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  1. Lockean Justifications of Intellectual Property.Daniel Attas - 2008 - In Gosseries Axel, Marciano A. & Strowel A. (eds.), Intellectual Property and Theories of Justice. Basingstoke & N.Y.: Palgrave Mcmillan. pp. 29--56.
    This paper explores the possibility of extending Locke’s theory with respect to tangible property so that it might offer a feasible theoretical basis for intellectual property too. The main conclusion is that such an attempt must fail. Locke’s theory comes in three parts: a general justification of property which serves to explain why assets ought to be under the exclusive control of individuals; a positive method of private appropriation whereby an individual acquires a prima facie exclusive claim to previously commonly (...)
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  • Justifying Intellectual Property.Edwin C. Hettinger - 1989 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 18 (1):31-52.
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  • Politics as Usual: What Lies Behind the Pro-Poor Rhetoric.Thomas Pogge - 2010 - Polity.
    Worldwide, human lives are rapidly improving. Education, health-care, technology, and political participation are becoming ever more universal, empowering human beings everywhere to enjoy security, economic sufficiency, equal citizenship, and a life in dignity. To be sure, there are some specially difficult areas disfavoured by climate, geography, local diseases, unenlightened cultures or political tyranny. Here progress is slow, and there may be set-backs. But the affluent states and many international organizations are working steadily to extend the blessings of modernity through trade (...)
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  • By "Fancy or Agreement": Locke's Theory of Money and the Justice of the Global Monetary System.Luca J. Uberti - 2013 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 6 (1):49.
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  • Global Justice Considerations for a Proposed “Climate Impact Fund”.Cristian Timmermann & Henk van den Belt - 2012 - Public Reason 4 (1-2):182-196.
    One of the most attractive, but nevertheless highly controversial proposals to alleviate the negative effects of today’s international patent regime is the Health Impact Fund (HIF). Although the HIF has been drafted to facilitate access to medicines and boost pharmaceutical research, we have analysed the burdens for the global poor a similar proposal designed to promote the use and development of climate-friendly technologies would have. Drawing parallels from the access to medicines debate, we suspect that an analogous “Climate Impact Fund” (...)
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  • GM Crops: Patently Wrong? [REVIEW]James Wilson - 2007 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (3):261-283.
    This paper focuses on the ethical justifiability of patents on Genetically Modified (GM) crops. I argue that there are three distinguishing features of GM crops that make it unethical to grant patents on GM crops, even if we assume that the patent system is in general justified. The first half of the paper critiques David Resnik’s recent arguments in favor of patents on GM crops. Resnik argues that we should take a consequentialist approach to the issue, and that the best (...)
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  • Is There a Duty to Share? Ethics of Sharing Research Data in the Context of Public Health Emergencies.P. Langat, D. Pisartchik, D. Silva, C. Bernard, K. Olsen, M. Smith, S. Sahni & R. Upshur - 2011 - Public Health Ethics 4 (1):4-11.
    Making research data readily accessible during a public health emergency can have profound effects on our response capabilities. The moral milieu of this data sharing has not yet been adequately explored. This article explores the foundation and nature of a duty, if any, that researchers have to share data, specifically in the context of public health emergencies. There are three notable reasons that stand in opposition to a duty to share one’s data, relating to: (i) data property and ownership, (ii) (...)
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  • Combating Resistance: The Case for a Global Antibiotics Treaty.Jonny Anomaly - 2010 - Public Health Ethics 3 (1):13-22.
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  • Practical Ethics.Peter Singer - 1979 - Philosophical Quarterly 31 (123):180-182.
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  • Basic Rights: Subsistence, Affluence, and U.S. Foreign Policy.Henry Shue - 1980 - Ethics 94 (2):319-324.
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  • Can Patents Prohibit Research? On the Social Epistemology of Patenting and Licensing in Science.Justin B. Biddle - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 45:14-23.
    A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology—nonideal systems design—and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby promote the development (...)
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  • In Favour of a Millian Proposal to Reform Biomedical Research.Julian Reiss - 2010 - Synthese 177 (3):427 - 447.
