Switch to: Citations

Add references

You must login to add references.
  1. What Projects and Why.Mandy Simons, David Beaver, Judith Tonhauser & Craige Roberts - 2010 - Semantics and Linguistic Theory 20:309-327.
    The empirical phenomenon at the center of this paper is projection, which we define (uncontroversially) as follows: (1) Definition of projection An implication projects if and only if it survives as an utterance implication when the expression that triggers the implication occurs under the syntactic scope of an entailment-cancelling operator. Projection is observed, for example, with utterances containing aspectual verbs like stop, as shown in (2) and (3) with examples from English and Paraguayan Guaraní (Paraguay, Tupí-Guaraní).1 The Guaraní example in (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   40 citations  
  • Wise Choices, Apt Feelings.Allan Gibbard - 1990 - Ethics 102 (2):342-356.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   440 citations  
  • Ruling Passions.Simon Blackburn - 2002 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (1):122-135.
    Ruling Passions is about human nature. It is an invitation to see human nature a certain way. It defends this way of looking at ourselves against competitors, including rational choice theory, modern Kantianism, various applications of evolutionary psychology, views that enchant our natures, and those that disenchant them in the direction of relativism or nihilism. It is a story centred upon a view of human ethical nature, which it places amongst other facets of human nature, as just one of the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   144 citations  
  • Assertion.Robert C. Stalnaker - 1978 - In Maite Ezcurdia & Robert J. Stainton (eds.), The Semantics-Pragmatics Boundary in Philosophy. Broadview Press. pp. 179.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   253 citations  
  • Truth Conditions and the Meanings of Ethical Terms1.Alex Silk - 2013 - Oxford Studies in Metaethics 8:195.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   22 citations  
  • Context and Content: Essays on Intentionality in Speech and Thought.Robert C. Stalnaker - 1999 - Oxford University Press UK.
    In Context and Content Robert Stalnaker develops a philosophical picture of the nature of speech and thought and the relations between them. Two themes in particular run through these collected essays: the role that the context in which speech takes place plays in accounting for the way language is used to express thought, and the role of the external environment in determining the contents of our thoughts. Stalnaker argues against the widespread assumption of the priority of linguistic over mental representation, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   277 citations  
  • Pragmatic Presuppositions.Robert Stalnaker - 1974 - In Context and Content. Oxford University Press. pp. 47--62.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   191 citations  
  • Nonfactualism About Epistemic Modality.Seth Yalcin - 2011 - In Andy Egan & B. Weatherson (eds.), Epistemic Modality. Oxford University Press.
    When I tell you that it’s raining, I describe a way the world is—viz., rainy. I say something whose truth turns on how things are with the weather in the world. Likewise when I tell you that the weatherman thinks that it’s raining. Here the truth of what I say turns on how things are with the weatherman’s state of mind in the world. Likewise when I tell you that I think that it’s raining. Here the truth of what I (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   145 citations  
  • Assertion.Robert Stalnaker - 1978 - Syntax and Semantics (New York Academic Press) 9:315-332.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   441 citations  
  • Norm and Action: A Logical Enquiry.Georg Henrik von Wright - 1963 - Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   53 citations  
  • Expressivism, Pragmatism and Representationalism.Huw Price, Simon Blackburn, Robert Brandom, Paul Horwich & Michael Williams - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    Pragmatists have traditionally been enemies of representationalism but friends of naturalism, when naturalism is understood to pertain to human subjects, in the sense of Hume and Nietzsche. In this volume Huw Price presents his distinctive version of this traditional combination, as delivered in his René Descartes Lectures at Tilburg University in 2008. Price contrasts his view with other contemporary forms of philosophical naturalism, comparing it with other pragmatist and neo-pragmatist views such as those of Robert Brandom and Simon Blackburn. Linking (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   45 citations  
  • Context.Robert Stalnaker - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    Robert Stalnaker explores the contexts in which speech takes place, the ways we represent them, and the roles they play in explaining the interpretation and dynamics of speech. His central thesis is the autonomy of pragmatics: the independence of theory about structure and function of discourse from theory about mechanisms serving those functions.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   60 citations  
  • Assessment Sensitivity: Relative Truth and its Applications.John MacFarlane - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    John MacFarlane explores how we might make sense of the idea that truth is relative. He provides new, satisfying accounts of parts of our thought and talk that have resisted traditional methods of analysis, including what we mean when we talk about what is tasty, what we know, what will happen, what might be the case, and what we ought to do.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   233 citations  
  • Norm and Action: A Logical Enquiry.George Pitcher - 1965 - Philosophical Review 74 (4):519.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  • Epistemic Possibilities.Keith DeRose - 1991 - Philosophical Review 100 (4):581-605.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   180 citations  
  • The Interactive Stance: Meaning for Conversation.Jonathan Ginzburg - 2012 - Oxford University Press UK.
