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The social organisation of science as a question for philosophy of science

Dissertation, University of Tartu (2016)

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  1. What Inquiring Minds Should Want to Know. [REVIEW]Sheila Jasanoff - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 35 (1):149-157.
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  • Philosophy of Science After Feminism.Janet A. Kourany - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    A feminist primer for philosophers of science -- The legacy of twentieth century philosophy of science -- What feminist science studies can offer -- Challenges from every direction -- The prospects of twenty-first century philosophy of science.
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  • Is Science Value Free?: Values and Scientific Understanding.Hugh Lacey - 1999 - Routledge.
    He also focuses on discussions of 'development', especially in Third World countries. This paperback edition includes a new preface.
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  • On Liberty.John Stuart Mill - 1956 - Broadview Press.
    In this work, Mill reflects on the struggle between liberty and authority and defends the view that “the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others.” He questions the justification for the limits of freedom of conscience and religion, freedom of speech, freedom of action, and the nature of liberalism itself. This new Broadview Edition demonstrates the ways in which Mill’s intellectual landscape differed (...)
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  • When the People Speak: Deliberative Democracy and Public Consultation.James S. Fishkin - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    This book describes a new method of consulting the public that has been tried successfully around the world. The book combines the theory of democracy with actual practice. Fishkin lays out a theory of "deliberative democracy" and shows with practical examples, how it can be realized.
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  • New Philosophies of Science in North America — Twenty Years Later.Joseph Rouse - 1998 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 29 (1):71-122.
    This survey of major developments in North American philosophy of science begins with the mid-1960s consolidation of the disciplinary synthesis of internalist history and philosophy of science (HPS) as a response to criticisms of logical empiricism. These developments are grouped for discussion under the following headings: historical metamethodologies, scientific realisms, philosophies of the special sciences, revivals of empiricism, cognitivist naturalisms, social epistemologies, feminist theories of science, studies of experiment and the disunity of science, and studies of science as practice and (...)
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  • An Argument About Free Inquiry.Philip Kitcher - 1997 - Noûs 31 (3):279-306.
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  • Meeting the Challenges to Socially Responsible Science: Reply to Brown, Lacey, and Potter.Janet A. Kourany - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 163 (1):93-103.
    The main message of Philosophy of Science after Feminism is twofold: that philosophy of science needs to locate science within its wider societal context, ceasing to analyze science as if it existed in a social/political/economic vacuum; and correlatively, that philosophy of science needs to aim for an understanding of scientific rationality that is appropriate to that context, a scientific rationality that integrates the ethical with the epistemic. The ideal of socially responsible science that the book puts forward, in fact, maintains (...)
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  • Gender, Sexuality Research, and the Flight From Complexity.Helen E. Longino - 1994 - Metaphilosophy 25 (4):285-292.
    Research on sexual orientation attempts to reduce it to a monocausal phenomenon, whether that be biology (genes, hormones) or social environment (parenting patterns). None of these fully accounts for the diversity of erotic attraction and behavior, and indeed these reductionist strategies either misrepresent many forms of sexual behavior or erase them from our ontology. Understanding is better served by first acknowledging the variety of roles of sexual interaction in human life, rather than treating sex as a single kind of phenomenon.
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  • Does 'Race' Have a Future?Philip Kitcher - 2007 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 35 (4):293–317.
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  • Global Health and the Scientific Research Agenda.James H. Flory & Philip Kitcher - 2004 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 32 (1):36-65.
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  • Better Red Than Dead—Putting an End to the Social Irrelevance of Postwar Philosophy of Science.Don Howard - 2009 - Science & Education 18 (2):199-220.
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  • Engagement for Progress: Applied Philosophy of Science in Context.Heather Douglas - 2010 - Synthese 177 (3):317-335.
    Philosophy of science was once a much more socially engaged endeavor, and can be so again. After a look back at philosophy of science in the 1930s-1950s, I turn to discuss the current potential for returning to a more engaged philosophy of science. Although philosophers of science have much to offer scientists and the public, I am skeptical that much can be gained by philosophers importing off-the-shelf discussions from philosophy of science to science and society. Such efforts will likely look (...)
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  • The Commercialization of Research and the Quest for the Objectivity of Science.S. Jukola - 2016 - Foundations of Science 21 (1):89-103.
