Results for 'Elementary canonical formulae'

752 found
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  1.  86
    Elementary Canonical Formulae: Extending Sahlqvist’s Theorem.Valentin Goranko & Dimiter Vakarelov - 2006 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 141 (1):180-217.
    We generalize and extend the class of Sahlqvist formulae in arbitrary polyadic modal languages, to the class of so called inductive formulae. To introduce them we use a representation of modal polyadic languages in a combinatorial style and thus, in particular, develop what we believe to be a better syntactic approach to elementary canonical formulae altogether. By generalizing the method of minimal valuations à la Sahlqvist–van Benthem and the topological approach of Sambin and Vaccaro we (...)
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  2.  64
    Elementary Canonical Formulae: A Survey on Syntactic, Algorithmic, and Modeltheoretic Aspects.W. Conradie, V. Goranko & D. Vakarelov - 2005 - In Renate Schmidt, Ian Pratt-Hartmann, Mark Reynolds & Heinrich Wansing (eds.), Advances in Modal Logic, Volume 5. Kings College London Publ.. pp. 17-51.
    In terms of validity in Kripke frames, a modal formula expresses a universal monadic second-order condition. Those modal formulae which are equivalent to first-order conditions are called elementary. Modal formulae which have a certain persistence property which implies their validity in all canonical frames of modal logics axiomatized with them, and therefore their completeness, are called canonical. This is a survey of a recent and ongoing study of the class of elementary and canonical (...)
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  3. Sahlqvist Formulas Unleashed in Polyadic Modal Languages.Valentin Goranko & Dimiter Vakarelov - 2002 - In Frank Wolter, Heinrich Wansing, Maarten de Rijke & Michael Zakharyaschev (eds.), Advances in Modal Logic, Volume 3. World Scientific. pp. 221-240.
    We propose a generalization of Sahlqvist formulae to polyadic modal languages by representing modal polyadic languages in a combinatorial style and thus, in particular, developing what we believe to be the right approach to Sahlqvist formulae at all. The class of polyadic Sahlqvist formulae PSF defined here expands essentially the so far known one. We prove first-order definability and canonicity for the class PSF.
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  4.  25
    Giving the Value of a Variable.Richard Lawrence - 2021 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 35 (2):135-150.
    What does it mean to ‘give’ the value of a variable in an algebraic context, and how does giving the value of a variable differ from merely describing it? I argue that to answer this question, we need to examine the role that giving the value of a variable plays in problem-solving practice. I argue that four different features are required for a statement to count as giving the value of a variable in the context of solving an elementary (...)
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  5.  74
    Algorithmic Correspondence and Completeness in Modal Logic. V. Recursive Extensions of SQEMA.Willem Conradie, Valentin Goranko & Dimitar Vakarelov - 2010 - Journal of Applied Logic 8 (4):319-333.
    The previously introduced algorithm \sqema\ computes first-order frame equivalents for modal formulae and also proves their canonicity. Here we extend \sqema\ with an additional rule based on a recursive version of Ackermann's lemma, which enables the algorithm to compute local frame equivalents of modal formulae in the extension of first-order logic with monadic least fixed-points \mffo. This computation operates by transforming input formulae into locally frame equivalent ones in the pure fragment of the hybrid mu-calculus. In particular, (...)
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  6.  52
    Algorithmic Correspondence and Completeness in Modal Logic. IV. Semantic Extensions of SQEMA.Willem Conradie & Valentin Goranko - 2008 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 18 (2-3):175-211.
    In a previous work we introduced the algorithm \SQEMA\ for computing first-order equivalents and proving canonicity of modal formulae, and thus established a very general correspondence and canonical completeness result. \SQEMA\ is based on transformation rules, the most important of which employs a modal version of a result by Ackermann that enables elimination of an existentially quantified predicate variable in a formula, provided a certain negative polarity condition on that variable is satisfied. In this paper we develop several (...)
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  7.  80
    A Critical Analysis of Immanuel Kant’s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals.Abraham Tsehay Jemberie - 2017 - International Journal of Research and Review 4 (3):54-75.
    Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), the German philosopher, is considered as the father of modern ethics and one of the great philosophers in the history of philosophy. He wanted to establish a firm foundation for moral philosophy. He contributed something new to modern ethics which was not attempted by earlier ethicists. He wanted to show by using reason that morality is based on a single supreme universal principle, which is binding to all rational beings. Precisely, Kant wanted to establish the first principle (...)
