Results for 'D. G'

1000+ found
Order:
  1. Virtues, Ecological Momentary Assessment/Intervention and Smartphone Technology.Jason D. Runyan & Ellen G. Steinke - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology:1-24.
    Virtues, broadly understood as stable and robust dispositions for certain responses across morally relevant situations, have been a growing topic of interest in psychology. A central topic (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  2. Beyond Sufficiency: G.A. Cohen's Community Constraint on Luck Egalitarianism.Benjamin D. King - 2018 - Kritike 12 (1):215-232.
    G. A. Cohen conceptualizes socialism as luck egalitarianism constrained by a community principle. The latter mitigates certain inequalities to achieve a shared common life. This article explores (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  3. Nepotistic Patterns of Violent Psychopathy: Evidence for Adaptation?D. B. Krupp, L. A. Sewall, M. L. Lalumière, C. Sheriff & G. T. Harris - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3:1-8.
    Psychopaths routinely disregard social norms by engaging in selfish, antisocial, often violent behavior. Commonly characterized as mentally disordered, recent evidence suggests that psychopaths are executing a well- (...)functioning, if unscrupulous strategy that historically increased reproductive success at the expense of others. Natural selection ought to have favored strategies that spared close kin from harm, however, because actions affecting the fitness of genetic relatives contribute to an individuals inclusive fitness. Conversely, there is evidence that mental disorders can disrupt psychological mechanisms designed to protect relatives. Thus, mental disorder and adaptation accounts of psychopathy generate opposing hypotheses: psychopathy should be associated with an increase in the victimization of kin in the former account but not in the latter. Contrary to the mental disorder hypothesis, we show here in a sample of 289 violent offenders that variation in psychopathy predicts a decrease in the genetic relatedness of victims to offenders; that is, psychopathy predicts an increased likelihood of harming non-relatives. Because nepotistic inhibition in violence may be caused by dispersal or kin discrimination, we examined the effects of psychopathy on (1) the dispersal of offenders and their kin and (2) sexual assault frequency (as a window on kin discrimination). Although psychopathy was negatively associated with coresidence with kin and positively associated with the commission of sexual assault, it remained negatively associated with the genetic relatedness of victims to offenders after removing cases of offenders who had coresided with kin and cases of sexual assault from the analyses. These results stand in contrast to models positing psychopathy as a pathology, and provide support for the hypothesis that psychopathy reflects an evolutionary strategy largely favoring the exploitation of non-relatives. (shrink)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  4.  73
    Compatibilism and Retributivist Desert Moral Responsibility: On What is of Central Philosophical and Practical Importance.Gregg D. Caruso & Stephen G. Morris - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (4):837-855.
    Much of the recent philosophical discussion about free will has been focused on whether compatibilists can adequately defend how a determined agent could exercise the type of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  5. Araucaria as a Tool for Diagramming Arguments in Teaching and Studying Philosophy .F. Macagno, D. Walton, G. Rowe & C. Reed - 2006 - Teaching Philosophy 29 (2):111-124,.
    This paper explains how to use a new software tool for argument diagramming available free on the Internet, showing especially how it can be used in the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  6. Proofs Versus Experiments: Wittgensteinian Themes Surrounding the Four-Color Theorem.G. D. Secco - 2017 - In Marcos Silva (ed.), How Colours Matter to Philosophy. Cham: Springer. pp. 289-307.
    The Four-Colour Theorem (4CT) proof, presented to the mathematical community in a pair of papers by Appel and Haken in the late 1970's, provoked a series (...) of philosophical debates. Many conceptual points of these disputes still require some elucidation. After a brief presentation of the main ideas of Appel and Hakens procedure for the proof and a reconstruction of Thomas Tymoczkos argument for the novelty of 4CTs proof, we shall formulate some questions regarding the connections between the points raised by Tymoczko and some Wittgensteinian topics in the philosophy of mathematics such as the importance of the surveyability as a criterion for distinguishing mathematical proofs from empirical experiments. Our aim is to show that thecharacteristic Wittgensteinian invention” (Mühlhölzer 2006) – the strong distinction between proofs and experimentscan shed some light in the conceptual confusions surrounding the Four-Colour Theorem. (shrink)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. National Center for Biomedical Ontology: Advancing Biomedicine Through Structured Organization of Scientific Knowledge.Daniel L. Rubin, Suzanna E. Lewis, Chris J. Mungall, Misra Sima, Westerfield Monte, Ashburner Michael, Christopher G. Chute, Ida Sim, Harold Solbrig, M. A. Storey, Barry Smith, John D. Richter, Natasha Noy & Mark A. Musen - 2006 - Omics: A Journal of Integrative Biology 10 (2):185-198.
    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology is a consortium that comprises leading informaticians, biologists, clinicians, and ontologists, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap, to (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  8. Genetic Privacy: a Challenge to Medico-Legal Norms: G Laurie. Cambridge University Press, 2002, 50.00 (Hbk), Pp 335. ISBN 0521660270[REVIEW]D. Dickenson - 2003 - Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (6):373-374.
    Review of Graeme Laurie, Genetic Privacy.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  9.  87
    A.D. G. (ed.) - 2016
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  10.  81
    Evrensel İlkeler Işığında Yerel Değerlerin Anlamlandırılması Olanaklı Mıdır? Kantın Ahlâk İlkesinin Uygulanmasına Dair Öneriler.İsmail Serin - 2009 - In Türkiye ve Ortadoğu Amme İdaresi Enstitüsü (TODAİE) Kamu Etiği Sempozyumu, Sempozyum Bildirileri Kitabı. Ankara, Turkey: pp. 235-238.
