Results for ' Binary'

290 found
Order:
  1. Beyond Binary: Genderqueer as Critical Gender Kind.Robin Dembroff - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20 (9):1-23.
    We want to know what gender is. But metaphysical approaches to this question solely have focused on the binary gender kinds men and women. By overlooking those who identify outside of the binary–the group I call ‘genderqueer’–we are left without tools for understanding these new and quickly growing gender identifications. This metaphysical gap in turn creates a conceptual lacuna that contributes to systematic misunderstanding of genderqueer persons. In this paper, I argue that to better understand genderqueer identities, we (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   24 citations  
  2. A Binary Quantifier for Definite Descriptions in Intuitionist Negative Free Logic: Natural Deduction and Normalisation.Nils Kürbis - 2019 - Bulletin of the Section of Logic 48 (2):81-97.
    This paper presents a way of formalising definite descriptions with a binary quantifier ι, where ιx[F, G] is read as ‘The F is G’. Introduction and elimination rules for ι in a system of intuitionist negative free logic are formulated. Procedures for removing maximal formulas of the form ιx[F, G] are given, and it is shown that deductions in the system can be brought into normal form.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  3. Beyond Binary: Genderqueer as Critical Gender Kind [Chinese].Robin Dembroff - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20 (9):1-23.
    Chinese translation courtesy of Zhuanxu Xu. We want to know what gender is. But metaphysical approaches to this question solely have focused on the binary gender kinds men and women. By overlooking those who identify outside of the binary–the group I call ‘genderqueer’–we are left without tools for understanding these new and quickly growing gender identifications. This metaphysical gap in turn creates a conceptual lacuna that contributes to systematic misunderstanding of genderqueer persons. In this paper, I argue that (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  4. Leibniz on Binary: The Invention of Computer Arithmetic.Lloyd Strickland & Harry R. Lewis - 2022 - Cambridge, MA, USA: The MIT Press.
    The first collection of Leibniz's key writings on the binary system, newly translated, with many previously unpublished in any language. -/- The polymath Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) is known for his independent invention of the calculus in 1675. Another major—although less studied—mathematical contribution by Leibniz is his invention of binary arithmetic, the representational basis for today's digital computing. This book offers the first collection of Leibniz's most important writings on the binary system, all newly translated by the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  5. Resisting the Binary Divide in Higher Education: The Role of Critical Pedagogy.Alya Khan - 2018 - Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies 16 (1):30-58.
    The article explores the landscape in higher education in which old binary divisions are officially denied yet have been reinvigorated through a mix of conservative and neo-liberal policies. Efforts to resist such pressures can happen at different levels, including, in this case, module design and classroom practice. The rationale for such resistance is considered in relationship to the authors’ political and moral standpoints. Debates within higher education policy circles are invariably reduced to a series of oppositions: theory and practice; (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. A Binary Quantifier for Definite Descriptions for Cut Free Free Logics.Nils Kürbis - 2021 - Studia Logica 110 (1):219-239.
    This paper presents rules in sequent calculus for a binary quantifier I to formalise definite descriptions: Ix[F, G] means ‘The F is G’. The rules are suitable to be added to a system of positive free logic. The paper extends the proof of a cut elimination theorem for this system by Indrzejczak by proving the cases for the rules of I. There are also brief comparisons of the present approach to the more common one that formalises definite descriptions with (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. Beyond binary discourses on liberty: Constant's modern liberty, rightly understood.Avital Simhony - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (3):196-213.