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  8. “The ‘Physiology of the Understanding’ and the ‘Mechanics of the Soul’: Reflections on Some Phantom Philosophical Projects”.Charles T. Wolfe - 2016 - Quaestio 16:3-25.
    In reflecting on the relation between early empiricist conceptions of the mind and more experimentally motivated materialist philosophies of mind in the mid-eighteenth century, I suggest that we take seriously the existence of what I shall call ‘phantom philosophical projects’. A canonical empiricist like Locke goes out of his way to state that their project to investigate and articulate the ‘logic of ideas’ is not a scientific project: “I shall not at present meddle with the Physical consideration of the (...)
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  9. The Basic Algebra of Game Equivalences.Valentin Goranko - 2003 - Studia Logica 75 (2):221-238.
    We give a complete axiomatization of the identities of the basic game algebra valid with respect to the abstract game board semantics. We also show that the additional conditions of termination and determinacy of game boards do not introduce new valid identities. En route we introduce a simple translation of game terms into plain modal logic and thus translate, while preserving validity both ways game identities into modal formulae. The completeness proof is based on reduction of game terms to (...)
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  10.  25
    On Rudimentarity, Primitive Recursivity and Representability.Saeed Salehi - 2020 - Reports on Mathematical Logic 55:73–85.
    It is quite well-known from Kurt G¨odel’s (1931) ground-breaking Incompleteness Theorem that rudimentary relations (i.e., those definable by bounded formulae) are primitive recursive, and that primitive recursive functions are representable in sufficiently strong arithmetical theories. It is also known, though perhaps not as well-known as the former one, that some primitive recursive relations are not rudimentary. We present a simple and elementary proof of this fact in the first part of the paper. In the second part, we review (...)
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  11. Fanfiction, Canon, and Possible Worlds.Sara L. Uckelman - manuscript
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  12. Morgan’s Canon, Meet Hume’s Dictum: Avoiding Anthropofabulation in Cross-Species Comparisons.Cameron Buckner - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (5):853-871.
    How should we determine the distribution of psychological traits—such as Theory of Mind, episodic memory, and metacognition—throughout the Animal kingdom? Researchers have long worried about the distorting effects of anthropomorphic bias on this comparative project. A purported corrective against this bias was offered as a cornerstone of comparative psychology by C. Lloyd Morgan in his famous “Canon”. Also dangerous, however, is a distinct bias that loads the deck against animal mentality: our tendency to tie the competence criteria for cognitive capacities (...)
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  13. Contradiction and Kant’s Formula of Universal Law.Pauline Kleingeld - 2017 - Kant-Studien 108 (1):89-115.
    Kant’s most prominent formulation of the Categorical Imperative, known as the Formula of Universal Law (FUL), is generally thought to demand that one act only on maxims that one can will as universal laws without this generating a contradiction. Kant's view is standardly summarized as requiring the 'universalizability' of one's maxims and described in terms of the distinction between 'contradictions in conception' and 'contradictions in the will'. Focusing on the underappreciated significance of the simultaneity condition included in the FUL, I (...)
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  14. What is an Elementary Particle?Erwin Schrödinger - 1950 - Annual Report of the Board of Regents of The Smithsonian Institution:183-196.
    Schrödinger discusses what an elementary particle is. This essay originally appeared in the journal Endeavour.
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  15. The Barcan Formula in Metaphysics.Ori Simchen - 2013 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 28 (3):375-392.
    The Barcan formula (BF) is commonly paraphrased as the schematic conditional that if it is possible that there be a phi then something or other is possibly a phi. It is validated by the most straightforward systems of quantified modal logic. It is also widely considered to pose a threat to the commonsensical metaphysical view that there are no non-actual (or ‘merely possible’) things. I show how BF can be cleared of such a charge by construing it as a bridge (...)
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  16.  53
    Todo canon, El canon.Alberto Moretti - 2010 - Análisis Filosófico 30 (1):35-59.