    İlk kez derli toplu bir biçimde Aydınlanma Çağının en önemli ve etkili filozofu İmmanuel Kantın dillendirdiği evrensel ahlâk yasası uyarınca insan öyle eylemelidir ki, davranışıyla insanı (...)araç haline getirmesin. Kültürden, toplumun koşullarından, geleneklerden ve dinsel etkilerden arındırılmış bu ilkenin buyurganlığı herhangi bir koşul ya da sınır tanımamasıyla ünlüdür. Oysa insanlar, hem bireysel hem de toplumsal gerekçelerle bu formel ilkeyle kendilerini her zaman bir çekişme içinde bulurlar. Kantın ahlâk anlayışı açısından etik değerlerin herhangi bir kültürel, toplumsal ya da siyasal baskı ya da ilgi içerisinde anlaşılmaması gerekir. Bu ilke(ler) evrenseldir; ulusal ya da yerel çerçeveyle sınırlı görülemezler. Oysa özellikle ulusal sınırlarla belirlenmiş topraklarda yaşayan toplumlann kendi kültürlerinden geleneklerinden süzülerek gelen değerler her zaman bu evrensel ilkelerle uyum içinde değildirler. Aralarında gerilim arttığında genellikle evrensel ilkeler lehinde çözüme gidilmek istenir. Yani yerel değerler yeniden anlamlandırılır. Toplumlann örgütlenmesinde rol oynayan faktörlerin pek çoğunun devredışı bırakılmasının nedeni bunlann, sorunlan çözmekten ziyade artırdığının apaçık olmasıdır. Söz gelişi Ortaçağ boyunca Avrupada yaşanmış mezhep çatışmalan, ahlâk ilkelerininin dinsel değerler tarafından tanımlanmasının önündeki en büyük engeldir. Kantm ahlâk felsefesinin Hıristiyanlık idealleri üzerine kurulmadığı apaçıktır, lyinin kökeninde günah/sevap ya da kutsal metinlerin buyurganlığı yoktur. Bunun böyle olmasının bir nedeni de ortaçağlar boyunca Avrupada yaşanmış olduğunu gözlemlediğimiz dinsel çatışmalann ahlâk ilkelerinin evrenselleşmesini önlemesidir. İyi ya da doğrunun belirli bir inanç sisteminin önceliklerine terk edilmesi fanatizmi azaltacağına güçlendirmiştir. Yani iyi bir Hıristiyan olmak iyi ahlâklı bir insan olmaktan önce gelmesi eleştirilmektedir. Kısacası ahlâkın temeline dinsel bir dayanak yerleştirmektense, aklı koyan bir yaklaşım söz konusudur. Dinsel çatışmalar bu tercihin yapılmasını kolaylaştırmıştır. Bu noktada ulusal değerler çok daha büyük güçlükler doğurmaktadır; çünkü tarihin kaydettiği olaylar, homojen bir değerler bütünlüğü olmadığım düşündürmektedir. Sonuç olarak, evrensel bir ahlâk ilkesine duyulan ihtiyaç ile içinde yaşadığımız çağın gerçekleri arasındaki makasın açılması tepeden dayatma tehlikesini artırırken, makasın kapanması toplumsal ilerlemenin ve gelişmenin meşruluğuna katkıda bulunmaktadır. Bu bildiride evrensel ilkelerin yerel değerleri anlamlandırmasının olanaklılığı, Kantın ahlâk felsefesi model alınarak sorgulanacaktır. (shrink)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11. A Holistic Approach to Language.Brian D. Josephson & David G. Blair - 1982 - International Philsophical Preprint Exchange (IPPE).
    The following progress report views language acquisition as primarily the attempt to create processes that connect together in a fruitful way linguistic input and other activity. The (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  12. Chimpanzee Rights: The Philosophers' Brief.Kristin Andrews, Gary Comstock, G. K. D. Crozier, Sue Donaldson, Andrew Fenton, Tyler John, L. Syd M. Johnson, Robert Jones, Will Kymlicka, Letitia Meynell, Nathan Nobis, David M. Pena-Guzman & Jeff Sebo - 2018 - London: Routledge.
    In December 2013, the Nonhuman Rights Project (NhRP) filed a petition for a common law writ of habeas corpus in the New York State Supreme Court on (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  13.  89
    An Improved Ontological Representation of Dendritic Cells as a Paradigm for All Cell Types.Masci Anna Maria, N. Arighi Cecilia, D. Diehl Alexander, E. Lieberman Anne, Mungall Chris, H. Scheuermann Richard, Barry Smith & G. Cowell Lindsay - 2009 - BMC Bioinformatics 10 (1):70.
    The Cell Ontology (CL) is designed to provide a standardized representation of cell types for data annotation. Currently, the CL employs multiple is_a relations, defining cell types (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  14. The Contours of Blame.D. Justin Coates & Neal A. Tognazzini - 2013 - In D. Justin Coates & Neal A. Tognazzini (eds.), Blame: Its Nature and Norms. Oxford University Press. pp. 3-26.
    This is the first chapter to our edited collection of essays on the nature and ethics of blame. In this chapter we introduce the reader to contemporary (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   37 citations  
  15. G. E. Moore and the Greifswald Objectivists on the Given and the Beginning of Analytic Philosophy.Nikolay Milkov - 2004 - Axiomathes 14 (4):361-379.