    In this paper, I discuss the objectivity of science in the context of commercialized research. Objectivity has traditionally been associated with the behavior of individual scientists and their willingness and ability to base their reasoning on data and logic. By introducing some examples of problematic practices in current research, I show that this view is insufficient. A view that I call the Social View on objectivity succeeds better in accommodating the way in which commercialization affects research.
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  • Identifying Difference, Engaging Dissent: What is at Stake in Democratizing Knowledge?L. King, B. Morgan-Olsen & J. Wong - 2016 - Foundations of Science 21 (1):69-88.
    Several prominent voices have called for a democratization of science through deliberative processes that include a diverse range of perspectives and values. We bring these scholars into conversation with extant research on democratic deliberation in political theory and the social sciences. In doing so, we identify systematic barriers to the effectiveness of inclusive deliberation in both scientific and political settings. We are particularly interested in what we call misidentified dissent, where deliberations are starkly framed at the outset in terms of (...)
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  • Exploring Philosophical Issues in the Patenting of Scientific and Technological Inventions.Hans Radder - 2013 - Philosophy and Technology 26 (3):283-300.
    Thus far, the philosophical study of patenting has primarily focused on sociopolitical, legal, and ethical issues, such as the moral justifiability of patenting living organisms or the nature of (intellectual) property. In addition, however, the theory and practice of patenting entails many important problems that can be fruitfully studied from the perspective of the philosophy of science and technology. The principal aim of this article is to substantiate the latter claim. For this purpose, I first provide a concise review of (...)
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  • Biological Effects of Low Level Radiation: Values, Dose-Response Models, Risk Estimates.Helen E. Longino - 1989 - Synthese 81 (3):391 - 404.
    Predictions about the health risks of low level radiation combine two sorts of measures. One estimates the amount and kinds of radiation released into the environment, and the other estimates the adverse health effects. A new field called health physics integrates and applies nuclear physics to cytology to supply both these estimates. It does so by first determining the kinds of effects different types of radiation produce in biological organisms, and second, by monitoring the extent of these effects produced by (...)
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  • Science, Policy, and the Value-Free Ideal.Heather Douglas - 2009 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Douglas proposes a new ideal in which values serve an essential function throughout scientific inquiry, but where the role values play is constrained at key points, protecting the integrity and objectivity of science.
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  • Science in Democracy: Expertise, Institutions, and Representation.Mark B. Brown - 2009 - MIT Press.
    2009 Massachusetts Institute of Technology All rights reserved. No part of this book may ... ISBN 978-0-262-01324-6 (hardcover : alk. paper)— ISBN 978-0-262 -51304-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Science— Political aspects. 2. Science and state. 3 .
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  • Science as Social Knowledge: Values and Objectivity in Scientific Inquiry.Helen E. Longino (ed.) - 1990 - Princeton University Press.
    This is an important book precisely because there is none other quite like it.
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  • Science and Values: The Aims of Science and Their Role in Scientific Debate.Larry Laudan - 1984 - University of California Press.
    Laudan constructs a fresh approach to a longtime problem for the philosopher of science: how to explain the simultaneous and widespread presence of both agreement and disagreement in science. Laudan critiques the logical empiricists and the post-positivists as he stresses the need for centrality and values and the interdependence of values, methods, and facts as prerequisites to solving the problems of consensus and dissent in science.
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  • Designs on Nature: Science and Democracy in Europe and the United States.Sheila Jasanoff - 2007 - Princeton Univ Press.
    Science and Democracy in Europe and the United States Sheila Jasanoff. Lippmann, Walter. The Phantom Public. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1993 [1925]. Litfin, Karen . Ozone Discourses: Science and Politics in Global ...
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  • Rethinking Expertise.H. M. Collins & Robert Evans - 2007 - University of Chicago Press.
    ISBN-13: 978-0-226-11360-9 (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-226-11360-4 ... HM651.C64 2007 158.1—dc22 2007022671 The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Information ...
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  • The Ethical Project.Philip Kitcher - 2011 - Harvard University Press.
    Instead of conceiving ethical commands as divine revelations or as the discoveries of brilliant thinkers, we should see our ethical practices as evolving over tens of thousands of years, as members of our species have worked out how to live together and prosper. Here, Kitcher elaborates his radical vision of this millennia-long ethical project.
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  • The Fate of Knowledge.Helen E. Longino - 2001 - Princeton University Press.
    "--Richard Grandy, Rice University "This is the first compelling diagnosis of what has gone awry in the raging 'science wars.
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  • Knowledge and Power: Toward a Political Philosophy of Science.Joseph Rouse - 1987 - Cornell University Press.
