Results for 'Besim Karakad��lar'

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  1. Dil Üstünden Kaydırmaca: Felsefece Bilmece Bulmacalar.Besim Karakadılar - manuscript
    Buradaki yazılar farklı zamanlarda farklı amaçlarla yazılanların bir derlemesi.. Örneğin, ilk bölüm 2012'den.. Son bölüm 90'lardan. Tümünü bir araya toplamamın basit bir nedeni var; bir ölçüye kadar sürekliliği olan bir anlatı oluşturmak istedim.. Yazılarda ortak bir akışın içinde olan noktaların, izlerin vbg. toplamı için, düşüncenin --belki de yalnızca çağrışımsal anlamıyla düşüncenin-- çevresel koşulları üzerine bir deneme olduğu söylenebilir. Bu anlamda bu taslak dosya bir felsefeye giriş denemesi olarak da görülebilir; ya da bir metafelsefe çalışması olarak...
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  2.  17
    Doğa ile oynamaca: felsefece karalamalar.Besim Karakadılar - manuscript
    Son 13 yıl içinde yazdıklarım içinden seçip derlediğim bu dosyada farklı amaçlarla yazılıp bütünsel bir anlatı oluşturmak arzusuyla bir araya getirilmiş yazılar var. İçindeki yazıların başlıkları sırasıyla şöyle: 1. Maddesiz ama manalı ufuklar; 2. Wittgenstein'ın ölümsüz dünyasında kim öle, kim kala?; 3. Hilbert izlencesinin izinde; 4. Adcılık adına yeni bulgular; 5. Doğa ile oynanan oyunlarda hakikat arayışı; 6. Hakikat-sonrası hakikat araştırmaları; 7. Ekolojik bir etik arayışı: hakikat-sonrası, yalan, dolan; peki ya daha sonrası? Söz konusu yazılarla arzulanan bütünsel anlatıya göre bu (...)
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  3.  51
    Gündelik dilin mantıksızlığı.Besim Karakadılar - manuscript
    Mantık, yirminci yüzyıldaki gelişimi bakımından ele alındığında, matematik, bilgisayar bilimi, dilbilim ve felsefe gibi alanlarla sıkı kavramsal bağlantılar kuran bir disiplin haline gelmiştir. Tüm bu alanların gündelik dilde izi sürülen anlamalar, anlaşmalar, anlatmalar vb. edimler için birşeyler söyleyebileceğini ya da yapabileceğini varsayabiliriz. Ancak bu varsayım gündelik dilin mantığıyla ya da mantıksızlıklarıyla doğrudan başedebilecek bir anlama yetisi kazanmanın kolay bir yolu olduğu anlamına gelmez. Modern mantık matematikseldir ve gündelik dilde bir kolaylık sağlamaz; aksine işleri olduğundan da karmaşık hale getirir.
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  4.  34
    Hilbert's Different Aims for the Foundations of Mathematics.Besim Karakadılar - manuscript
    The foundational ideas of David Hilbert have been generally misunderstood. In this dissertation prospectus, different aims of Hilbert are summarized and a new interpretation of Hilbert's work in the foundations of mathematics is roughly sketched out. Hilbert's view of the axiomatic method, his response to criticisms of set theory and intuitionist criticisms of the classical foundations of mathematics, and his view of the role of logical inference in mathematical reasoning are briefly outlined.
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  5.  63
    Hilbert izlencesinin izinde adcılık adına yeni bulgular.Besim Karakadılar - manuscript
    Hilbert izlencesinin kanıt kuramsal amacı tarihsel gelişimi içinde özetlendikten sonra arka plandaki model-kuramsal motivasyonu belirtilmektedir. Hilbert'in nihai hedefinin matematiğin temellerine ilişkin tüm epistemolojik ve ontolojik varsayımlardan arındırılmış bir matematik kuramı geliştirmek olduğu savunulmaktadır. Yakın geçmişte mantıktaki bazı gelişmelerin Hilbert izlencesinin yalnızca adcı varsayımlar temelinde sürdürülebileceğine ilişkin yeni bir bakış açısı sağladığı öne sürülmektedir.