    En la consideración de numerosos asuntos y respecto de muy variadas exposiciones, el uso de expresiones como "filosófica" sugiere que debemos remitirnos a procederes, preguntas o exigencias especiales. Rabossi propone un modo de caracterizar el sentido con que usamos esas expresiones y, sobre esa base, concluye que la filosofía tal como se la practica desde hace doscientos años pretende ser una disciplina profesional pero no puede serlo debido a la índole de la preceptiva que la constituye. En este artículo se (...)
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  17. The Elementary Role of the So-Called Differences in the Atomism of Leucippus and Democritus.Gustavo Laet Gomes - 2019 - Prometheus 29:295-311.
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  18. The Search of “Canonical” Explanations for the Cerebral Cortex.Alessio Plebe - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (3):40.
    This paper addresses a fundamental line of research in neuroscience: the identification of a putative neural processing core of the cerebral cortex, often claimed to be “canonical”. This “canonical” core would be shared by the entire cortex, and would explain why it is so powerful and diversified in tasks and functions, yet so uniform in architecture. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the search for canonical explanations over the past 40 years, discussing the theoretical frameworks (...)
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  19.  53
    Arithmetical Algorithms for Elementary Patterns.Samuel A. Alexander - 2015 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 54 (1-2):113-132.
    Elementary patterns of resemblance notate ordinals up to the ordinal of Pi^1_1-CA_0. We provide ordinal multiplication and exponentiation algorithms using these notations.
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  20. Against Morgan's Canon.Simon Fitzpatrick - 2017 - In Kristin Andrews & Jacob Beck (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds. Routledge.
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  21. Dignity and Respect: How to Apply Kant's Formula of Humanity.Paul Formosa - 2014 - Philosophical Forum 45 (1):49-68.
    Kant’s Formula of Humanity (FH) is considered by many, Kant included, to be the most intuitively appealing formulation of the categorical imperative. FH tells us that to treat persons with dignity and respect we must always treat them as ends in themselves and never as mere means. One set of issues raised by FH revolves around how FH is to be justified or grounded and how it relates to the other formulations of the categorical imperative. This set of issues, though (...)
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  22. Building a Science of Animal Minds: Lloyd Morgan, Experimentation, and Morgan’s Canon.Grant Goodrich & Simon Fitzpatrick - 2017 - Journal of the History of Biology 50 (3):525-569.
    Conwy Lloyd Morgan (1852–1936) is widely regarded as the father of modern comparative psychology. Yet, Morgan initially had significant doubts about whether a genuine science of comparative psychology was even possible, only later becoming more optimistic about our ability to make reliable inferences about the mental capacities of non-human animals. There has been a fair amount of disagreement amongst scholars of Morgan’s work about the nature, timing, and causes of this shift in Morgan’s thinking. We argue that Morgan underwent two (...)
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  23.  26
    Formula Vs. Craft: The Root of America's Problem.Joel Fry - manuscript
    Formula thinking is a kind of thinking strictly by route in which the thinker never deviates from a set course. Craft thinking involves a rough approximation to a set course but allows for deviation. The arts involve craft thinking. Repairing a machine involves formula thinking. America has become almost completely dominated by formula thinking.
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  24. A Categorical Model of the Elementary Process Theory Incorporating Special Relativity.Marcoen J. T. F. Cabbolet - manuscript
    The purpose of this paper is to show that the Elementary Process Theory (EPT) agrees with the knowledge of the physical world obtained from the successful predictions of Special Relativity (SR). For that matter, a recently developed method is applied: a categorical model of the EPT that incorporates SR is fully specified. Ultimate constituents of the universe of the EPT are modeled as point-particles, gamma-rays, or time-like strings, all represented by integrable hyperreal functions on Minkowski space. This proves that (...)
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  25.  93
    An Elementary System of Axioms for Euclidean Geometry Based on Symmetry Principles.Boris Čulina - 2018 - Axiomathes 28 (2):155-180.
    In this article I develop an elementary system of axioms for Euclidean geometry. On one hand, the system is based on the symmetry principles which express our a priori ignorant approach to space: all places are the same to us, all directions are the same to us and all units of length we use to create geometric figures are the same to us. On the other hand, through the process of algebraic simplification, this system of axioms directly provides the (...)
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  26. Can Positive Duties Be Derived From Kant's Formula of Universal Law?Samuel Kahn - 2014 - Kantian Review 19 (1):93-108.
