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  1. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex.Charles Darwin - 1898 - Plume.
    The most accessible edition ever published of Darwin’s incendiary classic, edited by “as fine a science essayist as we have” ( New York Times ) The Descent of Man , Darwin’s second landmark work on evolutionary theory (following The Origin of the Species ), marked a turning point in the history of science with its modern vision of human nature as the product of evolution. Darwin argued that the noblest features of humans, such as language and morality, were the result (...)
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  • Sociobiology: The New Synthesis.Edward O. Wilson - 1975 - Harvard University Press.
    welcomed by a new generation of students and scholars in all branches of learning.
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  • How to Count Animals, More or Less.Shelly Kagan - 2019 - Oxford University Press.
    Shelly Kagan argues for a hierarchical position in animal ethics where people count more than animals do, and some animals count more than others. In arguing for his account of morality, Kagan sets out what needs to be done to establish our obligations toward animals and to fulfil our duties to them.
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  • Pieces of Mind: The Proper Domain of Psychological Predicates.Carrie Figdor - 2018 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Carrie Figdor presents a critical assessment of how psychological terms are used to describe the non-human biological world. She argues against the anthropocentric attitude which takes human cognition as the standard against which non-human capacities are measured, and offers an alternative basis for naturalistic explanation of the mind.
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  • Animals Like Us.Mark Rowlands - 2002 - Verso.
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  • Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience.Max R. Bennett & P. M. S. Hacker - 2003 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Writing from a scientifically and philosophically informed perspective, the authors provide a critical overview of the conceptual difficulties encountered in many current neuroscientific and psychological theories.
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  • Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics.Paul W. Taylor - 1986
    What rational justification is there for conceiving of all living things as possessing inherent worth? In Respect for Nature, Paul Taylor draws on biology, moral philosophy, and environmental science to defend a biocentric environmental ethic in which all life has value. Without making claims for the moral rights of plants and animals, he offers a reasoned alternative to the prevailing anthropocentric view--that the natural environment and its wildlife are valued only as objects for human use or enjoyment. Respect for Nature (...)
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  • Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare's Two Level Utilitarianism.Gary E. Varner - 2012 - Oup Usa.
    Drawing heavily on recent empirical research to update R.M. Hare's two-level utilitarianism and expand Hare's treatment of "intuitive level rules," Gary Varner considers in detail the theory's application to animals while arguing that Hare should have recognized a hierarchy of persons, near-persons, & the merely sentient.
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  • Animal Liberation.Peter Singer (ed.) - 1977 - Avon Books.
    Since its original publication in 1975, this groundbreaking work has awakened millions of concerned men and women to the shocking abuse of animals everywhere--inspiring a worldwide movement to eliminate much of the cruel and unnecessary laboratory animal experimentation of years past. In this newly revised and expanded edition, author Peter Singer exposes the chilling realities of today's "factory farms" and product-testing procedures--offering sound, humane solutions to what has become a profound environmental and social as well as moral issue. An important (...)
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  • The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition.Marc Bekoff, Colin Allen & Gordon M. Burghardt (eds.) - 2002 - MIT Press.
    The fifty-seven original essays in this book provide a comprehensive overview of the interdisciplinary field of animal cognition.
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  • Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status.David DeGrazia (ed.) - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    Transcending the overplayed debate between utilitarians and rights theorists, the book offers a fresh methodological approach with specific constructive conclusions about our treatment of animals. David DeGrazia provides the most thorough discussion yet of whether equal consideration should be extended to animals' interests, and examines the issues of animal minds and animal well-being with an unparalleled combination of philosophical rigor and empirical documentation. This book is an important contribution to the field of animal ethics.
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  • Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience.M. R. Bennett & P. M. S. Hacker - 2003 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Writing from a scientifically and philosophically informed perspective, the authors provide a critical overview of the conceptual difficulties encountered in many current neuroscientific and psychological theories.
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  • The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture.Jerome H. Barkow, Leda Cosmides & John Tooby - 1992 - Oxford University Press.
    Second, this collection of cognitive programs evolved in the Pleistocene to solve the adaptive problems regularly faced by our hunter-gatherer ancestors-...
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  • The Grounds of Moral Status.Julie Tannenbaum & Agnieszka Jaworska - 2018 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:0-0.