    Shortly before G. E. Moore wrote down the formative for the early analytic philosophy lectures on Some Main Problems of Philosophy (19101911), he had become acquainted (...)with two books which influenced his thought: (1) a book by Husserl's pupil August Messer and (2) a book by the Greifswald objectivist Dimitri Michaltschew. Central to Michaltschew's book was the concept of the given. In Part I, I argue that Moore elaborated his concept of sense-data in the wake of the Greifswald concept. Carnap did the same when he wrote his Aufbau, the only difference being that he spoke not of sense-data but of Erlebnisse. This means, I argue, that both Moore's sense-data and Carnap'sErlebnisse have little to do with either British empiricists or the neo-Kantians. In Part II, I try to ascertain what made early analytic philosophy different from all those philosophical groups and movements that either exercised influence on it, or were closely related to it: phenomenologists, Greifswald objectivists, Brentanists. For this purpose, I identify the sine qua non practices of the early analytic philosophers: exactness; acceptance of the propositional turn; descriptivism; objectivism. If one of these practices was not explored by a given philosophical school or group, in all probability, it was not truly analytic. (shrink)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  16. Ceteris Paribus Laws, Component Forces, and the Nature of Special-Science Properties.Robert D. Rupert - 2008 - Noûs 42 (3):349-380.
    Laws of nature seem to take two forms. Fundamental physics discovers laws that hold without exception, ‘strict laws’, as they are sometimes called; even if some laws (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  17. Hard-Incompatibilist Existentialism: Neuroscience, Punishment, and Meaning in Life.Derk Pereboom & Gregg D. Caruso - 2018 - In Gregg D. Caruso & Owen Flanagan (eds.), Neuroexistentialism: Meaning, Morals, and Purpose in the Age of Neuroscience. Oxford University Press.
    As philosophical and scientific arguments for free will skepticism continue to gain traction, we are likely to see a fundamental shift in the way people think about (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  18. Freges Puzzle and Frege Cases: Defending a Quasi-Syntactic Solution.Robert D. Rupert - 2008 - Cognitive Systems Research 9:76-91.
    There is no doubt that social interaction plays an important role in language-learning, as well as in concept acquisition. In surprising contrast, social interaction makes only (...)passing appearance in our most promising naturalistic theories of content. This is particularly true in the case of mental content (e.g., Cummins, 1996; Dretske, 1981, 1988; Fodor, 1987, 1990a; Millikan, 1984); and insofar as linguistic content derives from mental content (Grice, 1957), social interaction seems missing from our best naturalistic theories of both.1 In this paper, I explore the ways in which even the most individualistic of theories of mental content can, and should, accommodate social effects. I focus especially on the way in which inferential relations, including those that are socially taught, influence language-learning and concept acquisition. I argue that these factors affect the way subjects conceive of mental and linguistic content. Such effects have a dark side: the social and inferential processes in question give rise to misleading intuitions about content itself. They create the illusion that content and inferential relations are more deeply intertwined than they actually are. This illusion confounds an otherwise attractive solution to what is known asFreges puzzle’ (Salmon, 1986). I.. (shrink)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  19. Mental Representations and Millikans Theory of Intentional Content: Does Biology Chase Causality?Robert D. Rupert - 1999 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 37 (1):113-140.
    In her landmark book, Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories (Millikan1984),1 Ruth Garrett Millikan utilizes the idea of a biological function to solve philosophical problems associated (...)with the phenomena of language, thought, and meaning. Language and thought are activities of biological organisms, according to Millikan, and we should treat them as such when trying to answer related philosophical questions. Of special interest is Millikans treatment of intentionality. Here Millikan employs the notion of a biological function to explain what it is for one thing in nature, a bee dance (43), for example, to be about another, in this case, the location of a nectar source. My concern in this paper is to understand whether Millikans account of intentionality adequately explains how humans achieve reference, in language or thought, to individuals and groups in their environment. In bringing her theory of intentional content to bear on human activities, Millikan focuses largely on natural language. Thus, in what follows, I begin by laying out the biology-based principles that underlie Millikans theory of content, then proceed with an explanation of how the theory is to apply to natural language. As it appears, Millikans account of how content is determined for natural language terms and sentences rests on the determinacy of intentional content at the psychological level. This leads me to take a careful look at what Millikan says about the content of mental representations, in hopes of finding a sufficient basis there for the application of Millikans theory of content to natural language. Ultimately, I conclude that Millikans theory faces a problem of vacuity. If we approach the theory as a theory of intentional content, intended to explain the nature of reference, the theory is lacking in an extremely important respect: Millikan explains how it could be one of the biological functions of a mental or natural language term to refer, without telling us precisely what in the natural order constitutes the reference relation.. (shrink)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  20. Similarity-Based Cognition: Radical Enactivism Meets Cognitive Neuroscience.Miguel Segundo-Ortin & Daniel D. Hutto - 2019 - Synthese:1-19.
    Similarity-based cognition is commonplace. It occurs whenever an agent or system exploits the similarities that hold between two or more itemse.g., events, processes, objects, and (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  21. Novel Sequence Feature Variant Type Analysis of the HLA Genetic Association in Systemic Sclerosis.R. Karp David, Marthandan Nishanth, G. E. Marsh Steven, Ahn Chul, C. Arnett Frank, S. DeLuca David, D. Diehl Alexander, Dunivin Raymond, Eilbeck Karen, Feolo Michael & Barry Smith - 2009 - Human Molecular Genetics 19 (4):707-719.
