Results for 'Bart��omiej ��wi��tczak'

45 found
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  1.  17
    Responsible Innovation for Life: Five Challenges Agriculture Offers for Responsible Innovation in Agriculture and Food, and the Necessity of an Ethics of Innovation.Bart Gremmen, Vincent Blok & Bernice Bovenkerk - 2019 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 32 (5):673-679.
    In this special issue we will investigate, from the perspective of agricultural ethics the potential to develop a Responsible Research and Innovation approach to agriculture, and the limitations to such an enterprise. RRI is an emerging field in the European research and innovation policy context that aims to balance economic, socio-cultural and environmental aspects in innovation processes. Because technological innovations can contribute significantly to the solution of societal challenges like climate change or food security, but can also have negative societal (...)
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  2. Why Option Generation Matters for the Design of Autonomous E-Coaching Systems.Bart Kamphorst & Annemarie Kalis - 2015 - AI and Society 30 (1):77-88.
    Autonomous e-coaching systems offer their users suggestions for action, thereby affecting the user's decision-making process. More specifically, the suggestions that these systems make influence the options for action that people actually consider. Surprisingly though, options and the corresponding process of option generation --- a decision-making stage preceding intention formation and action selection --- has received very little attention in the various disciplines studying decision making. We argue that this neglect is unjustified and that it is important, particularly for designers of (...)
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  3. Ecological Innovation: Biomimicry as a New Way of Thinking and Acting Ecologically.Vincent Blok & Bart Gremmen - 2016 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 29 (2):203-217.
    In this article, we critically reflect on the concept of biomimicry. On the basis of an analysis of the concept of biomimicry in the literature and its philosophical origin, we distinguish between a strong and a weaker concept of biomimicry. The strength of the strong concept of biomimicry is that nature is seen as a measure by which to judge the ethical rightness of our technological innovations, but its weakness is found in questionable presuppositions. These presuppositions are addressed by the (...)
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  4.  30
    Ecological Innovation: Biomimicry as a New Way of Thinking and Acting Ecologically.Vincent Blok & Bart Gremmen - 2016 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 29 (2):203-217.
    In this article, we critically reflect on the concept of biomimicry. On the basis of an analysis of the concept of biomimicry in the literature and its philosophical origin, we distinguish between a strong and a weaker concept of biomimicry. The strength of the strong concept of biomimicry is that nature is seen as a measure by which to judge the ethical rightness of our technological innovations, but its weakness is found in questionable presuppositions. These presuppositions are addressed by the (...)
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  5.  36
    Dealing with the Wicked Problem of Sustainability: The Role of Individual Virtuous Competence.Vincent Blok, Bart Gremmen & Renate Wesselink - forthcoming - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 2016.
    Over the past few years, individual competencies for sustainability have received a lot of attention in the educational, sustainability and business administration literature. In this article, we explore the meaning of two rather new and unfamiliar moral competencies in the field of corporate sustainability: normative competence and action competence. Because sustainability can be seen as a highly complex or ‘wicked’ problem, it is unclear what ‘normativity’ in the normative competence and ‘responsible action’ in the action competence actually mean. In this (...)
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  6.  26
    Dealing with the Wicked Problem of Sustainability.Vincent Blok, Bart Gremmen & Renate Wesselink - 2015 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 34 (3):297-327.
    Over the past few years, individual competencies for sustainability have received a lot of attention in the educational, sustainability and business administration literature. In this article, we explore the meaning of two rather new and unfamiliar moral competencies in the field of corporate sustainability: normative competence and action competence. Because sustainability can be seen as a highly complex or ‘wicked’ problem, it is unclear what ‘normativity’ in the normative competence and ‘responsible action’ in the action competence actually mean. In this (...)
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  7. Joint Attention and Perceptual Experience.Lucas Battich & Bart Geurts - 2021 - Synthese 198 (9):8809-8822.
    Joint attention customarily refers to the coordinated focus of attention between two or more individuals on a common object or event, where it is mutually “open” to all attenders that they are so engaged. We identify two broad approaches to analyse joint attention, one in terms of cognitive notions like common knowledge and common awareness, and one according to which joint attention is fundamentally a primitive phenomenon of sensory experience. John Campbell’s relational theory is a prominent representative of the latter (...)