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  6.  45
    Kurgular arası karşılaştırmalar ve anlam.Besim Karakadılar - 2010 - In Anlam Kavramı Üzerine Yeni Denemeler. İstanbul, Türkiye:
    Verili bir durumu anlamayı, onu bir bütün olarak kurgulamak olarak düşünelim. Kurgu basit bir gösterge de olabilir, karmaşık bir yapı da olabilir; belli belirsiz bir iz veya izler toplamı da olabilir. Kurgunun işlevini yerine getirmesini sağlayan gerek ve yeter koşul verili olan durum ile kendi yapısı arasında bir karşılaştırma olanağını sağlamasıdır. Nitekim, en bilindik anlamda bir durumu kurgulamak onu bir başka durumla karşılaştırmaktır. Bu yüzden de karşılaştırma yapmayı anlama yetimiz için ön dayanak olan bir alt-yeti olarak tanımlayabiliriz. Bu alt-yetinin edimsel (...)
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  7.  43
    Logic, Logicism, and Intuitions in Mathematics.Besim Karakadılar - 2001 - Dissertation, Middle East Technical University
    In this work I study the main tenets of the logicist philosophy of mathematics. I deal, basically, with two problems: (1) To what extent can one dispense with intuition in mathematics? (2) What is the appropriate logic for the purposes of logicism? By means of my considerations I try to determine the pros and cons of logicism. My standpoint favors the logicist line of thought. -/- .
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  8.  38
    Mantığın zaman tüneli.Besim Karakadılar - 2011 - Felsefe Dünyasi 54:117-122.
    Mantık tarihi ondokuzuncu yüzyılın ikinci yarısından bu yana matematiğin temelleriyle ilgili soruların yanıtlanmasına sahne olmuştur. Bugün tarihsel gelişiminin bir sonucu olarak mantık bilgisayar kullanımı aracılığıyla yaşam ile etkileşmektedir. Bu yazıda söz konusu etkileşimin geleceğine ilişkin bilgisel ufukların geçmişte hangi soruları yanıtlamak amacıyla belirlendiği çok kısaca özetlenmektedir.
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  9.  70
    Notes on Axiomatic Reasoning.Besim Karakadılar - manuscript
    Notes mainly on model-oriented vs. deduction-oriented conceptions of axiomatic reasoning.
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  10.  34
    Notes on How-Possible Reasoning.Besim Karakadılar - manuscript
    A brief outline for some alternative lines of thought on the general structure of how-possible reasoning and its implications for formally and informally conceivable things, and the concept of mathematical truth.
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  11.  81
    On What Hilbert Aimed at in the Foundations.Besim Karakadılar - manuscript
    Hilbert's axiomatic approach was an optimistic take over on the side of the logical foundations. It was also a response to various restrictive views of mathematics supposedly bounded by the reaches of epistemic elements in mathematics. A complete axiomatization should be able to exclude epistemic or ontic elements from mathematical theorizing, according to Hilbert. This exclusion is not necessarily a logicism in similar form to Frege's or Dedekind's projects. That is, intuition can still have a role in mathematical reasoning. Nevertheless, (...)
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  12.  17
    Söz uçar, yazı kalır; yara geçer, izi kalır: varsayılan mağdur edebiyatını değilleyen örtük bir reductio ad absurdum.Besim Karakadılar - 2021 - In Sinan Kadir Çelik Fahri Apaydın (ed.), Akademide Etik İhlalleri: Yaşanmış Vakalar 1. Ankara, Turkey: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık. pp. 255-260.
    Kimi zaman akademik hayatımızı doğrudan etkileyen kararların kimler tarafından nerede ve nasıl alındığını bilemeyebiliriz. Kimi zaman da bilsek bile bu akademik toplumun şeffaf olduğu anlamına gelmeyebilir. Doktora sonrası yurda dönmeden önce, tezimi okuyan hocalarımdan “Orada seni anlayan birilerini bulabilecek misin?” gibi bir soru gelmişti. Sorunun doğru yanıtının ne olduğundan emin değildim; hala da değilim.
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  13. Wittgenstein'ın ölümsüz dünyasında kim öle, kim kala?Besim Karakadılar - manuscript
    Wittgenstein’ın bir yaşam olayı olarak görmediği ölümün ne anlama geldiğine ilişkin düşüncesi açımlanıyor. Wittgenstein’ın düşüncesinin varlık-bilimsel dayanağı olan tek bir dünyanın var sayılması birden çok dünya varsayılan bir yaklaşımla karşılaştırılıyor.
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  14. Lifting the Veil of Morality: Choice Blindness and Attitude Reversals on a Self-Transforming Survey.Lars Hall, Petter Johansson & Thomas Strandberg - 2012 - PLoS ONE 7 (9):e45457. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.
