quantificational NPs are conjoined. Disjunction is always a Boolean operation. A semantics based on the notion of set formation is provided to deal with conjunctions of referring terms and compared to (...)
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  • Reference to Kinds Across Language.Gennaro Chierchia - 1998 - Natural Language Semantics 6 (4):339-405.
    This paper is devoted to the study of bare nominal arguments (i.e., determinerless NPs occurring in canonical argumental positions) from a crosslinguistic point of view. It is proposed that languages may vary in what they let their NPs denote. In some languages (like Chinese), NPs are argumental (names of kinds) and can thus occur freely without determiner in argument position; in others they are predicates (Romance), and this prevents NPs from occurring as arguments, unless the category D(eterminer) is projected. Finally, (...)
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  • Parts and Wholes in Semantics (TOC).Friederike Moltmann - 1997 - Oxford University Press.
    This book present a unified semantic theory of expressions involving the notions of part and whole. It develops a theory of part structures which differs from traditional (extensional) mereological theories in that the notion of an integrated whole plays a central role and in that the part structure of an entity is allowed to vary across different situations, perspectives, and dimensions. The book presents a great range of empirical generalizations involving plurals, mass nouns, adnominal and adverbial modifiers such as 'whole', (...)
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  • Generalized Quantifiers and Natural Language.Jon Barwise - 1980 - Linguistics and Philosophy 4:159.
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  • Definiteness and Indefiniteness.Irene Heim - 2011 - In Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning. De Gruyter Mouton.
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  • Boolean Semantics for Natural Language.Edward L. Keenan & Leonard M. Faltz - 1987 - Studia Logica 46 (4):401-404.
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  • Logic, Language, and Meaning.L. T. F. Gamut - 1992 - Studia Logica 51 (1):147-149.
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  • Coordination.Roberto Zamparelli - 2011 - In Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 2.
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  • The Logical Analysis of Plurals and Mass Terms: A Lattice-Theoretic Approach.Godehard Link - 1983 - In P. Portner & B. H. Partee (eds.), Formal Semantics - the Essential Readings. Blackwell. pp. 127--147.
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  • Licensing Or.Regine Eckardt - 2007 - In Uli Sauerland & Penka Stateva (eds.), Presupposition and Implicature in Compositional Semantics. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 34--70.
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  • Events and Plurality.Fred Landman - 2000 - Kluwer Academic Publisher.
    The main claim of this book is that the very same distinction between semantic singularity and plurality that is fundamental to the semantics of nouns in the nominal domain is operative and fundamental in the verbal domain as well, applying ...
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  • Ontological Symmetry in Language: A Brief Manifesto.Philippe Schlenker - 2006 - Mind Language 21 (4):504-539.
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  • Logic, Language, and Meaning.L. T. F. Gamut - 1991
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  • Flexible Boolean Semantics. Coordination, Plurality and Scope in Natural Language.Yoad Winter & Roger Schwarzschild - unknown
    This dissertation is based on the compositional model theoretic approach to natural language semantics that was initiated by Montague (1970) and developed by subsequent work. In this general approach, coordination and negation are treated following Keenan & Faltz (1978, 1985) using boolean algebras. As in Barwise & Cooper (1981) noun phrases uniformly denote objects in the boolean domain of generalized quanti®ers. These foundational assumptions, although elegant and minimalistic, are challenged by various phenomena of coordination, plurality and scope. The dissertation solves (...)
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  • Some Extensions of a Montague Fragment of English.Michael Ruisdael Bennett - 1975 - Indiana University Linguistics Club.
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  • Algebraic Semantics in Language and Philosophy.Godehard Link - 1998 - CSLI Publications.
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  • The English Noun Phrase in its Sentential Aspect.Steven Abney - 1987 - Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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