    Significant associations have been found between specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and organ transplant rejection, autoimmune disease development, and the response to infection. Traditional searches for (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22.  91
    Addiction, Identity, Morality.Brian D. Earp, Joshua August Skorburg, Jim A. C. Everett & Julian Savulescu - 2019 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 10 (2):136-153.
    Background: Recent literature on addiction and judgments about the characteristics of agents has focused on the implications of adopting abrain diseaseversusmoral weaknessmodel of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  23. Free Will Skepticism and the Question of Creativity: Creativity, Desert, and Self-Creation.D. Caruso Gregg - 2016 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 3.
    Free will skepticism maintains that what we do, and the way we are, is ultimately the result of factors beyond our control and because of this we (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  24. Consciousness and the Physical World: Edited Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Symposium on Consciousness Held at the University of Cambridge in January 1978.B. D. Josephson & V. S. Ramachandran (eds.) - 1980 - Pergamon Press.
    Edited proceedings of an interdisciplinary symposium on consciousness held at the University of Cambridge in January 1978. Includes a foreword by Freeman Dyson. Chapter authors: G. Vesey, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  25. Embodying Autistic Cognition: Towards Reconceiving Certain 'Autism-Related' Behavioral Atypicalities as Functional.Michael D. Doan & Andrew Fenton - 2013 - In Jami L. Anderson & Simon Cushing (eds.), The Philosophy of Autism. Rowman & Littlefield.
    Some researchers and autistic activists have recently suggested that because someautism-relatedbehavioural atypicalities have a function or purpose they may be desirable rather than undesirable. (...)Examples of such behavioural atypicalities include hand-flapping, repeatedly ordering objects (e.g., toys) in rows, and profoundly restricted routines. A common view, as represented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-TR (APA, 2000), is that many of these behaviours lack adaptive function or purpose, interfere with learning, and constitute the non-social behavioural dysfunctions of those disorders making up the Autism Spectrum. As the DSM IV-TR continues to be the reference source of choice for professionals working with individuals with psychiatric difficulties, its characterization of the Autism Spectrum holds significant sway. We will suggest Extended Mind and Enactive Cognition Theories, which theorize that mind (or cognition) is embodied and environmentally embedded, as coherent conceptual and theoretical spaces within which to investigate the possibility that certain repetitive behaviours exhibited by autistics possess functions or purposes that make them desirable. As lenses through which to re-examineautism-relatedbehavioral atypicalities, these theories not only open up explanatory possibilities underdeveloped in the research literature, but also cohere with how some autistics describe their own experience. Our position navigates a middle way between the view of autism as understood in terms of impairment, deficit and dysfunction and one that seeks to de-pathologize the Spectrum. In so doing we seek to contribute to a continuing dialogue between researchers, clinicians and self- or parent advocates. (shrink)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  26. Evading the Doxastic Puzzle by Deflating Epistemic Normativity.Luis R. G. Oliveira - forthcoming - In Scott Stapleford & Kevin McCain (eds.), Epistemic Duties: New Arguments, New Angles. Routledge.
    What I call the Doxastic Puzzle, is the impression that while each of these claims seems true, at least one of them must be false: (a) Claims (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27.  71
    Review of Richard E. Cytowic, *The Man Who Tasted Shapes*. [REVIEW]G. Nixon - 1999 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (1):122-123.
    The Warner Books back cover proclaims: In the tradition of Oliver Sachʼs [sic] bestselling *The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat...* The manner and misspellingsignify (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28.  57
    Virtual Realism: Really Realism or Only Virtually so? A Comment on D. J. Chalmerss Petrus Hispanus Lectures.Claus Beisbart - 2019 - Disputatio 11 (55):297-331.
    What is the status of a cat in a virtual reality environment? Is it a real object? Or part of a fiction? Virtual realism, as defended by (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  29. Headed Records: A Model for Memory and its Failures.John Morton, Richard H. Hammersley & D. A. Bekerian - 1985 - Cognition 20 (1):1-23.
    It is proposed that our memory is made up of individual, unconnected Records, to each of which is attached a Heading. Retrieval of a Record can only (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  30. A New, Better BET: Rescuing and Revising Basic Emotion Theory.Michael David Kirchhoff, Daniel D. Hutto & Ian Robertson - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9:1-12.
    Basic Emotion Theory, or BET, has dominated the affective sciences for decades (Ekman, 1972, 1992, 1999; Ekman and Davidson, 1994; Griffiths, 2013; Scarantino and Griffiths, 2011). It (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  31. «La physique dEinstein», texte inédit de Georges Lemaître.Jean-François Stoffel & Georges Lemaître - 1996 - In Mgr Georges Lemaître, savant et croyant: actes du colloque commémoratif du centième anniversaire de sa naissance (Louvain-la-Neuve, le 4 novembre 1994). La physique d’Einstein: texte inédit de G. Lemaître. 2300 Turnhout, Belgique: Brepols Publishers. pp. 223-360.
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32. From Traditional Set TheoryThat of Cantor, Hilbert , Gödel, Cohento Its Necessary Quantum Extension.Edward G. Belaga - manuscript
    The original purpose of the present study, 2011, started with a preprint «On the Probable Failure of the Uncountable Power Set Axiom», 1988, is to save from (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33. Retrieving the Mathematical Mission of the Continuum Concept From the Transfinitely Reductionist Debris of Cantors Paradise. Extended Abstract.Edward G. Belaga - forthcoming - International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics.