    ABSTRACT It is fruitless to interpret Constant's modern liberty from the binary perspective of either the negative/positive freedom opposition or the liberal/republican freedom opposition. Both oppositional perspectives reduce the relationally complex nature of modern liberty to one or another component of the relation. Such reduction inevitably results in an incomplete and, therefore, inadequate interpretation of Constant's modern liberty. Consequently, either of these binary frames of interpretation obscures rather than illuminates the full nature of Constant's modern liberty. Boxed into (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8. Is Being Non-Binary a Social Kind?Miroslav Imbrisevic - manuscript
    Robin Dembroff (Real Talk about the Metaphysics of Gender, 2018) believes that ‘non-binary’ is a social kind. I have my doubts about this, but if it is a social kind, then it is a very special one. The membership conditions of the social kind ‘non-binary’ are only accessible to non-binary persons. They establish and police their own membership conditions (Dembroff 2018: 36f.): ‘Individuals are granted authority over their gender kind membership.’ So, if this is indeed a ‘social (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9. Postgenderism: Beyond the Gender Binary.James J. Hughes & George Dvorsky - 2008 - Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies.
    Postgenderism is an extrapolation of ways that technology is eroding the biological, psychological and social role of gender, and an argument for why the erosion of binary gender will be liberatory. Postgenderists argue that gender is an arbitrary and unnecessary limitation on human potential, and foresee the elimination of involuntary biological and psychological gendering in the human species through the application of neurotechnology, biotechnology and reproductive technologies. Postgenderists contend that dyadic gender roles and sexual dimorphisms are generally to the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  10.  79
    On possibility of binary companion of the Sun: A serendipity finding and comparison with UVS model of Solar System.Victor Christianto & Florentin Smarandache - manuscript
    While we completely understood that a binary dwarf companion of the Sun has not been accepted by majority of astronomers, allow us to present some new arguments, along with our own serendipitous encounter with such a binary companion of the Sun. We hope that the present note will be found useful for further investigations, in relation to Planet Nine and such a dwarf star companion of the Sun (sometimes dubbed as Nemesis). Nonetheless, this article is not an exhaustive (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11. The relation between degrees of belief and binary beliefs: A general impossibility theorem.Franz Dietrich & Christian List - 2021 - In Igor Douven (ed.), Lotteries, Knowledge, and Rational Belief. Essays on the Lottery Paradox. Cambridge University Press. pp. 223-54.
    Agents are often assumed to have degrees of belief (“credences”) and also binary beliefs (“beliefs simpliciter”). How are these related to each other? A much-discussed answer asserts that it is rational to believe a proposition if and only if one has a high enough degree of belief in it. But this answer runs into the “lottery paradox”: the set of believed propositions may violate the key rationality conditions of consistency and deductive closure. In earlier work, we showed that this (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  12. STRINGS ARE BINARY DIGITS WHOSE CURRENTS IN TWO 2-D MOBIUS LOOPS PRODUCE A 4-D FIGURE-8 KLEIN BOTTLE THAT COMPOSES EACH OF THE SUBUNIVERSES IN THE ONE UNIVERSE.Rodney Bartlett - 2013 - Vixra.Org (Category - Quantum Gravity and String Theory).
    The strings of physics’ string theory are the binary digits of 1 and 0 used in computers and electronics. The digits are constantly switching between their representations of the “on” and “off” states. This switching is usually referred to as a flow or current. Currents in the two 2-dimensional programs called Mobius loops are connected into a four-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottle by the infinitely-long irrational and transcendental numbers. Such an infinite connection translates - via bosons being ultimately composed of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13. The Color of Childhood: The Role of the Child/Human Binary in the Production of Anti-Black Racism.Toby Rollo - 2018 - Journal of Black Studies 49 (4):307-329.
    The binary between the figure of the child and the fully human being is invoked with regularity in analyses of race, yet its centrality to the conception of race has never been fully explored. For most commentators, the figure of the child operates as a metaphoric or rhetorical trope, a non-essential strategic tool in the perpetuation of White supremacy. As I show in the following, the child/human binary does not present a contingent or merely rhetorical construction but, rather, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  14. Sex or Gender Is Binary Due To Definiens Per Negationem.J. Camlin - manuscript
    This perspective asserts the existence of only two sexes/genders, male and female, based on not only biological and reproductive processes but also from claims of non-binary or transgender identities as defined through negation which rely on the binary concept of sex/gender. Thus, individuals claiming identities on the "gender/sex spectrum" are again defining themselves through negation (definiens per negationem). This perspective suggests that the diversity of gender experiences, (the sex or gender spectrum) is defined by what individuals are not (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15. In the Beginning Was Binary.Lloyd Strickland - 2022 - Church Times 8322.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16. Why Did Thomas Harriot Invent Binary?Lloyd Strickland - 2024 - Mathematical Intelligencer 46 (1):57-62.