    Every day, thousands of polls, surveys, and rating scales are employed to elicit the attitudes of humankind. Given the ubiquitous use of these instruments, it seems we ought to have firm answers to what is measured by them, but unfortunately we do not. To help remedy this situation, we present a novel approach to investigate the nature of attitudes. We created a self-transforming paper survey of moral opinions, covering both foundational principles, and current dilemmas hotly debated in the media. This (...)
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  15. Death and Eternal Recurrence.Lars Bergström - 2013 - In Feldman Bradley (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Death. Oxford U P.
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  16.  59
    How to Prove the Consistency of Arithmetic.Jaakko Hintikka & Besim Karakadilar - 2006 - Acta Philosophica Fennica 78:1.
    It is argued that the goal of Hilbert's program was to prove the model-theoretical consistency of different axiom systems. This Hilbert proposed to do by proving the deductive consistency of the relevant systems. In the extended independence-friendly logic there is a complete proof method for the contradictory negations of independence-friendly sentences, so the existence of a single proposition that is not disprovable from arithmetic axioms can be shown formally in the extended independence-friendly logic. It can also be proved by means (...)
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  17. How the Polls Can Be Both Spot On and Dead Wrong: Using Choice Blindness to Shift Political Attitudes and Voter Intentions.Lars Hall, Thomas Strandberg, Philip Pärnamets, Andreas Lind, Betty Tärning & Petter Johansson - 2013 - PLoS ONE 8 (4):e60554. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.
    Political candidates often believe they must focus their campaign efforts on a small number of swing voters open for ideological change. Based on the wisdom of opinion polls, this might seem like a good idea. But do most voters really hold their political attitudes so firmly that they are unreceptive to persuasion? We tested this premise during the most recent general election in Sweden, in which a left- and a right-wing coalition were locked in a close race. We asked our (...)
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  18. Failure to Detect Mismatches Between Intention and Outcome in a Simple Decision Task.Petter Johansson, Lars Hall, Sverker Sikstrom & Andreas Olsson - 2005 - Science 310 (5745):116-119.
    A fundamental assumption of theories of decision-making is that we detect mismatches between intention and outcome, adjust our behavior in the face of error, and adapt to changing circumstances. Is this always the case? We investigated the relation between intention, choice, and introspection. Participants made choices between presented face pairs on the basis of attractiveness, while we covertly manipulated the relationship between choice and outcome that they experienced. Participants failed to notice conspicuous mismatches between their intended choice and the outcome (...)
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  19. The Enhanced Indispensability Argument, the Circularity Problem, and the Interpretability Strategy.Jan Heylen & Lars Arthur Tump - 2019 - Synthese 198 (4):3033-3045.
    Within the context of the Quine–Putnam indispensability argument, one discussion about the status of mathematics is concerned with the ‘Enhanced Indispensability Argument’, which makes explicit in what way mathematics is supposed to be indispensable in science, namely explanatory. If there are genuine mathematical explanations of empirical phenomena, an argument for mathematical platonism could be extracted by using inference to the best explanation. The best explanation of the primeness of the life cycles of Periodical Cicadas is genuinely mathematical, according to Baker (...)
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  20. Underdetermination of Physical Theory.Lars Bergström - 2004 - In Roger F. Gibson (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Quine. Cambridge University Press. pp. 91--114.
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  21. Reflections on Consequentialism.Lars Bergström - 1996 - Theoria 62 (1-2):74-94.
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  22. Davidsons's Objections to Quine's Empiricism.Lars Bergström - 2001 - In P. Pagin P. Kotatko (ed.), Interpreting Davidson. CSLI Publications.
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  23. Putnam on the Fact-Value Dichotomy.Lars Bergström - 2002 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 2 (2):117-129.
    In Reason, Truth and History and certain related writings, Hilary Putnam attacked the fact-value distinction. This paper criticizes his arguments and defends the distinction. Putnam claims that factual statements presuppose values, that “the empirical world depends upon our criteria of rational acceptability,” and that “we must have criteria of rational acceptability to even have an empirical world.” The present paper argues that these claims are mistaken.
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  24. Quine and the A Priori.Lars Bergström - 2014 - In Gilbert Harman & Ernie Lepore (eds.), A Companion to W. V. O. Quine. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 38–53.