    This book presents one of the first attempts at developing a precise, grammatically rooted, theory of conversation motivated by data from real conversations. The theory has descriptive reach from the micro-conversational - e.g. self-repair at the word level - to macro-level phenomena such as multi-party conversation and the characterization of distinct conversational genres. It draws on extensive corpus studies of the British National Corpus, on evidence from language acquisition, and on computer simulations of language evolution. The theory provides accounts of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  • Discourse Contextualism: A Framework for Contextualist Semantics and Pragmatics.Alex Silk - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    This book investigates context-sensitivity in natural language by examining the meaning and use of a target class of theoretically recalcitrant expressions. These expressions-including epistemic vocabulary, normative and evaluative vocabulary, and vague language -exhibit systematic differences from paradigm context-sensitive expressions in their discourse dynamics and embedding properties. Many researchers have responded by rethinking the nature of linguistic meaning and communication. Drawing on general insights about the role of context in interpretation and collaborative action, Silk develops an improved contextualist theory of CR-expressions (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   25 citations  
  • Common Ground.Robert C. Stalnaker - 2002 - Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (5-6):701-721.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   313 citations  
  • Linguistic Communication and Speech Acts.Kent Bach & Robert M. Harnish - 1979 - Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Psychological peculiarities of the training of teachers and lectures for the development of spiritual values and potential of youth -/- Definition of concepts "spiritual potential" and "spiritual values" is offered. It is noted that spiritual values have an individual-social basis. They affect the actions of people in various fields of life helping them to exercise moral choices of behavior in significant situations. Psychological peculiarities of the training of pedagogues to the development of spiritual values and the potential of student youth (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   266 citations  
  • Contributing to Discourse.Herbert H. Clark & Edward F. Schaefer - 1989 - Cognitive Science 13 (2):259-294.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   59 citations  
  • Conversation, Co-Ordination and Convention: An Empirical Investigation of How Groups Establish Linguistic Conventions.Simon Garrod & Gwyneth Doherty - 1994 - Cognition 53 (3):181-215.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   50 citations  
  • Referring as a Collaborative Process.Herbert H. Clark & Deanna Wilkes-Gibbs - 1986 - Cognition 22 (1):1-39.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   152 citations  
  • Toward a Taxonomy of Projective Content.Judith Tonhauser, David Beaver, Craige Roberts & Mandy Simons - 2013 - Language 89 (1):66-109.
    Projective contents, which include presuppositional inferences and Potts's conventional implicatures, are contents that may project when a construction is embedded, as standardly identified by the FAMILY-OF-SENTENCES diagnostic. This article establishes distinctions among projective contents on the basis of a series of diagnostics, including a variant of the family-of-sentences diagnostic, that can be applied with linguistically untrained consultants in the field and the laboratory. These diagnostics are intended to serve as part of a toolkit for exploring projective contents across languages, thus (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   36 citations  
  • Expressing Credences.Daniel Rothschild - 2012 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 112 (1pt1):99-114.
    After presenting a simple expressivist account of reports of probabilistic judgements, I explore a classic problem for it, namely the Frege-Geach problem. I argue that it is a problem not just for expressivism but for any reasonable account of ascriptions of graded judgements. I suggest that the problem can be resolved by appropriately modelling imprecise credences.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   36 citations  
  • The Language of Morals.R. M. Hare - 1963 - Oxford University Press.
    Hare has written a clear, brief, and readable introduction to ethics which looks at all the fundamental problems of the subject.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   258 citations  
  • Modality, Mood, and Change of Modal Meanings: A New Perspective.Heiko Narrog - 2005 - Cognitive Linguistics 16 (4).
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  • Counterfactuals.David Lewis - 1974 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 36 (3):602-605.
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   320 citations  
  • Meaning and Normativity.Allan Gibbard - 1994 - Philosophical Issues 5:95-115.
    The concepts of meaning and mental content resist naturalistic analysis. This is because they are normative: they depend on ideas of how things ought to be.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   92 citations  
  • Defaults in Update Semantics.Frank Veltman - 1996 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 25 (3):221 - 261.