    From the early eighteenth century onward, primacy for the invention of binary numeration and arithmetic was almost universally credited to the German polymath Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716). Then, in 1922, Frank Vigor Morley (1899–1980) noted that an unpublished manuscript of the English mathematician, astronomer, and alchemist Thomas Harriot (1560–1621) contained the numbers 1 to 8 in binary. Morley’s only comment was that this foray into binary was “certainly prior to the usual dates given for binary numeration”. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17. The 'Government of Men': Moving Beyond Foucault’s Binaries.Maurizio Meloni & Galib Bashirov - 2023 - Economy and Society.
    Recent controversies surrounding Michel Foucault suggest tensions and unresolved issues in his unfinished work. Here we interrogate Foucault’s legacy in relation to his claim that the welfare-state is a secularization of the Christian pastorate. We challenge Foucault’s binary narrative of the Christian flock versus the Graeco-Roman citizen and expand the focus to other ‘technologies of power’ in medieval Islam. Rather than an outburst of governmentality in modernity, we suggest a transregional and longue durée history of which the Christian pastorate (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18. From Degrees of Belief to Binary Beliefs: Lessons from Judgment-Aggregation Theory.Franz Dietrich & Christian List - 2018 - Journal of Philosophy 115 (5):225-270.
    What is the relationship between degrees of belief and binary beliefs? Can the latter be expressed as a function of the former—a so-called “belief-binarization rule”—without running into difficulties such as the lottery paradox? We show that this problem can be usefully analyzed from the perspective of judgment-aggregation theory. Although some formal similarities between belief binarization and judgment aggregation have been noted before, the connection between the two problems has not yet been studied in full generality. In this paper, we (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  19. Why Did Leibniz Invent Binary?Lloyd Strickland - 2023 - In Wenchao Li, Charlotte Wahl, Sven Erdner, Bianca Carina Schwarze & Yue Dan (eds.), »Le present est plein de l’avenir, et chargé du passé«. Gottfried-Wilhelm-Leibniz-Gesellschaft e.V.. pp. 354-360.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20. Leibniz's Tactile Binary Clock.Lloyd Strickland - 2023 - L.I.S.A. Wissenschaftsportal Gerdal Henkel Stiftung.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21. Hypertext and the Representational Capacities of the binary Alphabet.Niels Finnemann - 1999 - In Arbejdspapirer no: 77-99, Centre for Cultural Research, Aarhus 1999.
    In this article it is argued that the relation between the socalled Gutenberg galaxis of print culture and the Turing galaxis of digital media is not one of opposition and substitution, but rather one of co-evolution and integration. Or more precisely: that the Gutenberg galaxis on the one hand can be inscribed into the Turing galaxis, which on the other hand is textual in character since it is based on linear and serially processed representations manifested in a binary alphabet. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  22. Neutrosophic Treatment of Duality Linear Models and the Binary Simplex Algorithm.Maissam Jdid & Florentin Smarandache - 2023 - Prospects for Applied Mathematics and Data Analysis 2 (1).
    One of the most important theories in linear programming is the dualistic theory and its basic idea is that for every linear model has dual linear model, so that solving the original linear model gives a solution to the dual model. Therefore, when we solving the linear programming model, we actually obtain solutions for two linear models. In this research, we present a study of the models. The neutrosophic dual and the binary simplex algorithm, which works to find the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23. Genetic Protection Modifications: Moving Beyond the Binary Distinction Between Therapy and Enhancement for Human Genome Editing.Rasmus Bjerregaard Mikkelsen, Henriette Reventlow S. Frederiksen, Mickey Gjerris, Bjørn Holst, Poul Hyttel, Yonglun Luo, Kristine Freude & Peter Sandøe - 2019 - CRISPR Journal 2 (6):362-369.