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  25. Higher-Order Knowledge and Sensitivity.Jens Christian Bjerring & Lars Bo Gundersen - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):339-349.
    It has recently been argued that a sensitivity theory of knowledge cannot account for intuitively appealing instances of higher-order knowledge. In this paper, we argue that it can once careful attention is paid to the methods or processes by which we typically form higher-order beliefs. We base our argument on what we take to be a well-motivated and commonsensical view on how higher-order knowledge is typically acquired, and we show how higher-order knowledge is possible in a sensitivity theory once this (...)
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  26. Notes on the Value of Science.Lars Bergström - 1994 - In D. Prawitz, B. Skyrms & D. Westerståhl (eds.), Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science IX. Elsevier Science B. V..
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  27. Scientific Value.Lars Bergström - 1996 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 10 (3):189-202.
    Abstract Criteria of scientific value are of different kinds. This paper concerns ultimate criteria, i.e. the axiology of science. Most ultimate criteria are multi?dimensional. This gives rise to an aggregation problem, which cannot be adequately solved with reference to attitudes and behaviour within the scientific community. Therefore, in many cases, there is no fact of the matter as to whether one theory is better than another. This, in turn, creates problems for methodology.
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  28. Quine's Relativism.Lars Bergström - 2006 - Theoria 72 (4):286-298.
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  29.  53
    Hilbert's Metamathematical Problems and Their Solutions.Besim Karakadilar - 2008 - Dissertation, Boston University
    This dissertation examines several of the problems that Hilbert discovered in the foundations of mathematics, from a metalogical perspective. The problems manifest themselves in four different aspects of Hilbert’s views: (i) Hilbert’s axiomatic approach to the foundations of mathematics; (ii) His response to criticisms of set theory; (iii) His response to intuitionist criticisms of classical mathematics; (iv) Hilbert’s contribution to the specification of the role of logical inference in mathematical reasoning. This dissertation argues that Hilbert’s axiomatic approach was guided primarily (...)
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  30.  30
    Kant and the Problem of 'True Eloquence'.Lars Leeten - 2019 - Rhetorica. A Journal of the History of Rhetoric 1 (37):60-82.
    This article argues that Kant’s attack on the ars oratoria in §53 of the Critique of the Power of Judgement is directed against eighteenth-century school rhetoric, in particular against the ‘art of speech’ (Redekunst) of Johann Christoph Gottsched. It is pointed out that Kant suggests a revision of Gottsched’s conception of ‘true eloquence’, which was the predominant rhetorical ideal at the time. On this basis, and in response to recent discussions on ‘Kantian rhetoric’, Kant’s own ideal of speech is adressed. (...)
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  31.  24
    Redepraxis als Lebenspraxis. Die diskursive Kultur der antiken Ethik.Lars Leeten - 2019 - Freiburg/München: Alber.
    Ancient ethics was an exercise of good life. This study examines how this is reflected in the forms of speech that ancient ethics developed. It is shown that, in antiquity, discursive practices were not considered neutral methods of ethical thinking but rather ways of life to be cultivated as ethical practices in their own right. This book describes central aspects of this ethical culture of speech from the times of the sophists and Socrates up to hellenistic philosophy.
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  32. The Architecture of Continuity.Lars Spuybroek - 2009 - Rotterdam: V2_NAI Publishers.
    A number of essays and interviews published between 1997 and 2008, revised for this publication with V2_.
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  33. The Sympathy of Things: Ruskin and the Ecology of Design.Lars Spuybroek - 2011/2016 - V2_NAI Publishers/Bloomsbury.
    The revised and expanded edition of The Sympathy of Things with Bloomsbury Academic, which appeared in 2016. The pdf sample contains the new preface to the second edition and the foreword by Brian Massumi.
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  34.  21
    Kant and the Promise of Rhetoric. [REVIEW]Lars Leeten - 2016 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 24 (2):263-266.
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  35. Gerechtigkeit als Versicherung.Lars Roemheld - 2013 - Dissertation, Heidelberg University
    This thesis sketches a justification of a welfare state, defending it against both givers and receivers of redistribution. Following the ideas of Luck Egalitarianism, I argue that righteous wealth is the result of responsible decisions, and that the influence of luck should be minimized. Building on Ronald Dworkin's hypothetical insurance markets, I argue that a welfare system should be conceived of as a personal insurance, not a social luxury. The thesis is written in German.