    This lucidly written book examines the social and political significance of the natural sciences through a detailed and original account of science as an interpretive social practice.
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  • Engaging Science: How to Understand its Practices Philosophically.Joseph Rouse - 1996 - Cornell University Press.
    Summarizing this century's major debates over realism and the rationality of scientific knowledge, Joseph Rouse believes that these disputes oversimplify the ...
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  • The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.Thomas S. Kuhn - 1962 - University of Chicago Press.
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  • Science, Truth, and Democracy.Philip Kitcher - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    Striving to boldly redirect the philosophy of science, this book by renowned philosopher Philip Kitcher examines the heated debate surrounding the role of science in shaping our lives. Kitcher explores the sharp divide between those who believe that the pursuit of scientific knowledge is always valuable and necessary--the purists--and those who believe that it invariably serves the interests of people in positions of power. In a daring turn, he rejects both perspectives, working out a more realistic image of the sciences--one (...)
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  • Pathways to Knowledge: Private and Public.Alvin I. Goldman - 2002 - Oxford University Press.
    How can we know? How can we attain justified belief? These traditional questions in epistemology have inspired philosophers for centuries. Now, in this exceptional work, Alvin Goldman, distinguished scholar and leader in the fields of epistemology and mind, approaches such inquiries as legitimate methods or "pathways" to knowledge. He examines the notion of private and public knowledge, arguing for the epistemic legitimacy of private and introspective methods of gaining knowledge, yet acknowledging the equal importance of social and public mechanisms in (...)
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  • Knowledge in a Social World.Alvin I. Goldman - 1999 - Oxford University Press.
    Knowledge in a Social World offers a philosophy for the information age. Alvin Goldman explores new frontiers by creating a thoroughgoing social epistemology, moving beyond the traditional focus on solitary knowers. Against the tides of postmodernism and social constructionism Goldman defends the integrity of truth and shows how to promote it by well-designed forms of social interaction. From science to education, from law to democracy, he shows why and how public institutions should seek knowledge-enhancing practices. The result is a bold, (...)
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  • Against Method.Paul Feyerabend - 1975 - London: New Left Books.
    Feyerabrend argues that intellectual progress relies on the creativity of the scientist, against the authority of science.
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  • Meeting the Universe Halfway: Quantum Physics and the Entanglement of Matter and Meaning.Karen Michelle Barad - 2007 - Duke University Press.
    A theoretical physicist and feminist theorist, Karen Barad elaborates her theory of agential realism, a schema that is at once a new epistemology, ontology, and ethics.
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  • Commercialization and the Limits of Well-Ordered Science.Manuela Fernández Pinto - 2015 - Perspectives on Science 23 (2):173-191.
    In recent decades, philosophers of science have become increasingly concerned with the social dimensions of scientific knowledge. Philosophers such as Helen Longino, Philip Kitcher, Miriam Solomon, Heather Douglas, and Janet Kourany have sought to incorporate the social aspects of science, while retaining the normative commitments of philosophy of science. Some of the major theoretical approaches in social epistemology of science, however, tend to ignore or underestimate the role that the current state of science organization plays in the production of scientific (...)
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  • Norms and Naturalism: Comments on Miriam Solomon's Social Empiricism.Helen E. Longino - 2008 - Perspectives on Science 16 (3):pp. 241-245.
    Miriam Solomon's social empiricism is marked by emphasis on community level rationality in science and the refusal to impose a distinction between the epistemic and the non-epistemic character of factors ("decision vectors") that incline scientists for or against a theory. While she attempts to derive some norms from the analysis of cases, her insistent naturalism undermines her effort to articulate norms for the (appropriate) distribution of decision vectors.
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  • Toward Philosophy of Science’s Social Engagement.Angela Potochnik & Francis Cartieri - 2013 - Erkenntnis 79 (Suppl 5):901-916.
    In recent years, philosophy of science has witnessed a significant increase in attention directed toward the field’s social relevance. This is demonstrated by the formation of societies with related agendas, the organization of research symposia, and an uptick in work on topics of immediate public interest. The collection of papers that follows results from one such event: a 3-day colloquium on the subject of socially engaged philosophy of science held at the University of Cincinnati in October 2012. In this introduction, (...)
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  • Critical Subjects: Participatory Research Needs to Make Room for Debate.Inkeri Koskinen - 2014 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 44 (6):733-751.