    Current debate and policy surrounding the use of genetic editing in humans often relies on a binary distinction between therapy and human enhancement. In this paper, we argue that this dichotomy fails to take into account perhaps the most significant potential uses of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing in humans. We argue that genetic treatment of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease, breast- and ovarian-cancer causing BRCA1/2 mutations and the introduction of HIV resistance in humans should be considered within a new category of genetic (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  24. Fanon's Frame of Violence: Undoing the Instrumental/Non-Instrumental Binary.Imge Oranli - 2021 - Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies 23 (8):1106-1123.
    The scholarship on Frantz Fanon’s theorization of violence is crowded with interpretations that follow the Arendtian paradigm of violence. These interpretations often discuss whether violence is instrumental or non-instrumental in Fanon’s work. This reading, I believe, is the result of approaching Fanon through Hannah Arendt’s framing of violence, i.e. through a binary paradigm of instrumental versus non-instrumental violence. Even some Fanon scholars who question Arendt’s reading of Fanon, do so by employing a similar binary logic, hence repeating the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25. UnQuantum Woolf: The Many Intellectual Contexts of To the Lighthouse's Metaphorical Wave-Particle Binary.Xavier Cousin - 2022 - Dissertation, Durham University
    This thesis is a sceptical investigation into the notion that the metaphorical wave-particle binary of Virginia Woolf's To the Lighthouse is related to quantum physics. Indeed, the field of literature and science has employed conceptual similarities as the main means of connecting quantum concepts to novels, however, this has led to a host of scholarly difficulties, prompting the need for a re-examination of analogical linkages. Woolf is the model candidate for such a re-examination, given her historical and philosophical proximity (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26.  81
    Should Legal Proof Be Binary?Lewis Ross - 2024 - In The Philosophy of Legal Proof. Cambridge University Press.
    Discusses the question of whether trials should just use two verdicts (e.g. guilty or not guilty) or whether they use multiple verdicts.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. Red Queen and Red King Effects in Cultural Agent-Based Modeling: Hawk Dove Binary and Systemic Discrimination.S. M. Amadae & Christopher J. Watts - 2022 - Journal of Mathematical Sociology 41.
    What endogenous factors contribute to minority (Red Queen) or majority (Red King) domination under conditions of coercive bargaining? We build on previous work demonstrating minority disadvantage in non-coercive bargaining games to show that under neutral initial conditions, majorities are advantaged in high conflict situations, and minorities are advantaged in low conflict games. These effects are a function of the relationship between (1) relative proportions of the majority and minority groups and (2) costs of conflict. Although both Red King and Red (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28. Racial Fraud and the American Binary.Kevin J. Harrelson - 2022 - Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 6 (3):44-61.
    In response to recent controversies about racial transitioning, I provide an argument that deceptions about ancestry may sometimes constitute fraud. In order to arrive at this conclusion, I criticize the arguments from analogy made famous by Rebecca Tuvel and Christine Overall. My claim is that we should not think of racial transitioning as similar to gender transitioning, because different identity groups possess different kinds of obstacles to entry. I then provide historical surveys of American racial categories and the various types (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29. Judith Butler's Critique of Binary Gender Opposition in Gender Trouble: A Task-Based Lesson Sequence.Sasha S. Euler - 2018 - In M. Eisenmann & C. Ludwig (ed.), Queer Beats: Gender and Literature in the EFL Classroom. pp. 439-460.