    This article discusses what is involved in having full moral status, as opposed to a lesser degree of moral status and surveys different views of the grounds of moral status as well as the arguments for attributing a particular degree of moral status on the basis of those grounds.
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  • The Great Chain of Being. A Study of the History of an Idea.A. O. Lovejoy - 1937 - Philosophy 12 (45):113-114.
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  • Animal Minds, Cognitive Ethology, and Ethics.Colin Allen & Marc Bekoff - 2007 - The Journal of Ethics 11 (3):299-317.
    Our goal in this paper is to provide enough of an account of the origins of cognitive ethology and the controversy surrounding it to help ethicists to gauge for themselves how to balance skepticism and credulity about animal minds when communicating with scientists. We believe that ethicists’ arguments would benefit from better understanding of the historical roots of ongoing controversies. It is not appropriate to treat some widely reported results in animal cognition as if their interpretations are a matter of (...)
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  • What’s Wrong with Speciesism.Shelly Kagan - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (1):1-21.
    Peter Singer famously argued in Animal Liberation that almost all of us are speciesists, unjustifiably favoring the interests of humans over the similar interests of other animals. Although I long found that charge compelling, I now find myself having doubts. This article starts by trying to get clear about the nature of speciesism, and then argues that Singer's attempt to show that speciesism is a mere prejudice is unsuccessful. I also argue that most of us are not actually speciesists at (...)
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  • Two Kinds of Respect.Stephen Darwall - 1977 - Ethics 88 (1):36-49.
    S. 39: "My project in this paper is to develop the initial distinction which I have drawn between recognition and appraisal respect into a more detailed and specific account of each. These accounts will not merely be of intrinsic interest. Ultimately I will use them to illuminate the puzzles with which this paper began and to understand the idea of self-respect." 42 " Thus, insofar as respect within such a pursuit will depend on an appraisal of the participant from the (...)
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  • Cognitive Disability, Misfortune, and Justice.Jeff Mcmahan - 1996 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 25 (1):3-35.
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  • Recent Work on Human Nature: Beyond Traditional Essences.Maria Kronfeldner, Neil Roughley & Georg Toepfer - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 9 (9):642-652.
    Recent philosophical work on the concept of human nature disagrees on how to respond to the Darwinian challenge, according to which biological species do not have traditional essences. Three broad kinds of reactions can be distinguished: conservative intrinsic essentialism, which defends essences in the traditional sense, eliminativism, which suggests dropping the concept of human nature altogether, and constructive approaches, which argue that revisions can generate sensible concepts of human nature beyond traditional essences. The different constructive approaches pick out one or (...)
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  • Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status.David Degrazia - 1999 - Philosophical Quarterly 49 (195):246-247.
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  • Do Animals Engage in Conceptual Thought?Jacob Beck - 2012 - Philosophy Compass 7 (3):218-229.
    This paper surveys and evaluates the answers that philosophers and animal researchers have given to two questions. Do animals have thoughts? If so, are their thoughts conceptual? Along the way, special attention is paid to distinguish debates of substance from mere battles over terminology, and to isolate fruitful areas for future research.
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  • On the Relative Value of Human and Animal Lives.Mark Bernstein - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (6):1517-1538.
    It has become virtually a matter of dogma—among both philosophers and laypersons—that human lives are more valuable than animal lives. One argument for this claim dominates the philosophical literature and, despite its employment by a host of philosophers, should be found wanting. I try to show that this line of reasoning, as well as one that is less popular but still with significant appeal, are faulty. The errors in each argument seem fatal: the pervasive argument begs the question, and the (...)
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  • At the Margins of Moral Personhood.Eva Kittay - 2005 - Ethics 116 (1):100-131.
    In this article I examine the proposition that severe cognitive disability is an impediment to moral personhood. Moral personhood, as I understand it here, is articulated in the work of Jeff McMahan as that which confers a special moral status on a person. I rehearse the metaphysical arguments about the nature of personhood that ground McMahan’s claims regarding the moral status of the “congenitally severely mentally retarded” (CSMR for short). These claims, I argue, rest on the view that only intrinsic (...)
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  • Humanism.Kieran Setiya - 2018 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 4 (4):452-70.
    Argues for a form of humanism on which we have reason to care about human beings that we do not have to care about other animals and human beings have rights against us other animals lack. Humanism respects the equal worth of those born with severe congenital cognitive disabilities. I address the charge of 'speciesism' and explain how being human is an ethically relevant fact.