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  36. Charis and Radiance: The Ontological Dimensions of Beauty.Lars Spuybroek - 2014 - In S. Van Tuinen (ed.), Giving and Taking: Antidotes to a Culture of Greed. Rotterdam: V2_Publishing. pp. 119–49.
    This essay developed out of the final chapter of The Sympathy of Things where I related beauty to a notion of radical generosity. Tracing generosity back to the ancient Greeks brought me to a whole new world of grace and “charis”, the etymological root of words like charisma and charity. The essay establishes a fundamental connection between grace and beauty, deeply interrelating movement and object. In the second part the argument develops into an ontology based on the concept of radiance, (...)
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  37.  44
    Figurate and Spectral Architecture: Of the Lithic, Ferric, and Plastic.Lars Spuybroek - 2020 - In Grace and Gravity: Architectures of the Figure. London: Bloomsbury. pp. 115–59.
    The fourth of eight chapters from my recently published book "Grace and Gravity: Architectures of the Figure." The argumentation builds on terminology introduced in the first three chapters, the most important being the phased structure of the figure: prefiguration, figuration, and transfiguration. Also, the earlier developed interdependence of movement and standstill, which we find both in beauty and in grace, is here expanded in the relationship between the mineral, animal, and vegetable.
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  38.  82
    Grace and Gravity: Architectures of the Figure.Lars Spuybroek - 2020 - London, UK: Bloomsbury.
    A pdf sample that contains the cover, contents page, preface and the back cover with endorsements and blurb.
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  39. Gothic Ontology and Sympathy: Moving Away From the Fold.Lars Spuybroek - 2017 - In Sjoerd Van Tuinen (ed.), Speculative Art Histories. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 131-61.
    This transcription of a keynote for the Speculative Art Histories conference in May 2013 is a mixture of the main argument of The Sympathy of Things and some new insights. The text might be helpful for those who have not read the Sympathy book, which has been sold out for a number of years. This essay will appear as a chapter in Sjoerd van Tuinen's Speculative Art Histories, to be published with Edinburgh University Press in 2017.
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  40. Gothic Ontology and Sympathy: Moving Away From the Fold.Lars Spuybroek - 2017 - In Sjoerd Van Tuinen (ed.), Speculative Art Histories. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    This transcription of a keynote for the Speculative Art Histories conference in May 2013 is a mixture of the main argument of The Sympathy of Things and some new insights. The text might be helpful for those who have not read the Sympathy book, which has been sold out for a number of years. This essay will appear as a chapter in Sjoerd van Tuinen's Speculative Art Histories, to be published with Edinburgh University Press in 2017.
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  41.  60
    Sun and Lightning: The Visibility of Radiance.Lars Spuybroek - 2016 - In L. Spuybroek J. Brouwer (ed.), The War of Appearances: Transparency, Opacity, Radiance. Rotterdam, Netherlands: V2_Publishing. pp. 98-127.
    A long chapter for The War of Appearances: Transparency, Opacity, Radiance (V2_Publishing, 2016) building on the findings of “Charis and Radiance,” an essay published two years earlier. It discusses the inherent connection between visibility and radiance within the framework of Plato’s sun model as the source of reality.
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  42. The Ages of Beauty: Revisiting Hartshorne's Diagram of Aesthetic Values.Lars Spuybroek - 2012 - In A. Mulder (ed.), Vital Beauty: Reclaiming Aesthetics in the Tangle of Technology and Nature. pp. 32-63.
    This long essay was published in Vital Beauty, a collection including Wendy Steiner and Tim Ingold, which investigates the possibility of new ways toward beauty. This is my first encounter with Hartshorne’s Diagram of Aesthetic Values, a mandala-like structure explaining the relations between aesthetic experiences. The essay looks into the awkward history of the diagram in Hartshorne’s philosophy, its connection to Max Dessoir’s work, to Whitehead’s chapter on beauty in Adventures of Ideas and the notion of creativity in Schelling.
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  43. The Acrobatics of the Figure: Piranesi and Magnificence.Lars Spuybroek - 2015 - In Dr J. G. Wallis de Vries (ed.), ARCHESCAPE: The Piranesi Flights. Amsterdam: 1001 Publishers. pp. 5-11.
    An essay, which I wrote for the catalog to the exhibition “ARCHESCAPE: the Piranesi Flights,” organized by the Dutch Piranesi scholar Gijs Wallis de Vries. The text, which is necessarily kept short, uses notions of the magnificent and the tragic that I discovered in Hartshorne’s Aesthetic Diagram as discussed in “The Ages of Beauty.”.