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  8. The "Artificial Mathematician" Objection: Exploring the (Im)Possibility of Automating Mathematical Understanding.Sven Delarivière & Bart Van Kerkhove - 2017 - In B. Sriraman (ed.), Humanizing Mathematics and its Philosophy. Cham: Birkhäuser. pp. 173-198.
    Reuben Hersh confided to us that, about forty years ago, the late Paul Cohen predicted to him that at some unspecified point in the future, mathematicians would be replaced by computers. Rather than focus on computers replacing mathematicians, however, our aim is to consider the (im)possibility of human mathematicians being joined by “artificial mathematicians” in the proving practice—not just as a method of inquiry but as a fellow inquirer.
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  9.  33
    Key ethical challenges in the European Medical Information Framework.Luciano Floridi, Christoph Luetge, Ugo Pagallo, Burkhard Schafer, Peggy Valcke, Effy Vayena, Janet Addison, Nigel Hughes, Nathan Lea, Caroline Sage, Bart Vannieuwenhuyse & Dipak Kalra - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (3):355-371.
    The European Medical Information Framework project, funded through the IMI programme, has designed and implemented a federated platform to connect health data from a variety of sources across Europe, to facilitate large scale clinical and life sciences research. It enables approved users to analyse securely multiple, diverse, data via a single portal, thereby mediating research opportunities across a large quantity of research data. EMIF developed a code of practice to ensure the privacy protection of data subjects, protect the interests of (...)
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  10.  38
    Genomics and the Ark: An Ecocentric Perspective on Human History.Hub Zwart & Bart Penders - 2011 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54 (2):217-231.
    In 1990 the Human Genome Project (HGP) was launched as an important historical marker, a pivotal contribution to the time-old quest for human self-knowledge. However, when in 2001 two major publications heralded its completion, it seemed difficult to make out how the desire for self-knowledge had really been furthered by this endeavor (IHGSC 2001; Venter et al. 2001). In various ways mankind seems to stand out from other organisms as a unique type of living entity, developing a critical perspective on (...)
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  11. Mathematical Explanation: A Contextual Approach.Sven Delarivière, Joachim Frans & Bart Van Kerkhove - 2017 - Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research 34 (2):309-329.
    PurposeIn this article, we aim to present and defend a contextual approach to mathematical explanation.MethodTo do this, we introduce an epistemic reading of mathematical explanation.ResultsThe epistemic reading not only clarifies the link between mathematical explanation and mathematical understanding, but also allows us to explicate some contextual factors governing explanation. We then show how several accounts of mathematical explanation can be read in this approach.ConclusionThe contextual approach defended here clears up the notion of explanation and pushes us towards a pluralist vision (...)
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  12. Are There Moral Truths?Bart Streumer - manuscript
    A brief overview of metaethics, written for students.
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  13. Bart Streumer, Unbelievable Errors: An Error Theory About All Normative Judgements: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017. ISBN 9780198785897. Pp. 223. £45.00 Hbk.Hallvard Lillehammer - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (2):445-447.
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  14. Review of Bart Schultz, Henry Sidgwick, Eye of the Universe: An Intellectual Biography. [REVIEW]Anthony Skelton - 2005 - Philosophy in Review 25 (3):231-234.
    A critical review of Bart Schultz, Henry Sidgwick, Eye of the Universe.
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  15. Book Reviews Phillips , David . Sidgwickian Ethics New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Pp. Xii+163. $65.00 (Cloth).Bart Schultz - 2012 - Ethics 123 (1):174-179.
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  16.  61
    Evidence & decision making in the law: theoretical, computational and empirical approaches.Marcello Di Bello & Bart Verheij - 2020 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 28 (1):1-5.
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  17. Should the Homeless Be Forcibly Helped?Bart van Leeuwen & Michael S. Merry - 2019 - Public Health Ethics 12 (1):30-43.
    When are we morally obligated as a society to help the homeless, and is coercive interference justified when help is not asked for, even refused? To answer this question, we propose a comprehensive taxonomy of different types of homelessness and argue that different levels of autonomy allow for interventions with varying degrees of pressure to accept help. There are only two categories, however, where paternalism proper is allowed, be it heavily qualified. The first case is the homeless person with severely (...)