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  • Ethology, Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology.Paul Edmund Griffiths - 2011 - In Sahotra Sarkar & Anya Plutynski (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. West Sussex, UK: Wiley/Blackwell. pp. 393-414.
    In the years leading up to the Second World War the ethologists Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen, created the tradition of rigorous, Darwinian research on animal behavior that developed into modern behavioral ecology. At first glance, research on specifically human behavior seems to exhibit greater discontinuity that research on animal behavior in general. The 'human ethology' of the 1960s appears to have been replaced in the early 1970s by a new approach called ‘sociobiology’. Sociobiology in its turn appears to have (...)
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  • Does the Chimpanzee Have a Theory of Mind? 30 Years Later.Josep Call & Michael Tomasello - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (5):187-192.
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  • Kinds, Complexity and Multiple Realization.Richard Boyd - 1999 - Philosophical Studies 95 (1):67-98.
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  • Kinds, Complexity, and Multiple Realization.Robert Boyd - 1999 - Philosophical Studies 95 (1-2):67-98.
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  • Darwin, Species, and Morality.James Rachels - 1987 - The Monist 70 (1):98-113.
    “Man in his arrogance thinks himself a great work worthy the interposition of a deity. More humble and I think truer to consider him created from animals.” Thus wrote Darwin in his notebooks for 1838, twenty-one years before he was to publish The Origin of Species. He would go on, of course, to support this idea with overwhelming evidence, and it is commonly said that, in doing so, he brought about a profound change in our conception of ourselves. After Darwin, (...)
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  • Animal Rights and the Values of Nonhuman Life.Elizabeth Anderson - 2004 - In Cass R. Sunstein & Martha Craven Nussbaum (eds.), Animal Rights: Current Debates and New Directions. Oxford University Press. pp. 277.
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  • What Is It Like to Be a Plant?P. Calvo - 2017 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 24 (9-10):205-227.
    In this article, I explore the possibility of plant subjective awareness within the conceptual framework of Plant Neurobiology -- an emerging discipline that aims to unearth the way plants perceive and act purposefully. I shall argue that plants lack none of the functional structures that are supposedly needed, and so we have no scientific reason to exclude the possibility that they have evolved different structures that underlie their own subjective experiences.
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  • Animal Liberation.Bill Puka & Peter Singer - 1977 - Philosophical Review 86 (4):557.
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  • Intelligence, Cognition, and Language of Green Plants.Anthony Trewavas - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Evolution.Roberta L. Millstein - 2001 - In Peter Machamer Michael Silberstein (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Science. Blackwell.
    This paper is an overview of the philosophy of evolution – past, present, and future. It surveys the following topics: the neutralist/selectionist debate, the adapationist programme and its challenges, sociobiology, contingency, laws of biology, the species category problem, the species taxon problem, the tautology problem, fitness, units of selection.
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  • Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience.M. Bennett & P. M. S. Hacker - 2003 - Philosophy 79 (307):141-146.
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  • Episodic Memory and Autonoesis: Uniquely Human.Endel Tulving - 2005 - In Herbert S. Terrace & Janet Metcalfe (eds.), The Missing Link in Cognition: Origins of Self-Reflective Consciousness. Oxford University Press. pp. 3-56.
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  • Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution.Theodosius Dobzhansky - 1973 - American Biology Teacher 35:125-129.
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  • Genocidal Language Games.Lynne Tirrell - 2012 - In Ishani Maitra & Mary Kate McGowan (eds.), Speech and Harm: Controversies Over Free Speech. Oxford University Press. pp. 174--221.
    This chapter examines the role played by derogatory terms (e.g., ‘inyenzi’ or cockroach, ‘inzoka’ or snake) in laying the social groundwork for the genocide of the Tutsi in Rwanda in 1994. The genocide was preceded by an increase in the use of anti-Tutsi derogatory terms among the Hutu. As these linguistic practices evolved, the terms became more openly and directly aimed at Tutsi. Then, during the 100 days of the genocide, derogatory terms and coded euphemisms were used to direct killers (...)
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  • Folk Biology and the Anthropology of Science: Cognitive Universals and Cultural Particulars.Scott Atran - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):547-569.