    This chapter presents a task-based lesson sequence based on Judith Butler's Gender Trouble. Gender Trouble is a great piece of philosophical literature. However, as philosophical literature is a genre rarely found in EFL teaching, this chapter first demonstrates in detail the merits of this genre for the teaching ofEnglish for Academic Purposes. After a brief analysis of the source text, which deconstructs the entire sex-gender link and presents both sex and gender as free-floating, this chapter presents task-based methodology and how (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30. Two Treatments of Definite Descriptions in Intuitionist Negative Free Logic.Nils Kürbis - 2019 - Bulletin of the Section of Logic 48 (4):299-317.
    Sentences containing definite descriptions, expressions of the form ‘The F’, can be formalised using a binary quantifier ι that forms a formula out of two predicates, where ιx[F, G] is read as ‘The F is G’. This is an innovation over the usual formalisation of definite descriptions with a term forming operator. The present paper compares the two approaches. After a brief overview of the system INFι of intuitionist negative free logic extended by such a quantifier, which was presented (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  31. What makes unique hues unique?Valtteri Arstila - 2018 - Synthese 195 (5):1849-1872.
    There exist two widely used notions concerning the structure of phenomenal color space. The first is the notion of unique/binary hue structure, which maintains that there are four unique hues from which all other hues are composed. The second notion is the similarity structure of hues, which describes the interrelations between the hues and hence does not divide hues into two types as the first notion does. Philosophers have considered the existence of the unique/binary hue structure to be (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  32. Xenophobia and Racism.David Haekwon Kim & Ronald Sundstrom - 2014 - Critical Philosophy of Race 2 (1):20-45.
    Xenophobia is conceptually distinct from racism. Xenophobia is also distinct from nativism. Furthermore, theories of racism are largely ensconced in nationalized narratives of racism, often influenced by the black-white binary, which obscures xenophobia and shelters it from normative critiques. This paper addresses these claims, arguing for the first and last, and outlining the second. Just as philosophers have recently analyzed the concept of racism, clarifying it and pinpointing why it’s immoral and the extent of its moral harm, so we (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  33. Leibniz on Number Systems.Lloyd Strickland - 2024 - In Bharath Sriraman (ed.), Handbook of the History and Philosophy of Mathematical Practice. Springer. pp. 167-197.
    This chapter examines the pioneering work of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) on various number systems, in particular binary, which he independently invented in the mid-to-late 1670s, and hexadecimal, which he invented in 1679. The chapter begins with the oft-debated question of who may have influenced Leibniz’s invention of binary, though as none of the proposed candidates is plausible I suggest a different hypothesis, that Leibniz initially developed binary notation as a tool to assist his investigations in mathematical (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  34. De Broglie Waves And Complexity.Mariusz Stanowski - 2014 - Infinite Energy 2 (116).
    Today, the binary understanding of reality is increasingly significant. It is also the starting point for many theoretical considerations (mainly in the area of digital physics) describing the structure of the universe. What is lacking is an experimental confirmation of the binary nature of reality. This article proposes an idea for an experiment that possibly would confirm the following hypothesis: Electromagnetic waves in the form of binary signals of appropriate complexity and other parameters are capable of creating (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35. Definite Descriptions in Intuitionist Positive Free Logic.Nils Kürbis - 2020 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 30:1.
    This paper presents rules of inference for a binary quantifier I for the formalisation of sentences containing definite descriptions within intuitionist positive free logic. I binds one variable and forms a formula from two formulas. Ix[F, G] means ‘The F is G’. The system is shown to have desirable proof-theoretic properties: it is proved that deductions in it can be brought into normal form. The discussion is rounded up by comparisons between the approach to the formalisation of definite descriptions (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  36. Marx and the gendered structure of capitalism.Claudia Leeb - 2007 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 33 (7):833-859.
    In this paper, I argue that Marx's central concern, consistent throughout his works, is to challenge and overcome hierarchical oppositions, which he considers as the core of modern, capitalist societies and the cause of alienation. The young Marx critiques the hierarchical idealism/materialism opposition. In this opposition, idealism abstracts from and reduces all material elements to the mind (or spirit), and materialism abstracts from and reduces all mental abstractions to the body (or matter). The mature Marx sophisticates this critique with his (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  37. Abstract Complexity Definition.Mariusz Stanowski - 2011 - Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity and Education (2).