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  18. Rule Based System for Diagnosing Wireless Connection Problems Using SL5 Object.Samy S. Abu Naser, Wadee W. Alamawi & Mostafa F. Alfarra - 2016 - International Journal of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering 5 (6):26-33.
    There is an increase in the use of in-door wireless networking solutions via Wi-Fi and this increase infiltrated and utilized Wi-Fi enable devices, as well as smart mobiles, games consoles, security systems, tablet PCs and smart TVs. Thus the demand on Wi-Fi connections increased rapidly. Rule Based System is an essential method in helping using the human expertise in many challenging fields. In this paper, a Rule Based System was designed and developed for diagnosing the wireless connection problems and attain (...)
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  19. Streumer on Non-Cognitivism and Reductivism About Normative Judgement.Daan Evers - 2019 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 16 (6):707-724.
    Bart Streumer believes that the following principle is true of all normative judgements: When two people make conflicting normative judgements, at most one of them is correct. Streumer argues that noncognitivists are unable to explain why is true, or our acceptance of it. I argue that his arguments are inconclusive. I also argue that our acceptance of is limited in the case of instrumental and epistemic normative judgements, and that the extent to which we do accept for such judgements can (...)
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  20. Can Streumer Simply Avoid Supervenience?Luke Elson - 2019 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 16 (3):259-267.
    In his defence of an error theory for normative judgements, Bart Streumer presents a new 'reduction' argument against nonreductive normative realism. Streumer claims that unlike previous versions, his 'simple moral theory' version of the argument doesn’t rely on the supervenience of the normative on the descriptive. But this is incorrect; without supervenience the argument does not succeed.
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  21. Higher-Order Epistemic Attitudes and Intellectual Humility.Allan Hazlett - 2012 - Episteme 9 (3):205-223.
    This paper concerns would-be necessary connections between doxastic attitudes about the epistemic statuses of your doxastic attitudes, or ‘higher-order epistemic attitudes’, and the epistemic statuses of those doxastic attitudes. I will argue that, in some situations, it can be reasonable for a person to believe p and to suspend judgment about whether believing p is reasonable for her. This will set the stage for an account of the virtue of intellectual humility, on which humility is a matter of your higher-order (...)
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  22. Authentic Faith and Acknowledged Risk: Dissolving the Problem of Faith and Reason.Daniel J. McKaughan - 2013 - Religious Studies 49 (1):101-124.
    One challenge to the rationality of religious commitment has it that faith is unreasonable because it involves believing on insufficient evidence. However, this challenge and influential attempts to reply depend on assumptions about what it is to have faith that are open to question. I distinguish between three conceptions of faith each of which can claim some plausible grounding in the Judaeo-Christian tradition. Questions about the rationality or justification of religious commitment and the extent of compatibility with doubt look different (...)
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  23. Forgetting Our Personal Past: Socially Shared Retrieval-Induced Forgetting of Autobiographical Memories.Charles Stone - 2013 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 142 (4):1084-1099.
    People often talk to others about their personal past. These discussions are inherently selective. Selective retrieval of memories in the course of a conversation may induce forgetting of unmentioned but related memories for both speakers and listeners (Cuc, Koppel, & Hirst, 2007). Cuc et al. (2007) defined the forgetting on the part of the speaker as within-individual retrieval-induced forgetting (WI-RIF) and the forgetting on the part of the listener as socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting (SS-RIF). However, if the forgetting associated with (...)
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  24. Freedom, Knowledge and Affection: Reply to Hogan.Nicholas Stang - 2013 - Kantian Review 18 (1):99-106.
    In a recent paper, Desmond Hogan aims to explain how Kant could have consistently held that noumenal affection is not only compatible with noumenal ignorance but also with the claim that experience requires causal affection of human cognitive agents by things in themselves. Hogan's argument includes the premise that human cognitive agents have empirical knowledge of one another's actions. Hogan's argument fails because the premise that we have empirical knowledge of one another's actions is ambiguous. On one reading, the argument (...)
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  25. The Real Presence.H. E. Baber - 2013 - Religious Studies 49 (1):19-33.