    The aim of this paper is twofold: (i) to introduce the framework of update semantics and to explain what kind of semantic phenomena may successfully be analysed in it: (ii) to give a detailed analysis of one such phenomenon: default reasoning.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   251 citations  
  • Vagueness and Grammar: The Semantics of Relative and Absolute Gradable Adjectives.Christopher Kennedy - 2007 - Linguistics and Philosophy 30 (1):1 - 45.
    This paper investigates the way that linguistic expressions influence vagueness, focusing on the interpretation of the positive (unmarked) form of gradable adjectives. I begin by developing a semantic analysis of the positive form of ‘relative’ gradable adjectives, expanding on previous proposals by further motivating a semantic basis for vagueness and by precisely identifying and characterizing the division of labor between the compositional and contextual aspects of its interpretation. I then introduce a challenge to the analysis from the class of ‘absolute’ (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   179 citations  
  • The Dynamics of Vagueness.Chris Barker - 2002 - Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (1):1-36.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   100 citations  
  • Restrictions on Quantifier Domains.Kai von Fintel - 1994 - Dissertation, University of Massachusetts at Amherst
    This dissertation investigates the ways in which natural language restricts the domains of quantifiers. Adverbs of quantification are analyzed as quantifying over situations. The domain of quantifiers is pragmatically constrained: apparent processes of "semantic partition" are treated as pragmatic epiphenomena. The introductory Chapter 1 sketches some of the background of work on natural language quantification and begins the analysis of adverbial quantification over situations. Chapter 2 develops the central picture of "semantic partition" as a side-effect of pragmatic processes of anaphora (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   116 citations  
  • An Investigation of the Lumps of Thought.Angelika Kratzer - 1989 - Linguistics and Philosophy 12 (5):607 - 653.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   136 citations  
  • On Reacting to Assertions and Polar Questions.D. F. Farkas & K. B. Bruce - 2010 - Journal of Semantics 27 (1):81-118.
    The aim of this paper is to capture the similarities and differences between assertions and polar questions so as to be able to account for the systematic partial overlap that exists in reactions to these speech acts in English and beyond. We first discuss the discourse components we assume and then define default assertions and default polar questions in a way that allows us to characterize two types of responses to these speech acts, confirming and reversing reactions. The common characteristics (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   32 citations  
  • Time and Modality Without Tenses or Modals.Maria Bittner - 2011 - In Renate Musan & Monika Rathert (eds.), Tense across Languages. Niemeyer. pp. 147--188.
    In English, discourse reference to time involves grammatical tenses interpreted as temporal anaphors. Recently, it has been argued that conditionals involve modal discourse anaphora expressed by a parallel grammatical system of anaphoric modals. Based on evidence from Kalaallisut, this paper argues that temporal and modal anaphora can be just as precise in a language that does not have either grammatical category. Instead, temporal anaphora directly targets eventualities of verbs, without mediating tenses, while modal anaphora involves anaphoric moods and/or attitudinal verbs.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   20 citations  
  • On the Semantics and Pragmatics of Epistemic Vocabulary.Sarah Moss - 2015 - Semantics and Pragmatics.
    This paper motivates and develops a novel semantics for several epistemic expressions, including possibility modals and indicative conditionals. The semantics I defend constitutes an alternative to standard truth conditional theories, as it assigns sets of probability spaces as sentential semantic values. I argue that what my theory lacks in conservatism is made up for by its strength. In particular, my semantics accounts for the distinctive behavior of nested epistemic modals, indicative conditionals embedded under probability operators, and instances of constructive dilemma (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   68 citations  
  • Dynamic Discourse Referents for Tense and Modals.Matthew Stone & Daniel Hardt - 1999 - In Harry Bunt & Reinhard Muskins (eds.), Computing Meaning. Kluwer. pp. 302-321.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  • On Quantifier Domain Restriction.Jason Stanley & Zoltán Gendler Szabó - 2000 - Mind and Language 15 (2-3):219--61.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   304 citations  
  • Ruling Passions: A Theory of Practical Reasoning.M. Kolbel - 2002 - Mind 111 (442):373-380.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   133 citations  
  • The Language of Morals.J. Kemp - 1954 - Philosophical Quarterly 4 (14):94-95.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   55 citations  
  • Presuppositions and Anaphors in Attitude Contexts.Bart Geurts - 1998 - Linguistics and Philosophy 21 (6):545-601.