    The complexity definition has appeared during analysis of visual structures perception. The binary model of visual impacts finding was essential here for a possibility of the general (abstract) research. The Abstract Complexity Definition is one of the research results. The definition meets intuitive complexity criterion and could be a common surface for all existing definitins of complexity.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38. Computational Dynamics of Natural Information Morphology, Discretely Continuous.Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic - 2017 - Philosophies 2 (4):23.
    This paper presents a theoretical study of the binary oppositions underlying the mechanisms of natural computation understood as dynamical processes on natural information morphologies. Of special interest are the oppositions of discrete vs. continuous, structure vs. process, and differentiation vs. integration. The framework used is that of computing nature, where all natural processes at different levels of organisation are computations over informational structures. The interactions at different levels of granularity/organisation in nature, and the character of the phenomena that unfold (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  39. You’ve come a long way, baby: the evolution of feminine identity models on the example of contemporary language of advertising.Natalia Anna Michna - 2016 - Polish Journal of Aesthetics 41 (2):99-117.
    The article presents the evolution of the language of advertising from the 1960s to the present, presenting various images of women in advertising. Simultaneously a theoretical analysis has been carried out of the demands of second-wave feminism, which exerted significant influence on the creation of images of women in the mass media. The objective of our comparison of feminist theory with advertising practice is an attempt to answer the question of whether the present media image of women liberated from the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40. On the Notions of Rulegenerating & Anticipatory Systems.Niels Ole Finnemann - 1997 - Online Publication on Conference Site - Which Does Not Exist Any More.
    Until the late 19th century scientists almost always assumed that the world could be described as a rule-based and hence deterministic system or as a set of such systems. The assumption is maintained in many 20th century theories although it has also been doubted because of the breakthrough of statistical theories in thermodynamics (Boltzmann and Gibbs) and other fields, unsolved questions in quantum mechanics as well as several theories forwarded within the social sciences. Until recently it has furthermore been assumed (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41. The Use of Neutrosophic Methods of Operation Research in the Management of Corporate Work.Florentin Smarandache & Maissam Jdid - 2023 - Neutrosophic Systems with Applications 3.
    The science of operations research is one of the modern sciences that have made a great revolution in all areas of life through the methods provided by it, suitable and appropriate to solve most of the problems that were facing researchers, scholars and those interested in the development of societies, and the most beneficiaries of this science were companies and institutions that are looking for scientific methods that help them manage their work so that they achieve the greatest profit and (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42. Gender Identities and Feminism.Josh T. U. Cohen - 2018 - Ethics, Politics and Society.
    Many feminists (e.g. T. Bettcher and B. R. George) argue for a principle of first person authority (FPA) about gender, i.e. that we should (at least) not disavow people's gender self-categorisations. However, there is a feminist tradition resistant to FPA about gender, which I call "radical feminism”. Feminists in this tradition define gender-categories via biological sex, thus denying non-binary and trans self-identifications. Using a taxonomy by B. R. George, I begin to demystify the concept of gender. We are also (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43. Evolutionary Psychology, Rape, and the Naturalistic Fallacy.Youjin Kong - 2021 - Journal of the Society of Philosophical Studies 134:65-93.
    Feminist critics of evolutionary psychology are often accused of committing the naturalistic fallacy, that is, of inferring certain normative conclusions from evolutionary psychology’s purely descriptive accounts. This article refutes the accusation of the naturalistic fallacy, by showing that evolutionary psychology’s accounts of human behavior are not purely descriptive, but rather grounded on biased value judgments. A paradigmatic example is Randy Thornhill and Craig Palmer’s well-known book A Natural History of Rape. I argue that at least three biased judgments are at (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44. Introduction to the special issue “Beliefs in Groups” of Theory and Decision.Franz Dietrich & Wlodek Rabinowicz - 2018 - Theory and Decision 85 (1):1-4.