    This essay in the "anthropology of science" is about how cognition constrains culture in producing science. The example is folk biology, whose cultural recurrence issues from the very same domain-specific cognitive universals that provide the historical backbone of systematic biology. Humans everywhere think about plants and animals in highly structured ways. People have similar folk-biological taxonomies composed of essence-based species-like groups and the ranking of species into lower- and higher-order groups. Such taxonomies are not as arbitrary in structure and content, (...)
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  • Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience.Max R. Bennett & P. M. S. Hacker - 2006 - Behavior and Philosophy 34:71-87.
    The book "Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience" is an engaging criticism of cognitive neuroscience from the perspective of a Wittgensteinian philosophy of ordinary language. The authors' main claim is that assertions like "the brain sees" and "the left hemisphere thinks" are integral to cognitive neuroscience but that they are meaningless because they commit the mereological fallacy—ascribing to parts of humans, properties that make sense to predicate only of whole humans. The authors claim that this fallacy is at the heart of Cartesian (...)
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  • Sociobiology: The New Synthesis.Edward O. Wilson - 1975 - Journal of the History of Biology 33 (3):577-584.
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  • Darwin's Mistake: Explaining the Discontinuity Between Human and Nonhuman Minds.Derek C. Penn, Keith J. Holyoak & Daniel J. Povinelli - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):109-130.
    Over the last quarter century, the dominant tendency in comparative cognitive psychology has been to emphasize the similarities between human and nonhuman minds and to downplay the differences as (Darwin 1871). In the present target article, we argue that Darwin was mistaken: the profound biological continuity between human and nonhuman animals masks an equally profound discontinuity between human and nonhuman minds. To wit, there is a significant discontinuity in the degree to which human and nonhuman animals are able to approximate (...)
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  • Person-Rearing Relationships as a Key to Higher Moral Status.Agnieszka Jaworska & Julie Tannenbaum - 2014 - Ethics 124 (2):242-271.
    Why does a baby who is otherwise cognitively similar to an animal such as a dog nevertheless have a higher moral status? We explain the difference in moral status as follows: the baby can, while a dog cannot, participate as a rearee in what we call “person-rearing relationships,” which can transform metaphysically and evaluatively the baby’s activities. The capacity to engage in these transformed activities has the same type of value as the very capacities (i.e., intellectual or emotional sophistication) that (...)
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  • Scala Naturae: Why There is No Theory in Comparative Psychology.William Hodos & C. B. Campbell - 1969 - Psychological Review 76 (4):337-350.
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  • The Sun Always Rises: Scientists Also Need Semantics.Gordon M. Burghardt - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):133-134.
    Penn et al. do not demonstrate Darwin made a mistake, because they largely ignore the semantics underlying the meanings of and An analysis based on the work of Mortimer Adler shows such terminology conflates at least three different meanings of only one of which challenges Darwin – and one which the authors almost certainly would reject.We must also admit that there is a much wider interval in mental power between one of the lowest fishes, as a lamprey or lancelet, and (...)
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  • The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movement. A Summary.Arne Naess - 1973 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 16 (1-4):95 – 100.
    Ecologically responsible policies are concerned only in part with pollution and resource depletion. There are deeper concerns which touch upon principles of diversity, complexity, autonomy, decentralization, symbiosis, egalitarianism, and classlessness.
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  • Explaining Human Cognitive Autapomorphies.Thomas Suddendorf - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):147-148.
    The real reason for the apparent discontinuity between human and nonhuman minds is that all closely related hominids have become extinct. Nonetheless, I agree with Penn et al. that comparative psychology should aim to establish what cognitive traits humans share with other animals and what traits they do not share, because this could make profound contributions to genetics and neuroscience. There is, however, no consensus yet, and Penn et al.'s conclusion that it all comes down to one trait is premature.
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  • Difficulties with “Humaniqueness”.Irene M. Pepperberg - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):143-144.
    Explaining the transition from nonhuman to human behavior is a major scientific problem. Penn et al. argue for discontinuous evolution; they review many relevant papers but miss some that disagree with their stance. Given the shifting ground on which Penn et al.'s theories are based, and the likelihood of future studies providing additional information on continuities, a more open approach to continuity is warranted.
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  • Corticocentric Myopia: Old Bias in New Cognitive Sciences.Josef Parvizi - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (8):354-359.
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