    The doctrine that Christ is really present in the Eucharist appears to entail that Christ's body is not only multiply located but present in different ways at different locations. Moreover, the doctrine poses an even more difficult meta-question: what makes a theological explanation of the Eucharist a ‘real presence’ account? Aquinas's defence of transubstantiation, perhaps the paradigmatic account, invokes Aristotelian metaphysics and the machinery of Scholastic philosophy. My aim is not to produce a ‘rational reconstruction’ of his analysis but rather (...)
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  26. Berkeley and Proof in Geometry.Richard J. Brook - 2012 - Dialogue 51 (3):419-435.
    Berkeley in his Introduction to the Principles of Human knowledge uses geometrical examples to illustrate a way of generating “universal ideas,” which allegedly account for the existence of general terms. In doing proofs we might, for example, selectively attend to the triangular shape of a diagram. Presumably what we prove using just that property applies to all triangles.I contend, rather, that given Berkeley’s view of extension, no Euclidean triangles exist to attend to. Rather proof, as Berkeley would normally assume, requires (...)
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  27. Puberdade e Estacionalidade Reprodutiva dos Animais.Emanuel Isaque Cordeiro da Silva - manuscript
    OBJETIVO -/- O estudante de Zootecnia e de Veterinária, quando se depara com a produção animal, um dos pilares importantes é a reprodução, uma vez que é a perpetuação da espécie, seja para gerar filhas de uma vaca campeã em produção leiteira e de um touro com rusticidade e com aptidão produtiva de corte, ou mesmo para reposição de um plantel, o mesmo deve estar consciente de que esse ramo é de extrema responsabilidade, já que estará intimamente lidando com a (...)
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  28. Liberal and Conservative Views of Marriage.Matthew Carey Jordan - 2013 - Think 12 (34):33-56.
    ExtractThis essay is about liberal and conservative views of marriage. I'll begin by mentioning that I would really, really like to avoid use of the terms ‘liberal’ and ‘conservative’, but when push comes to shove, I know of no better labels for the positions that will be discussed in what follows. I would like to avoid these labels for a simple reason: many people strongly self-identify as liberals or as conservatives, and this can undermine our ability to investigate the topic (...)
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  29. Outplacement - Odpowiedzialne Zwolnienia Pracownicze W Kontekście Rozwoju Regionalnego.Magdalena Klimczuk-Kochańska & Andrzej Klimczuk - 2013 - In Robert Geisler (ed.), Odpowiedzialność - Przestrzeń Lokalnego Społeczeństwa Obywatelskiego, Biznesu I Polityki. Instytut Socjologii, Uniwersytet Opolski. pp. 111--135.
    Trwaj¸a}cy na pocz¸a}tku XXI wieku globalny kryzys gospodarczy wymusza podejmowanie przez przedsiȩbiorstwa działań restrukturyzacyjnych. Zmiany te czȩsto wi¸a}ż¸a} siȩ z redukcj¸a} zatrudnienia i kształtowaniem nowych relacji z pracownikami. Outplacement stanowi wci¸a}ż mało popularn¸a} i słabo rozpoznawaln¸a} w Polsce koncepcjȩ odpowiedzialnego zarz¸adzania zwolnieniami pracowników, która pozwala na złagodzenie negatywnych skutków utraty pracy i na skrócenie okresu bezrobocia. Celem opracowania jest przybliżenie istoty i potencjału stosowania outplacementu w Polsce. Podjȩta krytyczna analiza literatury przedmiotu obejmuje wskazanie działań na rzecz antycypacji procesów restrukturyzacji i (...)
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  30. Reductivism, Nonreductivism and Incredulity About Streumer’s Error Theory.N. G. Laskowski - 2018 - Analysis 78 (4):766-776.
    In Unbelievable Errors, Bart Streumer argues via elimination for a global error theory, according to which all normative judgments ascribe properties that do not exist. Streumer also argues that it is not possible to believe his view, which is a claim he uses in defending his view against several objections. I argue that reductivists and nonreductivists have compelling responses to Streumer's elimination argument – responses constituting strong reason to reject Streumer’s diagnosis of any alleged incredulity about his error theory.
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  31. Wahrnehmung der Wissenschaft.Anja Leser - 2013 - Swiss Philosophical Preprints.
