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  1. Moral Dimensions: Permissibility, Meaning, Blame.Thomas Scanlon - 2008 - Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
    The illusory appeal of double effect -- The significance of intent -- Means and ends -- Blame.
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  • Actions, Intentions, and Consequences: The Doctrine of Doing and Allowing.Warren S. Quinn - 1989 - Philosophical Review 98 (3):287-312.
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  • Personal Identity.Derek Parfit - 1971 - Philosophical Review 80 (January):3-27.
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  • Famine, Affluence, and Morality.Peter Singer - 1972 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 1 (3):229-243.
    As I write this, in November 1971, people are dying in East Bengal from lack of food, shelter, and medical caxc. The suffering and death that are occurring there now axe not inevitable, 1101; unavoidable in any fatalistic sense of the term. Constant poverty, a cyclone, and a civil war have turned at least nine million people into destitute refugees; nevertheless, it is not beyond Lhe capacity of the richer nations to give enough assistance to reduce any further suffering to (...)
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  • Turning the Trolley.Judith Jarvis Thomson - 2008 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 36 (4):359-374.
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  • Morality and Consequences.Jonathan Bennett - 1980 - Tanner Lectures.
    In this lecture I shall offer to make clear, deeply grounded, objective sense of a certain contrast: I call it the contrast between positive and negative instrumentality, and it shows up in ordinary speech in remarks about what happens because a person did do such and such, as against what happens because he did not. The line between positive and negative instrumentality lies fairly close to some others which are drawn by more ordinary bits of English. For instance, the difference (...)
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  • An Unconnected Heap of Duties?David McNaughton - 2002 - In Philip Stratton-Lake (ed.), Ethical Intuitionism: Re-Evaluations. Clarendon Press.
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  • Personal Identity.Derek Parfit - 1971 - In Tim Crane & Katalin Farkas (eds.), Metaphysics: A Guide and Anthology. Oxford University Press.
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  • Killing and Letting Die.Bonnie Steinbock & Alastair Norcross (eds.) - 1994 - Fordham University Press.
    This collection contains twenty-one thought-provoking essays on the controversies surrounding the moral and legal distinctions between euthanasia and "letting die." Since public awareness of this issue has increased this second edition includes nine entirely new essays which bring the treatment of the subject up-to-date. The urgency of this issue can be gauged in recent developments such as the legalization of physician-assisted suicide in the Netherlands, "how-to" manuals topping the bestseller charts in the United States, and the many headlines devoted to (...)
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  • Killing, Letting Die, and the Trolley Problem.Judith Jarvis Thomson - 1976 - The Monist 59 (2):204-217.
    Judith Jarvis Thomson; Killing, Letting Die, and The Trolley Problem, The Monist, Volume 59, Issue 2, 1 April 1976, Pages 204–217, https://doi.org/10.5840/monis.
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  • Another Trip on the Trolley.Michael J. Costa - 1987 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 25 (4):461-466.
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  • Universal Moral Grammar: Theory, Evidence, and the Future.John Mikhail - 1912 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (4):143 –152.
    Scientists from various disciplines have begun to focus attention on the psychology and biology of human morality. One research program that has recently gained attention is universal moral grammar (UMG). UMG seeks to describe the nature and origin of moral knowledge by using concepts and models similar to those used in Chomsky's program in linguistics. This approach is thought to provide a fruitful perspective from which to investigate moral competence from computational, ontogenetic, behavioral, physiological and phylogenetic perspectives. In this article, (...)
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  • Equality and Priority.Derek Parfit - 1997 - Ratio 10 (3):202–221.
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  • Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?Edmund L. Gettier - 1963 - Analysis 23 (6):121-123.
    Edmund Gettier is Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. This short piece, published in 1963, seemed to many decisively to refute an otherwise attractive analysis of knowledge. It stimulated a renewed effort, still ongoing, to clarify exactly what knowledge comprises.
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  • The right and the good.W. Ross - 1932 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 39 (2):11-12.
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  • Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War.Eric Mack - 1985 - Social Philosophy and Policy 3 (1):1.