    One way to make philosophy of science more socially relevant is to attend to specific scientific practises that affect society to a great extent. One such practise is biomedical research. This paper looks at contemporary U.S. biomedical research in particular and argues that it suffers from important epistemic, moral and socioeconomic failings. It then discusses and criticises existing approaches to improve on the status quo, most prominently by Thomas Pogge (a political philosopher), Joseph Stiglitz (a Nobel-prize winning economist) and James (...)
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  • Lockean Theories of Property: Justifications for Unilateral Appropriation.Karl Widerquist - 2010 - Public Reason 2 (1):3-26.
    Although John Locke’s theory of appropriation is undoubtedly influential, no one seems to agree about exactly what he was trying to say. It is unlikely that someone will write the interpretation that effectively ends the controversy. Instead of trying to find the one definitive interpretation of Locke’s property theory, this article attempts to identify the range of reasonable interpretations and extensions of Lockean property theory that exist in the contemporary literature with an emphasis on his argument for unilateral appropriation. It (...)
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  • Towards a Critique of the Moral Foundations of Intellectual Property Rights.Theodoros Papaioannou - 2006 - Journal of Global Ethics 2 (1):67 – 90.
    Research in recent history has neglected to address the moral foundations of particular kinds of public policy such as the protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs). On the one hand, nation-states have enforced a tightening of the IPR system. On the other, only recently have national government and international institutions recognised that the moral justification for stronger IPRs protection is far from being plausible and cannot be taken for granted. In this article, IPRs are examined as individual rights founded upon (...)
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  • The Right to Exploit: Parasitism, Scarcity, and Basic Income.Gijs Van Donselaar - 2009 - Oup Usa.
    This book explores how traditional theories of economic justice, both from the libertarian right and the egalitarian left, have failed to appreciate the objection against exploitative behavior that would be possible through the exercise of property rights. This failure also underlies the recent plea for a so-called unconditional basic income.
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  • Re-Taking Care: Open Source Biotech in Light of the Need to Deproletarianize Agricultural Innovation. [REVIEW]Pieter Lemmens - 2014 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (1):127-152.
    This article deals with the biotechnology revolution in agriculture and analyzes it in terms of Bernard Stiegler’s theory of techno-evolution and his thesis that technologies have an intrinsically pharmacological nature, meaning that they can be both supportive and destructive for sociotechnical practices based on them. Technological innovations always first disrupt existing sociotechnical practices, but are subsequently always appropriated by the social system to be turned into a new technical system upon which new sociotechnical practices are based. As constituted and conditioned (...)
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  • Africa Humiliated? Misrecognition in Development Aid.Franziska Dübgen - 2012 - Res Publica 18 (1):65-77.
    Critiques of development aid from its recipient’s sometimes draw our attention to the perception of paternalism on the part of ‘development industry’ actors. Even within participatory project designs, critical voices recount experiences of clear power divides and informal hierarchies determining the content and form of ‘cooperation’. While neoliberal as well as neo-Marxist scholars base their critiques on a distributive scheme of global justice, post-development theory emphasizes respect and recognition as the central aspect of justice Indeed, post-development theorists continue to complain (...)
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  • Human Rights, Intellectual Property, and Struggles for Recognition.Volker Heins - 2008 - Human Rights Review 9 (2):213-232.
    This article examines recent controversies over the relationship between human rights and intellectual property rights (IPRs). Many activists have claimed that IPRs conflict with human rights. Others have argued that IPRs are themselves human rights. The article approaches the debate as an opportunity to clarify the nature of IPRs in relation to human rights, as well as the nature of contemporary struggles over these rights. After surveying the dual expansion of both human rights and IPRs and rejecting the view that (...)
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  • Intellectual Property and Global Health: From Corporate Social Responsibility to the Access to Knowledge Movement.Cristian Timmermann & Henk van den Belt - 2013 - Liverpool Law Review 34 (1):47-73.
    Any system for the protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) has three main kinds of distributive effects. It will determine or influence: (a) the types of objects that will be developed and for which IPRs will be sought; (b) the differential access various people will have to these objects; and (c) the distribution of the IPRs themselves among various actors. What this means to the area of pharmaceutical research is that many urgently needed medicines will not be developed at all, (...)