    According to the standard reading of Kant's formula of universal law (FUL), positive duties can be derived from FUL. In this article, I argue that the standard reading does not work. In the first section, I articulate FUL and what I mean by a positive duty. In the second section, I set out an intuitive version of the standard reading of FUL and argue that it does not work. In the third section, I set out a more rigorous version of (...)
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  27.  73
    The Formula of Justice: The OntoTopological Basis of Physica and Mathematica*.Vladimir Rogozhin - 2015 - FQXi Essay Contest 2015.
    Dialectica: Mathematica and Physica, Truth and Justice, Trick and Life. Mathematica as the Constructive Metaphysica and Ontology. Mathematica as the constructive existential method. Сonsciousness and Mathematica: Dialectica of "eidos" and "logos". Mathematica is the Total Dialectica. The basic maternal Structure - "La Structure mère". Mathematica and Physica: loss of existential certainty. Is effectiveness of Mathematica "unreasonable"? The ontological structure of space. Axiomatization of the ontological basis of knowledge: one axiom, one principle and one mathematical object. The main ideas and concepts (...)
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  28.  38
    An Elementary, Pre-Formal, Proof of FLT: Why is X^N+y^N=Z^N Solvable Only for N≪3?Bhupinder Singh Anand - manuscript
    Andrew Wiles' analytic proof of Fermat's Last Theorem FLT, which appeals to geometrical properties of real and complex numbers, leaves two questions unanswered: (i) What technique might Fermat have used that led him to, even if only briefly, believe he had `a truly marvellous demonstration' of FLT? (ii) Why is x^n+y^n=z^n solvable only for n<3? In this inter-disciplinary perspective, we offer insight into, and answers to, both queries; yielding a pre-formal proof of why FLT can be treated as a true (...)
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  29. Para ampliar el canon democrático.Gerard Delanty, Rainer Bauböck, Ivaylo Ditchev, António Sousa Ribeiro, Rada Ivekovic, Edouard Glissant, Charles Taylor, Leonardo Avritzer, Boaventura de Sousa Santos & Axel Honneth - forthcoming - Res Publica.
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  30.  16
    El canon de la filosofía moderna europea en las universidades argentinas (1780-1920). Genealogías, críticas y desafíos.Silvia Manzo - 2021 - Revista de Filosofía Práctica E Historia de Las Ideas 23:1-21.
    The historiographical narrative describing early modern European philosophy as the confrontation between rationalism and empiricism and its overcoming through the Kantian synthesis had a huge spread in Argentina. This article investigates the genesis of this traditional account in the universities of Córdoba, Buenos Aires and La Plata between 1780 and 1920. It offers an introduction concerning the formation of this narrative in Europe and a survey of the teaching of early modern philosophy in Argentina during that period. It concludes that, (...)
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  31. Canonical Maps.Jean-Pierre Marquis - 2018 - In Elaine Landry (ed.), Categories for the Working Philosophers. Oxford, UK: pp. 90-112.
    Categorical foundations and set-theoretical foundations are sometimes presented as alternative foundational schemes. So far, the literature has mostly focused on the weaknesses of the categorical foundations. We want here to concentrate on what we take to be one of its strengths: the explicit identification of so-called canonical maps and their role in mathematics. Canonical maps play a central role in contemporary mathematics and although some are easily defined by set-theoretical tools, they all appear systematically in a categorical framework. (...)
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  32. The Canon’s Cracks.Fidel Micó - manuscript
    Decision makers of the art world usually ignore the existence and evolution of this oversupply of artists that work without imaging the actual mechanism that governs the system of selection and exclusion as well as the nature of the matrix, and are occasionally encouraged to forget their national identity, history, and culture. Although repeating warning on the birth of an artificial canon seems to be useless, renewed efforts for recovering, at least, a rational system of work flow would be acknowledged (...)
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  33. Kant’s Derivation of the Formula of the Categorical Imperative: How to Get It Right.Jacqueline Mariña - 1998 - Kant-Studien 89 (2):167-178.
    This paper explores the charge by Bruce Aune and Allen Wood that a gap exists in Kant's derivation of the Categorical Imperative. I show that properly understood, no such gap exists, and that the deduction of the Categorical Imperative is successful as it stands.