    1. Introduction This essay deals with the hard topic of the permissible killing of the innocent. The relevance of this topic to the morality of war is obvious. For even the most defensive and just wars, i.e., the most defensive and just responses to existing or imminent large-scale aggression, will inflict harm upon – in particular, cause the deaths of – innocent bystanders. 1 The most obvious and relevant example is that of innocent Soviet noncombatants who would be killed by (...)
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  • Sidgwick and Reflective Equilibrium.Peter Singer - 1974 - The Monist 58 (3):490-517.
    In his book A Theory of Justice, John Rawls introduces and employs the concept of “reflective equilibrium” as a method of testing which of rival moral theories is to be preferred. The introduction of this concept is plainly a significant event for moral philosophy. The criterion by which we decide to reject, say, utilitarianism in favour of a contractual theory of justice is, if anything, even more fundamental than the choice of theory itself, since our choice of moral theory may (...)
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  • On Doing Good: The Right and the Wrong Way.James A. Montmarquet - 1982 - Journal of Philosophy 79 (8):439-455.
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  • An Unconnected Heap of Duties?David McNaughton - 1996 - Philosophical Quarterly 46 (185):433-447.
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  • Thomson's Turnabout on the Trolley.William J. FitzPatrick - 2009 - Analysis 69 (4):636-643.
    The famous ‘trolley problem’ began as a simple variation on an example given in passing by Philippa Foot , involving a runaway trolley that cannot be stopped but can be steered to a path of lesser harm. By switching from the perspective of the driver to that of a bystander, Judith Jarvis Thomson showed how the case raises difficulties for the normative theory Foot meant to be defending, and Thomson compounded the challenge with further variations that created still more puzzles (...)
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  • Self-Knowledge and Self-Identity.P. F. Strawson - 1965 - Philosophical Quarterly 15 (58):78-79.
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  • Intention and Accident.Matthew Hanser - 2000 - Philosophical Studies 98 (1):15-34.
    It is widely held by philosophers of action that an agent does something intentionally only if he does it either as an end or as a means to an end. We are, however, strongly inclined to describe certain doings as intentional despite the apparent failure of this condition to be met. Can we explain the intentionalness of these doings without committing ourselves to saying that agents do all sorts of things intentionally which they manifestly do not?
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  • Tooley and the Trolley.John Martin Fischer - 1991 - Philosophical Studies 62 (1):93 - 100.
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  • The Intend/Foresee Distinction and the Problem of “Closeness”.William J. Fitzpatrick - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 128 (3):585-617.
    The distinction between harm that is intended as a means or end, and harm that is merely a foreseen side-effect of one’s action, is widely cited as a significant factor in a variety of ethical contexts. Many use it, for example, to distinguish terrorist acts from certain acts of war that may have similar results as side-effects. Yet Bennett and others have argued that its application is so arbitrary that if it can be used to cast certain harmful actions in (...)
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  • Abortion and Infanticide.Michael Tooley - 1972 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 2 (1):37-65.
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  • The Additive Fallacy.Shelly Kagan - 1988 - Ethics 99 (1):5-31.
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  • Intention, Permissibility, Terrorism, and War.Jeff McMahan - 2009 - Philosophical Perspectives 23 (1):345-372.
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  • Intentions and Trolleys.Joseph Shaw - 2006 - Philosophical Quarterly 56 (222):63 - 83.
    The series of 'trolley' examples issue a challenge to moral principles based on intentions, since it seems that these give the wrong answers in two important cases: 'Fat Man', where they seem to say that it is permissible to push someone in front of a trolley to save others, and 'Loop', where they seem to say that it is wrong to divert a trolley towards a single person whose body will stop it and save others. I reply, first, that there (...)
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  • Whatever the Consequences.Jonathan Bennett - 1966 - Analysis 26 (3):83 - 102.
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  • On Killing and Letting Die.Daniel Dinello - 1971 - Analysis 31 (3):83 - 86.
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  • Quinn on Double Effect: The Problem of "Closeness".John Martin Fischer, Mark Ravizza & David Copp - 1993 - Ethics 103 (4):707-725.
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  • Negation and Abstention: Two Theories of Allowing.Jonathan Bennett - 1993 - Ethics 104 (1):75-96.
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