    What is so special and mysterious about the Continuum, this ancient, always topical, and alongside the concept of integers, most intuitively transparent and omnipresent conceptual and formal (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34. Review of Alison L. LaCroix Ideological Origins of American Federalism[REVIEW]H. G. Callaway - 2011 - Law and Politics Book Review 21 (10):619-627.
    Alison L. LaCroix is Assistant Professor of Law at the University of Chicago Law School, where she specializes in legal history, federalism, constitutional law and questions of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35. REVIEW OF 1988. Saccheri, G. Euclides Vindicatus (1733), Edited and Translated by G. B. Halsted, 2nd Ed. (1986), in Mathematical Reviews MR0862448. 88j:01013.John Corcoran - 1988 - MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS 88 (J):88j:01013.
    Girolamo Saccheri (1667--1733) was an Italian Jesuit priest, scholastic philosopher, and mathematician. He earned a permanent place in the history of mathematics by discovering and rigorously (...)deducing an elaborate chain of consequences of an axiom-set for what is now known as hyperbolic (or Lobachevskian) plane geometry. Reviewer's remarks: (1) On two pages of this book Saccheri refers to his previous and equally original book Logica demonstrativa (Turin, 1697) to which 14 of the 16 pages of the editor's "Introduction" are devoted. At the time of the first edition, 1920, the editor was apparently not acquainted with the secondary literature on Logica demonstrativa which continued to grow in the period preceding the second edition \ref[see D. J. Struik, in Dictionary of scientific biography, Vol. 12, 55--57, Scribner's, New York, 1975]. Of special interest in this connection is a series of three articles by A. F. Emch [Scripta Math. 3 (1935), 51--60; Zbl 10, 386; ibid. 3 (1935), 143--152; Zbl 11, 193; ibid. 3 (1935), 221--333; Zbl 12, 98]. (2) It seems curious that modern writers believe that demonstration of the "nondeducibility" of the parallel postulate vindicates Euclid whereas at first Saccheri seems to have thought that demonstration of its "deducibility" is what would vindicate Euclid. Saccheri is perfectly clear in his commitment to the ancient (and now discredited) view that it is wrong to take as an "axiom" a proposition which is not a "primal verity", which is not "known through itself". So it would seem that Saccheri should think that he was convicting Euclid of error by deducing the parallel postulate. The resolution of this confusion is that Saccheri thought that he had proved, not merely that the parallel postulate was true, but that it was a "primal verity" and, thus, that Euclid was correct in taking it as an "axiom". As implausible as this claim about Saccheri may seem, the passage on p. 237, lines 3--15, seems to admit of no other interpretation. Indeed, Emch takes it this way. (3) As has been noted by many others, Saccheri was fascinated, if not obsessed, by what may be called "reflexive indirect deductions", indirect deductions which show that a conclusion follows from given premises by a chain of reasoning beginning with the given premises augmented by the denial of the desired conclusion and ending with the conclusion itself. It is obvious, of course, that this is simply a species of ordinary indirect deduction; a conclusion follows from given premises if a contradiction is deducible from those given premises augmented by the denial of the conclusion---and it is immaterial whether the contradiction involves one of the premises, the denial of the conclusion, or even, as often happens, intermediate propositions distinct from the given premises and the denial of the conclusion. Saccheri seemed to think that a proposition proved in this way was deduced from its own denial and, thus, that its denial was self-contradictory (p. 207). Inference from this mistake to the idea that propositions proved in this way are "primal verities" would involve yet another confusion. The reviewer gratefully acknowledges extensive communication with his former doctoral students J. Gasser and M. Scanlan. ADDED 14 March 14, 2015: (1) Wikipedia reports that many of Saccheri's ideas have a precedent in the 11th Century Persian polymath Omar Khayyám's Discussion of Difficulties in Euclid, a fact ignored in most Western sources until recently. It is unclear whether Saccheri had access to this work in translation, or developed his ideas independently. (2) This book is another exemplification of the huge difference between indirect deduction and indirect reduction. Indirect deduction requires making an assumption that is inconsistent with the premises previously adopted. This means that the reasoner must perform a certain mental act of assuming a certain proposition. It case the premises are all known truths, indirect deductionwhich would then be indirect proofrequires the reasoner to assume a falsehood. This fact has been noted by several prominent mathematicians including Hardy, Hilbert, and Tarski. Indirect reduction requires no new assumption. Indirect reduction is simply a transformation of an argument in one form into another argument in a different form. In an indirect reduction one proposition in the old premise set is replaced by the contradictory opposite of the old conclusion and the new conclusion becomes the contradictory opposite of the replaced premise. Roughly and schematically, P,Q/R becomes P,~R/~Q or ~R, Q/~P. Saccheris work involved indirect deduction not indirect reduction. (3) The distinction between indirect deduction and indirect reduction has largely slipped through the cracks, the cracks between medieval-oriented logic and modern-oriented logic. The medievalists have a heavy investment in reduction and, though they have heard of deduction, they think that deduction is a form of reduction, or vice versa, or in some cases they think that the worddeductionis the modern way of referring to reduction. The modernists have no interest in reduction, i.e. in the process of transforming one argument into another having exactly the same number of premises. Modern logicians, like Aristotle, are concerned with deducing a single proposition from a set of propositions. Some focus on deducing a single proposition from the null setsomething difficult to relate to reduction. (shrink)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36.  11
    Data Analysis, Analytics in Internet of Things and BigData.Mohammad Nezhad Hossein Shourkaei, Damghani Hamidreza, D. Leila & Hosseinian Heliasadat - 2019 - 4th International Conference on Combinatorics, Cryptography, Computer Science and Computation 4.
    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) is gradually being established as the new computing paradigm, which is bound to change the ways of our everyday working and living. IoT (...) emphasizes the interconnection of virtually all types of physical objects (e.g., cell phones, wearables, smart meters, sensors, coffee machines and more) towards enabling them to exchange data and services among themselves, while also interacting with humans as well. Few years following the introduction of the IoT concept, significant hype was generated as a result of the proliferating number of IoT-enabled devices, which (according to many projections) are expected to amount to several billion in the next years. During recent years, this hype has been turning to reality, as a wave of IoT applications with significant social and economic has been emerging. Data analytics is the process of deriving knowledge from data, generating value like actionable insights from them. This article reviews work in the IoT and big data analytics from the perspective of their utility in creating efficient, effective and innovative applications and services for a wide spectrum of domains. We review the broad vision for the IoT as it is shaped in various communities, examine the application of data analytics across IoT domains, provide a categorization of analytic approaches and propose a layered taxonomy from IoT data to analytics. IoT data analysis is an integral element of any non- trivial IoT system. Nevertheless, IoT analytics are still in their infancy, as IoT data still remain largely unexploited. (shrink)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37.  30
    Tolerance, Mıgratıon And Hybrıd Identities: Normative Reasoning Of Intercultural Dialogue In A Blurring Structure.Armando Aliu, Ilyas Öztürk, Dorian Aliu & Ömer Özkan - 2016 - International Journal of Political Studies 2 (3):10-22.
    The aim of this study is to proof the argumenti.e. ‘there are significant linkages amongst tolerance, hybrid identities and migration.’ These linkages can be comprehended (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38. Locke on Human Understanding: Selected Essays.I. C. Tipton (ed.) - 1977 - Oxford University Press.
    Wall, G. Locke's attack on innate knowledge.--Harris, J. Leibniz and Locke on innate ideas.--Greenlee, D. Locke's idea of idea.--Aspelin, G. Idea and perception in (...) Locke's essay.--Greenlee, D. Idea and object in the essay.--Mathews, H. E. Locke, Malebranche and the representative theory.--Alexander, P. Boyle and Locke on primary and secondary qualities.--Ayers, M. R. The ideas of power and substance in Locke's philosophy.--Allison, H. E. Locke's theory of personal identity.--Kretzmann, N. The main thesis of Locke's semantic theory.--Woozley, A. D. Some remarks on Locke's account of knowledge.--Laudan, L. The nature and sources of Locke's views on hypotheses. (shrink)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  39. The Philosophy of Socrates: A Collection of Critical Essays.Gregory Vlastos - 1980 - University of Notre Dame Press.
    Vlastos, G. Introduction: the paradox of Socrates.--Lacey, A. R. Our knowledge of Socrates.--Dover, K. J. Socrates in the Clouds.--Robinson, R. Elenchus.--Robinson, R. Elenchus, direct (...)and indirect.--Robinson, R. Socratic definition.--Nakhnikian, G. Elenctic definitions.--Cohen, S. M. Socrates on the definition of piety: Euthyphro 10A-11B.--Santas, G. Socrates at work on virtue and knowledge in Plato's Laches.--Burnyeat, M. F. Virtues in action.--Walsh, J. J. The Socratic denial of Akrasia.--Santas, G. Plato's Protagoras and explanations of weakness.--Woozley, A. D. Socrates on disobeying the law.--Allen, R. E. Plato's earlier theory of forms. (shrink)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  40. Desire-Based Reasons, Naturalism, and the Possibility of Vindication: Lessons From Moore and Parfit.Attila Tanyi - 2009 - Polish Journal of Philosophy 3 (2):87-107.
    The aim of the paper is to critically assess the idea that reasons for action are provided by desires. I start from the claim that the most (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  41. An Assumption of Extreme Significance: Moore, Ross and Spencer on Ethics and Evolution.Hallvard Lillehammer - 2016 - In Uri D. Leibowitz & Neil Sinclair (eds.), Explanation in Ethics and Mathematics: Debunking and Dispensability. Oxford University Press.
    In recent years there has been a growing interest among mainstream Anglophone moral philosophers in the empirical study of human morality, including its evolution and historical development. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42.  48
    Bir Eksik Demokrasi (One Less Democracy).İbrahim Akkın - 2020 - Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy 1:51-61.
    In this article, Deleuze & Guattari (D+G)’s conception of democracy will be approached with regard to arts envisagement ofbecoming-democraticas a mode of thinking (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43. Foucault'da Özne, İktidar ve Şiddet İlişkisi.Metehan Karakurt & Adem Çelik - 2020 - In Atıl Cem Çi̇çek & Cengiz Ergün (eds.), Ulusal Si̇yaset Bi̇li̇mi̇ Ve Kamu Yöneti̇mi̇ Kongresi̇ Bi̇ldi̇ri̇ Özetleri̇ Ki̇tabi. Kars, Kars Merkez/Kars, Türkiye: pp. 34.
    Michel Foucaultnun çalışmalarının merkezi noktalarından birisini, Batı kültüründe insanların, özneye dönüştürülmesinin tarihini ortaya çıkarmak oluşturmaktadır. Diğerini ise, özneye dönüştürme tekniklerine karşı verilen mücadeleler, çeşitli iktidar tekniklerinin (...)dayattığı bireysellik ve kimlikten kurtulmanın, özgürleşmenin imkânı oluşturmaktadır. İnsanları, öznelere dönüştüren süreçleri bir bütün olarak ele almak yerine, çeşitli nesneleştirme kipleri üzerinden incelemenin daha akıllıca bir yol olduğunu düşünen Foucault, çalışmalarında insanı özneye dönüştüren üç ayrı nesneleştirme kipine yoğunlaşır. Bunlar; kendilerine bilim statüsü kazandırmaya çalışan filoloji gibi araştırma kipleri, deli ile akıllı, hasta ile sağlıklı, suçlular ileiyi çocuklargibibölücü pratiklerolarak adlandırılan pratiklerde ortaya çıkan nesneleştirilme kipleri ve son olarak cinsellik gibi alanlarda bir insanın kendini özneye dönüştürme biçimindeki nesneleştirme kipleridir. İnsan, özneye dönüştürme süreçlerine girerken, iktidar ilişkilerine de dâhil olur. Çünkü bireyleri özne yapan iktidar teknikleridir. Özne sözcüğünün taşıdığı bütün anlamlar, boyun eğdiren ve tabi kılan bir iktidar biçimi telkin etmektedir. Bundan dolayı, özneye dönüşme süreçlerine karşı mücadeleler söz konusudur. Özne, iktidar ve şiddet arasındaki ilişkinin nasıl kurulduğuna dair düşünen Foucault, öznesi olarak tanıtıldığımız deneyimlerin kurulmasını gerçekleştiren bir iktidar alanı olduğunu, şiddetin de modern iktidarın kurumsal ağı içerisinde gelişen öznellik deneyimleri çerçevesinde her yere sirayet ettiğini belirtmektedir. İktidarın kurumsal düzeyde, düzenleyici ve denetleyici mekanizmalar sayesinde toplumsal ağın en yerlerine kadar sirayet etmesiyle birlikte şiddet, normlar, tüzükler ve prosedürler aracılığıyla belirli bir kapatma içinde gelişmektedir. Ancak, Foucault, şiddetin, iktidarın etkili bir aracı olduğunu kabul etse de, iktidarın esasını oluşturmadığını belirtmektedir. Bu çalışmada, Foucaultnun kuramsal çözümlemelerinden hareketle, özne, iktidar ve şiddet arasındaki ilişkiyi nasıl ele aldığı tartışılacak, onun düşünsel serüveni açısından önemli olan bu kavramların kendi tarih anlayışı bağlamında bir çözümlemesi yapılacaktır. Ayrıca, modern iktidar ilişkilerinin dayatmış olduğu öznellik deneyimlerine ve inceltilmiş şiddet araçlarına karşı verilecek direnişin imkânları sorgulanacaktır. -/- . (shrink)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44.  28
    Foucault'da Özne, İktidar ve Şiddet İlişkisi.Metehan Karakurt & Adem Çelik - 2020 - In Atıl Cem Çi̇çek & Ergün Cengiz (eds.), I. Ulusal Si̇yaset Bi̇li̇mi̇ Ve Kamu Yöneti̇mi̇ Kongresi̇ Bi̇ldi̇ri̇ Özetleri̇ Ki̇tabi. Kars, Kars Merkez/Kars, Türkiye:
    Michel Foucaultnun çalışmalarının merkezi noktalarından birisini, Batı kültüründe insanların, özneye dönüştürülmesinin tarihini ortaya çıkarmak oluşturmaktadır. Diğerini ise, özneye dönüştürme tekniklerine karşı verilen mücadeleler, çeşitli iktidar tekniklerinin (...)dayattığı bireysellik ve kimlikten kurtulmanın, özgürleşmenin imkânı oluşturmaktadır. İnsanları, öznelere dönüştüren süreçleri bir bütün olarak ele almak yerine, çeşitli nesneleştirme kipleri üzerinden incelemenin daha akıllıca bir yol olduğunu düşünen Foucault, çalışmalarında insanı özneye dönüştüren üç ayrı nesneleştirme kipine yoğunlaşır. Bunlar; kendilerine bilim statüsü kazandırmaya çalışan filoloji gibi araştırma kipleri, deli ile akıllı, hasta ile sağlıklı, suçlular ileiyi çocuklargibibölücü pratiklerolarak adlandırılan pratiklerde ortaya çıkan nesneleştirilme kipleri ve son olarak cinsellik gibi alanlarda bir insanın kendini özneye dönüştürme biçimindeki nesneleştirme kipleridir. İnsan, özneye dönüştürme süreçlerine girerken, iktidar ilişkilerine de dâhil olur. Çünkü bireyleri özne yapan iktidar teknikleridir. Özne sözcüğünün taşıdığı bütün anlamlar, boyun eğdiren ve tabi kılan bir iktidar biçimi telkin etmektedir. Bundan dolayı, özneye dönüşme süreçlerine karşı mücadeleler söz konusudur. Özne, iktidar ve şiddet arasındaki ilişkinin nasıl kurulduğuna dair düşünen Foucault, öznesi olarak tanıtıldığımız deneyimlerin kurulmasını gerçekleştiren bir iktidar alanı olduğunu, şiddetin de modern iktidarın kurumsal ağı içerisinde gelişen öznellik deneyimleri çerçevesinde her yere sirayet ettiğini belirtmektedir. İktidarın kurumsal düzeyde, düzenleyici ve denetleyici mekanizmalar sayesinde toplumsal ağın en yerlerine kadar sirayet etmesiyle birlikte şiddet, normlar, tüzükler ve prosedürler aracılığıyla belirli bir kapatma içinde gelişmektedir. Ancak, Foucault, şiddetin, iktidarın etkili bir aracı olduğunu kabul etse de, iktidarın esasını oluşturmadığını belirtmektedir. Bu çalışmada, Foucaultnun kuramsal çözümlemelerinden hareketle, özne, iktidar ve şiddet arasındaki ilişkiyi nasıl ele aldığı tartışılacak, onun düşünsel serüveni açısından önemli olan bu kavramların kendi tarih anlayışı bağlamında bir çözümlemesi yapılacaktır. Ayrıca, modern iktidar ilişkilerinin dayatmış olduğu öznellik deneyimlerine ve inceltilmiş şiddet araçlarına karşı verilecek direnişin imkânları sorgulanacaktır. (shrink)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45. Truth and Meaning.Robert C. Cummins - 2002 - In Joseph Keim-Campbell, Michael O'Rourke & David Shier (eds.), Meaning and Truth: Investigations in Philosophical Semantics. Seven Bridges Press. pp. 175-197.