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  34.  47
    Epistemology of Canonical Quantum Gravity - Loop Quantum Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    In the interpretation of canonical quantum gravity (CQG), gravity appears as a geometric pseudoforce, is reduced to spacetime geometry and becomes a simple effect of spacetime curvature. The scale at which quantum gravitational effects occur is determined by the different physical constants of fundamental physics: h, c and G, which characterize quantum, relativistic and gravitational phenomena. By combining these constants, we obtain the Planck constants at which the effects of quantum gravity must manifest. Loop quantum gravity attempts to unify (...)
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  35.  70
    Kant's Canon, Garve's Cicero, and the Stoic Doctrine of the Highest Good.Corey Dyck - forthcoming - In Stefano Bacin & Oliver Sensen (eds.), Kant's Moral Philosophy in Context. Cambridge:
    The concept of the highest good is an important but hardly uncontroversial piece of Kant’s moral philosophy. In the considerable literature on the topic, challenges are raised concerning its apparently heteronomous role in moral motivation, whether there is a distinct duty to promote it, and more broadly whether it is ultimately to be construed as a theological or merely secular ideal. Yet comparatively little attention has been paid to the context of a doctrine that had enjoyed a place of prominence (...)
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  36.  14
    In Defence of the Barcan Formula.Max Cresswell - 1991 - Logique Et Analyse 34 (135-136):271-282.
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  37. A Semantic Information Formula Compatible with Shannon and Popper's Theories.Chenguang Lu - manuscript
    Semantic Information conveyed by daily language has been researched for many years; yet, we still need a practical formula to measure information of a simple sentence or prediction, such as “There will be heavy rain tomorrow”. For practical purpose, this paper introduces a new formula, Semantic Information Formula (SIF), which is based on L. A. Zadeh’s fuzzy set theory and P. Z. Wang’s random set falling shadow theory. It carries forward C. E. Shannon and K. Popper’s thought. The fuzzy set’s (...)
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  38.  94
    Merely a New Formula? G.A. Tittel on Kant’s ‘Reform’ of Moral Science.Michael Walschots - 2020 - Studi Kantiani 33:49-64.
    In the first ever commentary on the Groundwork, one of Kant’s earliest critics, Gottlob August Tittel, argues that the categorical imperative is not a new principle of morality, but merely a new formula. This objection has been unjustly neglected in the secondary literature, despite the fact that Kant explicitly responds to it in a footnote in the second Critique. In this paper I seek to offer a thorough explanation of both Tittel’s ‘new formula’ objection and Kant’s response to it, as (...)
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  39.  99
    Interpretivism and "Canonical" Ascriptions.Henry Jackman - 2017 - Studia Philosophica Estonica 10 (2):28-37.
    This paper investigates the crucial notion of a "canonical ascription statement" in Bruno Mölder's /Mind Ascribed/, and argues that the reasons given for preferring the book's approach of canonicallity to a more common understanding of canonicallity in terms of the ascriptions we would "ideally" make are not only unpersuasive, but also leave the interpretivist position more open to skeptical worries than it should be. The paper further argues that the resources for a more compelling justification of Mölder's conception of (...)
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  40.  31
    Oversight in the Canon: The Animals Issue Rekindled.Juliette Helene Christie - 1996 - Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara
    I take issue with an argument to the effect that because contractualism proves--both practically and theoretically--the philosophically superior moral theory, we have the result that nonhuman animals can have no, nor ought be extended any, moral standing. The combined argument belongs to Peter Carruthers, and appears in his The Animals Issue. My response involves demonstration that on careful analysis contractualism fares even less well than the two theories against which Carruthers compares it--rights and utilitarian. Furthermore, I offer a sketch of (...)
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  41. The Normativity of Kant's Formula of the Law of Nature.Emilian Mihailov - 2013 - Romanian Journal of Analytic Philosophy (2):57-81.
    Many Kantian scholars have debated what normative guidance the formula of the law of nature provides. There are three ways of understanding the role of FLN in Kant’s ethics. The first line of interpretation claims that FLN and FLU are logically equivalent. The second line claims that there are only subjective differences, meaning that FLN is easier to apply than the abstrct method of FUL. The third line of interpretation claims that there are objective differences between FLN and FUL in (...)