    Participatory research in anthropology attempts to turn informants into collaborators, even colleagues. Researchers generally accept the idea of different knowledge systems, and the practice of avoiding critical appraisal of alien knowledge systems, common in ethnography, is continued within participatory research. However, if the aim of participatory research is to turn informants into collaborators, or ideally colleagues, the ethical imperative of offering constructive criticism to colleagues should apply to them, too, even if they are seen as representing different knowledge systems than (...)
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  • Politics, Method, and Medical Research.James Robert Brown - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (5):756-766.
    There is sufficient evidence that intellectual property rights are corrupting medical research. One could respond to this from a moral or from an epistemic point of view. I take the latter route. Often in the sciences factual discoveries lead to new methodological norms. Medical research is an example. Surprisingly, the methodological change required will involve political change. Instead of new regulations aimed at controlling the problem, the outright socialization of research seems called for, for the sake of better science. I (...)
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  • Towards Democratic Models of Science: Exploring the Case of Scientific Pluralism.Jeroen Van Bouwel - 2015 - Perspectives on Science 23 (2):149-172.
    Scientific pluralism, a normative endorsement of the plurality or multiplicity of research approaches in science, has recently been advocated by several philosophers (e.g., Kellert et al. 2006, Kitcher 2001, Longino 2013, Mitchell 2009, and Chang 2010). Comparing these accounts of scientific pluralism, one will encounter quite some variation. We want to clarify the different interpretations of scientific pluralism by showing how they incarnate different models of democracy, stipulating the desired interaction among the plurality of research approaches in different ways. Furthermore, (...)
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  • Unification as a Regulative Ideal.Philip Kitcher - 1999 - Perspectives on Science 7 (3):337-348.
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  • Knowledge and Power: Toward a Political Philosophy of Science.Robert Ackermann & Joseph Rouse - 1990 - Philosophical Review 99 (3):474.
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  • Against the Monism of the Moment: A Reply to Elliott Sober.Philip Kitcher - 1984 - Philosophy of Science 51 (4):616-630.
    In his "Discussion" (1984), Elliott Sober offers some criticisms of the view about species--pluralistic realism--advocated in my 1984. Sober's comments divide into three parts. He attempts to show that species are not sets; he responds to my critique of David Hull's thesis that species are individuals; and he offers some arguments for the claim that species are "chunks of the genealogical nexus." I consider each of these objections in turn, arguing that each of them fails. I attempt to use Sober's (...)
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  • GroupthinkversusThe Wisdom of Crowds: The Social Epistemology of Deliberation and Dissent.Miriam Solomon - 2006 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 44 (S1):28-42.
    Trust in the practice of rational deliberation is widespread and largely unquestioned. This paper uses recent work from business contexts to challenge the view that rational deliberation in a group improves decisions. Pressure to reach consensus can, in fact, lead to phenomena such as groupthink and to suppression of relevant data. Aggregation of individual decisions, rather than deliberation to a consensus, surprisingly, can produce better decisions than those of either group deliberation or individual expert judgment. I argue that dissent is (...)
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  • The Third Way: Reflections on Helen Longino’s T He Fate of Knowledge.Philip Kitcher - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (4):549-559.
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  • Science and the Common Good: Thoughts on Philip Kitcher’s S Cience, Truth, and Democracy.Helen E. Longino - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (4):560-568.
    In Science, Truth, and Democracy, Philip Kitcher develops the notion of well-ordered science: scientific inquiry whose research agenda and applications are subject to public control guided by democratic deliberation. Kitcher's primary departure from his earlier views involves rejecting the idea that there is any single standard of scientific significance. The context-dependence of scientific significance opens up many normative issues to philosophical investigation and to resolution through democratic processes. Although some readers will feel Kitcher has not moved far enough from earlier (...)
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  • Reply to Helen Longino.Philip Kitcher - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (4):569-572.
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  • Reply to Philip Kitcher.Helen E. Longino - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (4):573-577.
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  • Reviving the Sociology of Science.Philip Kitcher - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):44.
    I compare recent work in the sociology of scientific knowledge with other types of sociological research. On this basis I urge a revival of the sociology of science, offer a tentative agenda, and attempt to show how the questions I raise might be addressed.
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  • The Scientist Q Ua Scientist Makes Value Judgments.Richard Rudner - 1953 - Philosophy of Science 20 (1):1-6.
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  • The Division of Cognitive Labor.Philip Kitcher - 1990 - Journal of Philosophy 87 (1):5-22.
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