    This paper consists of two main parts and a coda. In the first part I present the ''binding theory'' of presupposition projection, which is the framework that I adopt in this paper (Section 1.1). I outline the main problems that arise in the interplay between presuppositions and anaphors on the one hand and attitude reports on the other (Section 1.2), and discuss Heim''s theory of presuppositions in attitude contexts (Section 1.3).In the second part of the paper I present my own (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   27 citations  
  • Judge Dependence, Epistemic Modals, and Predicates of Personal Taste.Tamina Stephenson - 2007 - Linguistics and Philosophy 30 (4):487--525.
    Predicates of personal taste (fun, tasty) and epistemic modals (might, must) share a similar analytical difficulty in determining whose taste or knowledge is being expressed. Accordingly, they have parallel behavior in attitude reports and in a certain kind of disagreement. On the other hand, they differ in how freely they can be linked to a contextually salient individual, with epistemic modals being much more restricted in this respect. I propose an account of both classes using Lasersohn’s (Linguistics and Philosophy 28: (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   162 citations  
  • What 'Must' and 'Can' Must and Can Mean.Angelika Kratzer - 1977 - Linguistics and Philosophy 1 (3):337--355.
    In this paper I offer an account of the meaning of must and can within the framework of possible worlds semantics. The paper consists of two parts: the first argues for a relative concept of modality underlying modal words like must and can in natural language. I give preliminary definitions of the meaning of these words which are formulated in terms of logical consequence and compatibility, respectively. The second part discusses one kind of insufficiency in the meaning definitions given in (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   267 citations  
  • On Negative Yes/No Questions.Maribel Romero & Chung-Hye Han - 2004 - Linguistics and Philosophy 27 (5):609-658.
    Preposed negation yes/no (yn)-questions like Doesn''t Johndrink? necessarily carry the implicature that the speaker thinks Johndrinks, whereas non-preposed negation yn-questions like DoesJohn not drink? do not necessarily trigger this implicature. Furthermore,preposed negation yn-questions have a reading ``double-checking'''' pand a reading ``double-checking'''' p, as in Isn''t Jane comingtoo? and in Isn''t Jane coming either? respectively. We present otheryn-questions that raise parallel implicatures and argue that, in allthe cases, the presence of an epistemic conversational operator VERUMderives the existence and content of the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  • Counterfactuals. [REVIEW]William Parry - 1973 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 44 (2):278-281.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   463 citations  
  • Ordering Semantics and Premise Semantics for Counterfactuals.David K. Lewis - 1981 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 10 (2):217-234.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   83 citations  
  • Semantics in Generative Grammar.Irene Heim & Angelika Kratzer - 1998 - Blackwell.
    Written by two of the leading figures in the field, this is a lucid and systematic introduction to semantics as applied to transformational grammars of the ...
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   391 citations  
  • Bayesian Expressivism.Seth Yalcin - 2012 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 112 (2pt2):123-160.
    I develop a conception of expressivism according to which it is chiefly a pragmatic thesis about some fragment of discourse, one imposing certain constraints on semantics. The first half of the paper uses credal expressivism about the language of probability as a stalking-horse for this purpose. The second half turns to the question of how one might frame an analogous form of expressivism about the language of deontic modality. Here I offer a preliminary comparison of two expressivist lines. The first, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   62 citations  
  • Enlightened Update: A Computational Architecture for Presupposition and Other Pragmatic Phenomena.Richmond H. Thomason & Matthew Stone - unknown
    We relate the theory of presupposition accommodation to a computational framework for reasoning in conversation. We understand presuppositions as private commitments the speaker makes in using an utterance but expects the listener to recognize based on mutual information. On this understanding, the conversation can move forward not just through the positive effects of interlocutors’ utterances but also from the retrospective insight interlocutors gain about one anothers’ mental states from observing what they do. Our title, ENLIGHTENED UPDATE, highlights such cases. Our (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  • How to Be an Ethical Expressivist.Alex Silk - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 91 (1):47-81.
    Expressivism promises an illuminating account of the nature of normative judgment. But worries about the details of expressivist semantics have led many to doubt whether expressivism's putative advantages can be secured. Drawing on insights from linguistic semantics and decision theory, I develop a novel framework for implementing an expressivist semantics that I call ordering expressivism. I argue that by systematically interpreting the orderings that figure in analyses of normative terms in terms of the basic practical attitude of conditional weak preference, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations