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  1. The Foundations of Arithmetic.Gottlob Frege - 1953 - Evanston: Ill., Northwestern University Press.
    In arithmetic, if only because many of its methods and concepts originated in India, it has been the tradition to reason less strictly than in geometry, ...
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  • Computing Machinery and Intelligence.Alan M. Turing - 1950 - Mind 59 (October):433-60.
    I propose to consider the question, "Can machines think?" This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms "machine" and "think." The definitions might be framed so as to reflect so far as possible the normal use of the words, but this attitude is dangerous, If the meaning of the words "machine" and "think" are to be found by examining how they are commonly used it is difficult to escape the conclusion that the meaning and the answer to (...)
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  • The Twofold Role of Diagrams in Euclid’s Plane Geometry.Marco Panza - 2012 - Synthese 186 (1):55-102.
    Proposition I.1 is, by far, the most popular example used to justify the thesis that many of Euclid’s geometric arguments are diagram-based. Many scholars have recently articulated this thesis in different ways and argued for it. My purpose is to reformulate it in a quite general way, by describing what I take to be the twofold role that diagrams play in Euclid’s plane geometry (EPG). Euclid’s arguments are object-dependent. They are about geometric objects. Hence, they cannot be diagram-based unless diagrams (...)
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  • The Unity of Science in the Islamic Tradition.S. Rahman, T. Street & H. Tahiri (eds.) - 2008
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  • Knowledge Triumphant: The Concept of Knowledge in Medieval Islam.R. M. Frank & Franz Rosenthal - 1973 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 93 (1):108.
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  • The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology.Edmund Husserl - 1970 - Evanston: Northwestern University Press.
    In this book, which remained unfinished at his death, Husserl attempts to forge a union between phenomenology and existentialism.
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  • Dynamics of Reason.Michael Friedman - 2004 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 68 (3):702-712.
    This book introduces a new approach to the issue of radical scientific revolutions, or "paradigm-shifts," given prominence in the work of Thomas Kuhn. The book articulates a dynamical and historicized version of the conception of scientific a priori principles first developed by the philosopher Immanuel Kant. This approach defends the Enlightenment ideal of scientific objectivity and universality while simultaneously doing justice to the revolutionary changes within the sciences that have since undermined Kant's original defense of this ideal. Through a modified (...)
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  • Naturalizing Phenomenology: Issues in Contemporary Phenomenology and Cognitive Science.Jean Petitot, Francisco Varela, Bernard Pachoud & Jean-Michel Roy (eds.) - 1999 - Stanford University Press.
    This ambitious work aims to shed new light on the relations between Husserlian phenomenology and the present-day efforts toward a scientific theory of cognition—with its complex structure of disciplines, levels of explanation, and ...
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  • Schrödinger's Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics.Michel Bitbol - 1998 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (2):329-331.
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  • Proofs and Types.Jean-Yves Girard - 1989 - Cambridge University Press.
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  • I. The Panda's Thumb.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    FEW HEROES LOWER their sights in the prime of their lives; triumph leads inexorably on, often to destruction. Alexander wept because he had no new worlds to conquer; Napoleon, overextended, sealed his doom in the depth of a Russian winter. But Charles Darwin did not follow the Origin of Species (1859) with a general defense of natural selection or with its evident extension to human evolution (he waited until 1871 to publish The Descent of Man). Instead, he wrote his most (...)
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  • Geometry and Generality in Frege's Philosophy of Arithmetic.Jamie Tappenden - 1995 - Synthese 102 (3):319 - 361.
    This paper develops some respects in which the philosophy of mathematics can fruitfully be informed by mathematical practice, through examining Frege's Grundlagen in its historical setting. The first sections of the paper are devoted to elaborating some aspects of nineteenth century mathematics which informed Frege's early work. (These events are of considerable philosophical significance even apart from the connection with Frege.) In the middle sections, some minor themes of Grundlagen are developed: the relationship Frege envisions between arithmetic and geometry and (...)
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  • Mathematics and the Natural Sciences: The Physical Singularity of Life.Francis Bailly - 2010 - Imperial College Press.
    This book identifies the organizing concepts of physical and biological phenomena by an analysis of the foundations of mathematics and physics.
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