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  42. Physics Without Formulae.Rowan Grigg - unknown
    A scheme to help merge the ideas of quantum gravity.
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  43. Enforcing the Canon Law: Normative Pluralism and Clerical Abuse in the Catholic Church.Vivencio O. Ballano - 2016 - Mabini Review 5:28-43.
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  44. Hegel and the Modern Canon.Kevin J. Harrelson - 2012 - The Owl of Minerva 44 (1/2):1-35.
    Abstract: This essay traces the relationship between Hegel and some common portrayals of modern philosophy in the nineteenth century. I explain much of the rationale behind the neo-Kantian narrative of modern philosophy, and argue that the common division of modern philosophers into rationalists and empiricists executed a principally anti-Hegelian agenda. I then trace some failed attempts by anglophone philosophers to reconcile Hegel with the neo-Kantian history, in the interest of explaining Hegel’s subsequent unpopularity in England and America. Finally, I argue (...)
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  45.  35
    Reloading the Canon.Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - The Philosopher’s Magazine.
    I describe two prejudices that can obstruct efforts to diversify philosophical curricula that I call neophilia and xenophilia. Individually and collectively they feed a sort of metaphilosophical myopia: a narrow vision that fails or refuses to see the richness and value of the philosophical enterprise in its many forms as manifested in different times and cultures. The discussion focuses on neophilia and xenophilia among undergraduate students.
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  46.  91
    Means, Ends, and Persons: The Meaning and Psychological Dimensions of Kant's Humanity Formula, by Robert Audi: New York: Oxford University Press, 2016, Pp. Xvi + 171, £29.99. [REVIEW]Paul Formosa - 2017 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 95 (2):412-412.
    Book review of 'Means, Ends, and Persons: The Meaning and Psychological Dimensions of Kant's Humanity Formula, by Robert Audi, OUP'.
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  47. Defending the Traditional Interpretations of Kant’s Formula of a Law of Nature.Samuel J. M. Kahn - 2019 - Theoria 66 (158):76-102.
    In this paper I defend the traditional interpretations of Kant’s Formula of a Law of Nature from recent attacks leveled by Faviola Rivera-Castro, James Furner, Ido Geiger, Pauline Kleingeld and Sven Nyholm. After a short introduction, the paper is divided into four main sections. In the first, I set out the basics of the three traditional interpretations, the Logical Contradiction Interpretation, the Practical Contradiction Interpretation and the Teleological Contradiction Interpretation. In the second, I examine the work of Geiger, Kleingeld and (...)
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  48. A Contradiction of the Right Kind: Convenience Killing and Kant’s Formula of Universal Law.Pauline Kleingeld - 2019 - Philosophical Quarterly 69 (274):64-81.
    One of the most important difficulties facing Kant’s Formula of Universal Law (FUL) is its apparent inability to show that it is always impermissible to kill others for the sake of convenience. This difficulty has led current Kantian ethicists to de-emphasize the FUL or at least complement it with other Kantian principles when dealing with murder. The difficulty stems from the fact that the maxim of convenience killing fails to generate a ‘contradiction in conception’, producing only a ‘contradiction in the (...)
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  49.  45
    CATEGORY OF ‘HAPPINESS’: ETYMOLOGY, ‘OBJECTIVE’ INDICATORS, ELEMENTS, AND FORMULA FOR HAPPINESS.Galina Ivanovna Kolesnikova - unknown
    The article reviews the category of ‘happiness’ along three lines: etymological discourse, ‘objective’ indicators and elements of happiness as a social/cultural phenomenon, as well as the author's proposed formula for happiness. The relevance of this study is determined by the fact that human resource is the main resource of the State, and the future of the country depends on the well-being of each individual. As a result of the etymological discourse, the following conclusions have been drawn: 1, the category of (...)
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  50. A Methodological Note on Proving Agreement Between the Elementary Process Theory and Modern Interaction Theories.Cabbolet Marcoen - manuscript
    The Elementary Process Theory (EPT) is a collection of seven elementary process-physical principles that describe the individual processes by which interactions have to take place for repulsive gravity to exist. One of the two main problems of the EPT is that there is no proof that the four fundamental interactions (gravitational, electromagnetic, strong, and weak) as we know them can take place in the elementary processes described by the EPT. This paper sets forth the method by which (...)
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