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  • Climate-Ready GM Crops, Intellectual Property and Global Justice.Cristian Timmermann, Henk van den Belt & Michiel Korthals - 2010 - In Carlos Maria Romeo Casabona, Leire Escajedo San Epifanio & Aitziber Emaldi Cirión (eds.), Global food security: ethical and legal challenges. Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp. 153-158.
    So-called climate-ready GM crops can be of great help in adapting to a changing climate. Climate change, caused in great part by anthropogenic greenhouse gases released in the atmosphere since the industrial revolution by the developed world, is felt much stronger in the developing world, causing unexpected droughts and floods that will cause large harvest loss, leading to more hunger and malnutrition, rising death tolls and disease vulnerability. The current intellectual property regime (IPR) strikes an unfair balance between profit oriented (...)
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  • Practical Ethics.John Martin Fischer & Peter Singer - 1983 - Philosophical Review 92 (2):264.
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  • Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation.Amartya Sen - 1984 - Ethics 94 (2):342-344.
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  • Global Health and the Scientific Research Agenda.James H. Flory & Philip Kitcher - 2004 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 32 (1):36-65.
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  • Phänomenologie des Geistes. Hegel & Georg Lasson - 1908 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 65:218-219.
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  • Two Treatises of Government.H. A. L., John Locke, Robert Filmer & Thomas I. Cook - 1948 - Journal of Philosophy 45 (10):272.
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  • A Pluralistic Account of Intellectual Property.D. B. Resnik - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 46 (4):319-335.
    This essay reviews six different approaches to intellectual property. It and argues that none of these accounts provide an adequate justification of intellectual property laws and policies because there are many different types of intellectual property, and a variety of incommensurable values play a role in the justification of intellectual property. The best approach to intellectual property is to assess and balance competing moral values in light of the particular facts and circumstances.
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  • The Moral Foundations of Intangible Property.James W. Child - 1990 - The Monist 73 (4):578-600.
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  • Open Genetic Code: On Open Source in the Life Sciences.Eric Deibel - 2014 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 10 (1):1-23.
    The introduction of open source in the life sciences is increasingly being suggested as an alternative to patenting. This is an alternative, however, that takes its shape at the intersection of the life sciences and informatics. Numerous examples can be identified wherein open source in the life sciences refers to access, sharing and collaboration as informatic practices. This includes open source as an experimental model and as a more sophisticated approach of genetic engineering. The first section discusses the greater flexibly (...)
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  • Can Drug Patents Be Morally Justified?Sigrid Sterckx - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (1):81-92.
    This paper offers a few elements of an answer to the question to what extent drug patents can be morally justified. Justifications based on natural rights, distributive justice and utilitarian arguments are discussed and criticized. The author recognizes the potential of the patents to benefit society but argues that the system is currently evolving in the wrong direction, particularly in the field of drugs. More than a third of the world’s population has no access to essential drugs. The working of (...)
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  • The Social Value of Knowledge and International Clinical Research.Danielle M. Wenner - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (2):76-84.
    In light of the growth in the conduct of international clinical research in developing populations, this paper seeks to explore what is owed to developing world communities who host international clinical research. Although existing paradigms for assigning and assessing benefits to host communities offer valuable insight, I criticize their failure to distinguish between those benefits which can justify the conduct of research in a developing world setting and those which cannot. I argue that the justification for human subjects research is (...)
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  • Patent Republic: Representing Inventions, Constructing Rights and Authors.Mario Biagioli - 2006 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 73 (4):1129-1172.
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  • Sharing in or Benefiting From Scientific Advancement?Cristian Timmermann - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (1):111-133.
    The intellectual property regimes we have currently in place are heavily under attack. One of the points of criticism is the interaction between two elements of article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the widely discussed issue of being able to benefit from scientific progress and the less argued for position of having a right to take part in scientific enterprises. To shine light on the question if we should balance the two elements or prioritize one of them, (...)
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  • Intellectual Property.Adam Moore - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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