    D O N A L D D AV I D S O NSMeaning and Truth,” re vo l u t i o n i zed (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  46.  23
    Теоремата на Мартин Льоб във философска интерпретация.Vasil Penchev - 2011 - Philosophical Alternatives 20 (4):142-152.
    А necessary and sllmcient condilion that а given proposition (о Ье provable in such а theory that allows (о Ье assigned to the proposition а Gödеl пunbег (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47. DIDEROT AND MATERIALIST THEORIES OF THE SELF.Charles T. Wolfe - 2015 - Journal of Society and Politics 9 (1).
    The concept of self has preeminently been asserted (in its many versions) as a core component of anti-reductionist, antinaturalistic philosophical positions, from Descartes to Husserl and (...)beyond, with the exception of some hybrid or intermediate positions which declare rather glibly that, since we are biological entities which fully belong to the natural world, and we are conscious of ourselves as 'selves', therefore the self belongs to the natural world (this is characteristic e.g. of embodied phenomenology and enactivism). Nevertheless, from Cudworth and Mores attacks on materialism all the way through twentieth-century argument against naturalism, the gulf between selfhood and the world of Nature appears unbridgeable. In contrast, my goal in this paper is to show that early modern materialism could yield a theory of the self according to which (1) the self belongs to the world of external relations (Spinoza), such that no one fact, including supposedly private facts, is only accessible to a single person; (2) the self can be reconstructed as a sense oforganic unitywhich could be a condition for biological individuality (a central text here is Diderots 1769 Rêve de DAlembert); yet this should not lead us to espouse a Romantic concept of organism as foundational or even ineffable subjectivity (a dimension present in Leibniz and made explicit in German idealism); (3) what we call 'self' might simply be a dynamic process of interpretive activity undertaken by the brain. This materialist theory of the self should not neglect the nature of experience, but it should also not have to take at face value the recurring invocations of a better, deeperfirst-person perspectiveorfirst-person science.”. (shrink)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  48. Del fuoco che non brucia: risposte, riflessioni, ringraziamenti.Achille C. Varzi - 2014 - In Elena Casetta & Valeria Giardino (eds.), Mettere a Fuoco Il Mondo. Conversazioni sulla Filosofia di Achille Varzi (Special Issue of Isonomia – Epistemologica). University of Urbino. pp. 111–153.
    An overview of the way I picture the amorphous world we live in, built around my comments and responses to nine festschrift essays by A. Borghini (on (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  49.  52
    The Universe of Science. The Architectonic Ideas of Science, Sciences and Their Parts in Kant.Michael Lewin - 2020 - Kantian Journal 39 (2):26-45.
    I argue that Kant has developed a broad systematic account of the architectonic functionality of pure reason that can be used and advanced in contemporary contexts. Reason, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  50.  62
    Folk Intuitions and the Conditional Ability to Do Otherwise.Thomas Nadelhoffer, Siyuan Yin & Rose Graves - 2020 - Philosophical Psychology 33 (7):968-996.
    In a series of pre-registered studies, we explored (a) the difference between peoples intuitions about indeterministic scenarios and their intuitions about deterministic scenarios, (b) the difference (...) between peoples intuitions about indeterministic scenarios and their intuitions about neurodeterministic scenarios (that is, scenarios where the determinism is described at the neurological level), (c) the difference between peoples intuitions about neutral scenarios (e.g., walking a dog in the park) and their intuitions about negatively valenced scenarios (e.g., murdering a stranger), and (d) the difference between peoples intuitions about free will and responsibility in response to first-person scenarios and third-person scenarios. We predicted that once we focused participantsattention on the two different abilities to do otherwise available to agents in indeterministic and deterministic scenarios, their intuitions would support natural incompatibilismthe view that laypersons judge that free will and moral responsibility are incompatible with determinism. This prediction was borne out by our findings. (shrink)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
1 — 50 / 1000