    Wie wird Wissenschaft in der Gesellschaft wahrgenommen? Diese Frage lässt sich nicht leicht beantworten: Ist die gesellschaftliche Wahrnehmung von Wis- senschaft von Misstrauen geprägt? Oder von Unwissen über die Funktionswei- se von wissenschaftlicher Forschung?
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  32.  85
    Eye-Contact and Complex Dynamic Systems: An Hypothesis on Autism's Direct Cause and a Clinical Study Addressing Prevention.Maxson J. McDowell - manuscript
    Estimates of autism’s incidence increased 5-10 fold in ten years, an increase which cannot be genetic. Though many mutations are associated with autism, no mutation seems directly to cause autism. We need to find the direct cause. Complexity science provides a new paradigm - confirmed in biology by extensive hard data. Both the body and the personality are complex dynamic systems which spontaneously self-organize from simple dynamic systems. Autism may therefore be caused by the failure of a simple dynamic system. (...)
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  33. Virtude do Caráter e Phronesis na Ethica Nicomachea.Angelo Antonio Pires De Oliveira - 2017 - Dissertation, University of Campinas, Brazil
    In the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle makes the following claims: “the end cannot be a subject of deliberation, but only what contributes to the ends” (NE 1112b33-34) and “virtue makes the goal right, practical wisdom makes the things to- ward the goal right" (NE 1144a7-9). A problem arises from such claims: the ends as- sumed by a moral agent cannot be subject to rational choice. For deliberation, an intel- lectual procedure, is bound to deal with the things that contribute to the (...)
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  34. The Implied Standpoint of Kant's Religion: An Assessment of Kant's Reply to an Early Book Review of Religion Within the Bounds of Bare Reason.Stephen R. Palmquist & Steven Otterman - 2013 - Kantian Review 18 (1):73-97.
    In the second edition Preface of Religion Within the Bounds of Bare Reason Kant responds to an anonymous review of the first edition. We present the first English translation of this obscure book review. Following our translation, we summarize the reviewer's main points and evaluate the adequacy of Kant's replies to five criticisms, including two replies that Kant provides in footnotes added in the second edition. A key issue is the reviewer's claim that Religion adopts an implied standpoint, described using (...)
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  35. The Temptation of Data-Enabled Surveillance: Are Universities the Next Cautionary Tale?Alan Rubel & Kyle M. L. Jones - 2020 - Communications of the Acm 4 (63):22-24.
    There is increasing concern about “surveillance capitalism,” whereby for-profit companies generate value from data, while individuals are unable to resist (Zuboff 2019). Non-profits using data-enabled surveillance receive less attention. Higher education institutions (HEIs) have embraced data analytics, but the wide latitude that private, profit-oriented enterprises have to collect data is inappropriate. HEIs have a fiduciary relationship to students, not a narrowly transactional one (see Jones et al, forthcoming). They are responsible for facets of student life beyond education. In addition to (...)
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  36.  57
    Speech Based Controlled Techniques Using NLP.R. Senthilkumar - 2021 - Journal of Science Technology and Research (JSTAR) 2 (1):24-32.
    The main objective of our project is to construct a fully functional voice-based home automation system that uses the Internet of Things and Natural Language Processing. The home automation system is user-friendly to smartphones and laptops. A set of relays is used to connect the Node MCU to homes under controlled appliances. The user sends a command through the speech to the mobile devices, which interprets the message and sends the appropriate command to the specific appliance. The voice command given (...)
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  37. Regularity Reformulated.Weng Hong Tang - 2012 - Episteme 9 (4):329-343.
    This paper focuses on the view that rationality requires that our credences be regular. I go through different formulations of the requirement, and show that they face several problems. I then formulate a version of the requirement that solves most of, if not all, these problems. I conclude by showing that an argument thought to support the requirement as traditionally formulated actually does not; if anything, the argument, slightly modified, supports my version of the requirement.Send article to KindleTo send this (...)
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  38. Valeurs Et Émotions, les Perspectives du Néo-Sentimentalisme.Christine Tappolet - 2012 - Dialogue 51 (1):7-30.