    This symposium in the overlap of philosophy and decision theory is described well by its title “Beliefs in Groups”. Each word in the title matters, with one intended ambiguity. The symposium is about beliefs rather than other attitudes such as preferences; these beliefs take the form of probabilities in the first three contributions, binary yes/no beliefs (‘judgments’) in the fourth contribution, and qualitative probabilities (‘probability grades’) in the fifth contribution. The beliefs occur in groups, which is ambiguous between beliefs (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45. Theory and Practice of Contrast: Integrating Science, Art and Philosophy.Mariusz Stanowski - 2021 - London: Crc Press.
    The book Theory and Practice of Contrast completes, corrects and integrates the foundations of science and humanities, which include: theory of art, philosophy (aesthetics, epistemology, ontology, axiology), cognitive science, theory of information, theory of complexity and physics. Through the integration of these distant disciplines, many unresolved issues in contemporary science have been clarified or better understood, among others: defining impact (contrast) and using this definition in different fields of knowledge; understanding what beauty/art is and what our aesthetic preferences depend on; (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46. Opinion strength influences the spatial dynamics of opinion formation.Bert Baumgaertner, Stephen Krone & Rebecca T. Tyson - 2016 - Journal of Mathematical Sociology 40 (4):207-218.
    Opinions are rarely binary; they can be held with different degrees of conviction, and this expanded attitude spectrum can affect the influence one opinion has on others. Our goal is to understand how different aspects of influence lead to recognizable spatio-temporal patterns of opinions and their strengths. To do this, we introduce a stochastic spatial agent-based model of opinion dynamics that includes a spectrum of opinion strengths and various possible rules for how the opinion strength of one individual affects (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  47. Gender First.Cameron Domenico Kirk-Giannini - manuscript
    Let the label binary category terms refer to natural language expressions like ‘woman’, ‘man’, ‘female’, and ‘male’. Focusing on ‘woman’ and ‘female’, I develop a novel, empirically supported theory of the meanings of English binary category terms. Given plausible assumptions about the metaphysics of sex and gender, this gender-first theory predicts that the sentence ‘Trans women are women’ expresses a truth in all contexts and the sentence ‘Women are adult human females’ expresses a truth in most ordinary contexts (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48. Psychiatric explanation and understanding.Tim Thornton - 2010 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 6 (1):95-111.
    Jaspers’s binary distinction between understanding and explanation has given way first to a proliferation of explanatory levels and now, in John Campbell’s recent work, to a conception of explanation with no distinct levels of explanation and no inbuilt rationality requirement. I argue that there is still a role for understanding in psychiatry and that is to demystify the assumption that the states it concerns are mental. This role can be fulfilled by placing rationality at the heart of understanding without (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  49. Information, physics, quantum: the search for links.John Archibald Wheeler - 1989 - In Wheeler John Archibald (ed.), Proceedings III International Symposium on Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. pp. 354-358.
    This report reviews what quantum physics and information theory have to tell us about the age-old question, How come existence? No escape is evident from four conclusions: (1) The world cannot be a giant machine, ruled by any preestablished continuum physical law. (2) There is no such thing at the microscopic level as space or time or spacetime continuum. (3) The familiar probability function or functional, and wave equation or functional wave equation, of standard quantum theory provide mere continuum idealizations (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   126 citations  
  50. What’s Personhood Got to Do with it?Hrishikesh Joshi - 2020 - Philosophia 48 (2):557-571.
    Consider a binary afterlife, wherein some people go to Heaven, others to Hell, and nobody goes to both. Would such a system be just? Theodore Sider argues: no. For, any possible criterion of determining where people go will involve treating very similar individuals very differently. Here, I argue that this point has deep and underappreciated implications for moral philosophy. The argument proceeds by analogy: many ethical theories make a sharp and practically significant distinction between persons and non-persons. Yet, just (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 290