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  1. Toulmin's Model of Argument and the Question of Relativism.Lilian Bermejo-Luque - 2004 - Informal Logic 24 (2):169-181.
    In The Uses of Argument, Toulmin proposed a distinction between fielddependent and field-invariant standards for argument appraisal that gave rise to a relativistic understanding of his theory. The main goal of this paper is to show that epistemological relativism is not a necessary consequence ofToulmin's model of argument. To this end, I will analyze the role that fields are to play within this model, given a certain conception of one of its key elements: the warrant of an argument.
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  • The Uses of Argument.Clyde Laurence Hardin - 1959 - Philosophy of Science 26 (2):160-163.
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  • An Examination of the Place of Reason in Ethics.John Rawls - 1951 - Philosophical Review 60 (4):572.
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  • Argumentative Patterns for Justifying Scientific Explanations.Jean H. M. Wagemans - 2016 - Argumentation 30 (1):97-108.
    The practice of justifying scientific explanations generates argumentative patterns in which several types of arguments may play a role. This paper is aimed at identifying these patterns on the basis of an exploration of the institutional conventions regarding the nature, the shape and the quality of scientific explanations as reflected in the writings of influential philosophers of science. First, a basic pattern for justifying scientific explanations is described. Then, two types of extensions of this pattern are presented. These extensions are (...)
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  • When Experts Argue: Explaining the Best and the Worst of Reasoning. [REVIEW]Hugo Mercier - 2011 - Argumentation 25 (3):313-327.
    Expert reasoning is responsible for some of the most stunning human achievements, but also for some of the most disastrous decisions ever made. The argumentative theory of reasoning has proven very effective at explaining the pattern of reasoning’s successes and failures. In the present article, it is expanded to account for expert reasoning. The argumentative theory predicts that reasoning should display a strong confirmation bias. If argument quality is not sufficiently high in a domain, the confirmation bias will make experts (...)
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  • Constructing a Periodic Table of Arguments.H. M. Wagemans Jean - unknown
    The existing classifications of arguments are unsatisfying in a number of ways. This paper proposes an alternative in the form of a Periodic Table of Arguments. The newly developed table can be used as a systematic and comprehensive point of reference for the analysis, evaluation and production of argumentative discourse as well as for various kinds of empirical and computational research in the field of argumentation theory.
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  • Why Do Humans Reason? Arguments for an Argumentative Theory.Dan Sperber - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (2):57.
    Short abstract (98 words). Reasoning is generally seen as a means to improve knowledge and make better decisions. However, much evidence shows that reasoning often leads to epistemic distortions and poor decisions. This suggests that the function of reasoning should be rethought. Our hypothesis is that the function of reasoning is argumentative. It is to devise and evaluate arguments intended to persuade. Reasoning so conceived is adaptive given humans’ exceptional dependence on communication and vulnerability to misinformation. A wide range of (...)
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  • The Uses of Argument.STEPHEN TOULMIN - 1958 - Philosophy 34 (130):244-245.
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  • Systematizing Toulmin’s Warrants: An Epistemic Approach.James B. Freeman - 2005 - Argumentation 19 (3):331-346.
    Relevance of premises to conclusion can be explicated through Toulmin’s notion of warrant, understood as an inference rule, albeit not necessarily formal. A normative notion of relevance requires the warrant to be reliable. To determine reliability, we propose a fourfold classification of warrants into a priori, empirical, institutional, and evaluative, with further subdivisions possible. This classification has its ancestry in classical rhetoric and recent epistemology. Distinctive to each type of warrant is the mode by which such connections are intuitively discovered (...)
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  • Authority.Charles Arthur Willard - 1990 - Informal Logic 12 (1).
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  • Good Reasoning on the Toulmin Model.David Hitchcock - 2005 - Argumentation 19 (3):373-391.
    Some solo verbal reasoning serves the function of arriving at a correct answer to a question from information at the reasoner’s disposal. Such reasoning is good if and only if its grounds are justified and adequate, its warrant is justified, and the reasoner is justified in assuming that no defeaters apply. I distinguish seven sources of justified grounds and state the conditions under which each source is trustworthy. Adequate grounds include all good relevant information practically obtainable by the reasoner. The (...)
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  • Design Thinking in Argumentation Theory and Practice.Sally Jackson - 2015 - Argumentation 29 (3):243-263.
    This essay proposes a design perspective on argumentation, intended as complementary to empirical and critical scholarship. In any substantive domain, design can provide insights that differ from those provided by scientific or humanistic perspectives. For argumentation, the key advantage of a design perspective is the recognition that humanity’s natural capacity for reason and reasonableness can be extended through inventions that improve on unaided human intellect. Historically, these inventions have fallen into three broad classes: logical systems, scientific methods, and disputation frameworks. (...)
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  • Toulmin's Rhetorical Logic: What's the Warrant for Warrants?William M. Keith & David E. Beard - 2008 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 41 (1):22-50.
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  • Argumentation Schemes.Douglas Walton, Chris Reed & Fabrizio Macagno - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book provides a systematic analysis of many common argumentation schemes and a compendium of 96 schemes. The study of these schemes, or forms of argument that capture stereotypical patterns of human reasoning, is at the core of argumentation research. Surveying all aspects of argumentation schemes from the ground up, the book takes the reader from the elementary exposition in the first chapter to the latest state of the art in the research efforts to formalize and classify the schemes, outlined (...)
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  • An Examination of the Place of Reason in Ethics.S. E. Toulmin - 1952 - Mind 61 (241):93-101.
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  • Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments From Authority.Douglas Walton - 1999 - Philosophy 74 (289):454-457.
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  • An Examination of the Place of Reason in Ethics.Stephen Toulmin - 1955 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 17 (1):173-174.
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  • Rethinking Expertise.H. M. Collins & Robert Evans - 2007 - University of Chicago Press.
    ISBN-13: 978-0-226-11360-9 (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-226-11360-4 ... HM651.C64 2007 158.1—dc22 2007022671 The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Information ...
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  • The Environment and Disease: Association or Causation?Austin Bradford Hill - 1965 - Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 58:295-300.
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