    ABSTRACT: Neo-sentimentalism is the view that to judge that something has an evaluative property is to judge that some affective or emotional response is appropriate to it, but this view allows for radically different versions. My aim is to spell out what I take to be its most plausible version. Against its normative version, I argue that its descriptive version can best satisfy the normativity requirement that follows from Moore’s Open Question Argument while giving an answer to the Wrong Kind (...)
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  39.  68
    Automatic Control for Home Applications Using IoT.R. Veeramani - 2021 - Journal of Science Technology and Research (JSTAR) 2 (1):101-110.
    Smart home has become more and more popular in recent years. Due to the rapid development in the field of the Automation industry, human life is becoming more advanced and better in all aspects. In the present scenario, Automated systems are being preferred over the non-automated system. With the rapid growth in the number of consumers using the internet over the past years, the Internet has become an important part of life, and IoT is the newest and emerging internet technology. (...)
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  40. Democracy is Not a Truth Machine.Thomas Wells - 2013 - Think 12 (33):75-88.
    ExtractIn a democracy people are free to express their opinions and question those of others. This is an important personal freedom, and also essential to the very idea of government by discussion. But it has also been held to be instrumentally important because in open public debate true ideas will conquer false ones by their merit, and the people will see the truth for themselves. In other words, democracy has an epistemic function as a kind of truth machine. From this (...)
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  41. On Certain Axiomatizations of Arithmetic of Natural and Integer Numbers.Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska - 2019 - Axioms 2019 (Deductive Systems).
    The systems of arithmetic discussed in this work are non-elementary theories. In this paper, natural numbers are characterized axiomatically in two di erent ways. We begin by recalling the classical set P of axioms of Peano’s arithmetic of natural numbers proposed in 1889 (including such primitive notions as: set of natural numbers, zero, successor of natural number) and compare it with the set W of axioms of this arithmetic (including the primitive notions like: set of natural numbers and relation of (...)
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  42.  64
    Artificial Intelligent Smart Home Automation with Secured Camera Management-Based GSM, Cloud Computing and Arduino.Musaddak Abdul Zahra & Laith A. Abdul-Rahaim Musaddak M. Abdul Zahra, Marwa Jaleel Mohsin - 2020 - Periodicals of Engineering and Natural Sciences 8 (4):2160-2168.
    Home management and controlling have seen a great introduction to network that enabled digital technology, especially in recent decades. For the purpose of home automation, this technique offers an exciting capability to enhance the connectivity of equipment within the home. Also, with the rapid expansion of the Internet, there are potentials that added to the remote control and monitoring of such network-enabled devices. In this paper, we had been designed and implemented a fully manageable and secure smart home automation system (...)
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  43.  13
    The Empirical and the Holistic Turn: A Hegelian Dialectics of Technoscience Revisited.Hub Zwart - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-8.
    My effort to address the comments made by the two distinguished scholars, consists of three steps. I will start with a brief resume of Hegel’s dialectical logic, to provide a scaffold for the debate. Subsequently, I will address the comments made. In the case of Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, I will focus on his reference to Althusser. In the case of Bart Gremmen, I will focus on the dialectics of biology, notably on his reference to Mendel. Finally, I will address the tension (...)
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  44. On Believing the Error Theory.Alexander Hyun & Eric Sampson - 2014 - Journal of Philosophy 111 (11):631-640.
    In his recent article entitled ‘Can We Believe the Error Theory?’ Bart Streumer argues that it is impossible (for anyone, anywhere) to believe the error theory. This might sound like a problem for the error theory, but Streumer argues that it is not. He argues that the un-believability of the error theory offers a way for error theorists to respond to several objections commonly made against the view. In this paper, we respond to Streumer’s arguments. In particular, in sections 2-4, (...)
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  45. What’s Wrong with Relaxing?Christine Tiefensee - 2019 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 16 (6):725-742.
    In his new book Unbelievable Errors, Bart Streumer argues that there is no way around the result that all metaethical views other than the error theory either fail for the same reasons as metaphysical normative realism, or for the same reasons as expressivism. In this contribution, I seek to show that this is false: We can eschew this result by ‘relaxing’ about normative truths. Even if Streumer were right about the fate of metaphysical normative realism and expressivism, then, relaxed realists (...)
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