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  44. The Compass of Beauty: A Search for the Middle.Lars Spuybroek - forthcoming - In Maria Voyatzaki (ed.), Architectural Materialisms: Nonhuman Creativity. Edinburgh University Press.
    This chapter is a rethinking of my earlier “The Ages of Beauty” which investigated Charles Hartshorne’s Diagram of Aesthetic Values. The argument is placed in a long history of beauty being considered as the middle between extremes. It slowly develops into a structure not merely of aesthetic experience but of existence itself, making it a competitor of Heidegger’s fourfold.
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  45.  61
    The Compass of Beauty: A Search For the Middle.Lars Spuybroek - 2018 - In Maria Voyatzaki (ed.), Architectural Materialisms: Nonhuman Creativity. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 176–204.
    This chapter is a rethinking of my earlier “The Ages of Beauty” which investigated Charles Hartshorne’s Diagram of Aesthetic Values. The argument is placed in a long history of beauty being considered as the middle between extremes. It slowly develops into a structure not merely of aesthetic experience but of existence itself, making it an alternative to Heidegger’s fourfold.
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  46. The Digital Nature of Gothic.Lars Spuybroek - 2011 - In L. Spuybroek (ed.), Research & Design: Textile Tectonics. pp. 8-41.
    The first chapter of The Sympathy of Things published in Research & Design: Textile Tectonics (2011). It develops the notion of a “gothic ontology” which inverts Deleuze’s baroque ontology of the fold. Where in the universe of the fold continuity precedes singularity, in the gothic singularity precedes continuity. The reversal is based on the Ruskinian notion of the rib, which is the source of “changefulness”, expressed through “millions of variations” of figures. Figures move and change only to interact with or (...)
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  47.  42
    The Grace Machine: Of Turns, Wheels and Limbs.Lars Spuybroek - 2018 - Footprint 22 (Summer):7-32.
    Starting with a few simple questions about living well and where movement originates from this essay turns into a vast map of intricate relations revolving around the notion of grace. By developing the argument from a historical perspective it quickly becomes clear that grace relies on the specific qualities of figuration and how the figure appears in what is termed “the gap between habit and inhabitation.” This article is a shorter version of the introductory chapter to my “Grace and Gravity: (...)
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  48. The Matter of Ornament.Lars Spuybroek - 2010 - In J. Brouwer A. Mulder (ed.), The Politics of the Impure. pp. 232-267.
    A shortened version of the second chapter of The Sympathy of Things as it was published in The Politics of the Impure (V2_NAI Publishers, 2010). It relates John Ruskin’s “Wall-Veil” to the better-known “Wall-Dress” (Gewand) of Gottfried Semper by understanding both as occurring at the intersection of matter and force. Matter tends to generate patterns in two ways, either downward or upward in dimensions. The first relates to tessellated ornament (cf. Owen Jones); the second to the ribboned ornamentation as we (...)
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  49. Severity as a Priority Setting Criterion: Setting a Challenging Research Agenda.Mathias Barra, Mari Broqvist, Erik Gustavsson, Martin Henriksson, Niklas Juth, Lars Sandman & Carl Tollef Solberg - 2019 - Health Care Analysis 1:1-20.
    Priority setting in health care is ubiquitous and health authorities are increasingly recognising the need for priority setting guidelines to ensure efficient, fair, and equitable resource allocation. While cost-effectiveness concerns seem to dominate many policies, the tension between utilitarian and deontological concerns is salient to many, and various severity criteria appear to fill this gap. Severity, then, must be subjected to rigorous ethical and philosophical analysis. Here we first give a brief history of the path to today’s severity criteria in (...)
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  50. Modal Truth : Integrating the Metaphysics, Epistemology, and Semantics of the Necessary and the Possible.Lars Enden - 2016 - Dissertation, University of Washington
    The integration challenge for modality states that metaphysical theories of modality tend to fail in one of two ways: either they render the meanings of modal sentences mysterious, or they render modal knowledge mysterious. I argue that there are specific semantic and epistemic constraints on metaphysics implied by the integration challenge and that a plausible metaphysical theory of modality will satisfy both of them. I further argue that no popular metaphysical theory of modality simultaneously satisfies both of the constraints. Therefore, (...)
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