Results for 'Harold Langsam'

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Harold Langsam
University of Virginia
  1. The Wonder of Consciousness: Understanding the Mind through Philosophical Reflection. By Harold Langsam. (The MIT Press, 2011. Pp. x + 234, Price £24.95 cloth.). [REVIEW]Joe Morrison - 2013 - Philosophical Quarterly 63 (250):195-197.
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  2. The Phenomenal Powers View and the Meta-Problem of Consciousness.Hedda Hassel Mørch - 2020 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 27 (5-6):131-142.
    The meta-problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining why we have the intuition that there is a hard problem of consciousness. David Chalmers briefly notes that my phenomenal powers view may be able to answer to this challenge in a way that avoids problems (having to do with avoiding coincidence) facing other realist views. In this response, I will briefly outline the phenomenal powers view and my main arguments for it and—drawing in part on a similar view developed by (...)
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  3. Review of Langsam The Wonder of Consciousness. [REVIEW]Adam Pautz - 2014 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 3.
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  4. Classifying Psychopathology: Mental Kinds and Natural Kinds.Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan - 2014 - In Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (eds.), Classifying Psychopathology: Mental Kinds and Natural Kinds. MIT Press. pp. 1-10.
    In this volume, leading philosophers of psychiatry examine psychiatric classification systems, including the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, asking whether current systems are sufficient for effective diagnosis, treatment, and research. Doing so, they take up the question of whether mental disorders are natural kinds, grounded in something in the outside world. Psychiatric categories based on natural kinds should group phenomena in such a way that they are subject to the same type of causal explanations and respond similarly to (...)
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  5. Logicism and the ontological commitments of arithmetic.Harold T. Hodes - 1984 - Journal of Philosophy 81 (3):123-149.
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  6. Do Colours Look Like Dispositions? Reply to Langsam and Others.Alex Byrne - 2001 - Philosophical Quarterly 51 (203):238-245.
    Dispositional theories of colour have been attacked by McGinn and others on the ground that ‘Colours do not look like dispositions’. Langsam has argued that on the contrary they do, in ‘Why Colours Do Look Like Dispositions’, The Philosophical Quarterly, 50 , pp. 68–75. I make three claims. First, neither side has made its case. Secondly, it is true, at least on one interpretation, that colours do not look like dispositions. Thirdly, this does not show that dispositionalism about colours (...)
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  7. Why Ramify?Harold T. Hodes - 2015 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 56 (2):379-415.
    This paper considers two reasons that might support Russell’s choice of a ramified-type theory over a simple-type theory. The first reason is the existence of purported paradoxes that can be formulated in any simple-type language, including an argument that Russell considered in 1903. These arguments depend on certain converse-compositional principles. When we take account of Russell’s doctrine that a propositional function is not a constituent of its values, these principles turn out to be too implausible to make these arguments troubling. (...)
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  8. Axioms for actuality.Harold T. Hodes - 1984 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 13 (1):27 - 34.
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  9. Some theorems on the expressive limitations of modal languages.Harold T. Hodes - 1984 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 13 (1):13 - 26.
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  10. On modal logics which enrich first-order S5.Harold T. Hodes - 1984 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 13 (4):423 - 454.
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  11. On The Sense and Reference of A Logical Constant.Harold Hodes - 2004 - Philosophical Quarterly 54 (214):134-165.
    Logicism is, roughly speaking, the doctrine that mathematics is fancy logic. So getting clear about the nature of logic is a necessary step in an assessment of logicism. Logic is the study of logical concepts, how they are expressed in languages, their semantic values, and the relationships between these things and the rest of our concepts, linguistic expressions, and their semantic values. A logical concept is what can be expressed by a logical constant in a language. So the question “What (...)
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  12. One-step Modal Logics, Intuitionistic and Classical, Part 1.Harold T. Hodes - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 50 (5):837-872.
    This paper and its sequel “look under the hood” of the usual sorts of proof-theoretic systems for certain well-known intuitionistic and classical propositional modal logics. Section 1 is preliminary. Of most importance: a marked formula will be the result of prefixing a formula in a propositional modal language with a step-marker, for this paper either 0 or 1. Think of 1 as indicating the taking of “one step away from 0.” Deductions will be constructed using marked formulas. Section 2 presents (...)
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  13. The composition of Fregean thoughts.Harold T. Hodes - 1982 - Philosophical Studies 41 (2):161 - 178.
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  14. Ontological Commitments, Thick and Thin.Harold T. Hodes - 1990 - In George Boolos (ed.), Method, Reason and Language: Essays in Honor of Hilary Putnam. Cambridge University Press. pp. 235-260.
    Discourse carries thin commitment to objects of a certain sort iff it says or implies that there are such objects. It carries a thick commitment to such objects iff an account of what determines truth-values for its sentences say or implies that there are such objects. This paper presents two model-theoretic semantics for mathematical discourse, one reflecting thick commitment to mathematical objects, the other reflecting only a thin commitment to them. According to the latter view, for example, the semantic role (...)
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  15. Where do sets come from?Harold T. Hodes - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (1):150-175.
    A model-theoretic approach to the semantics of set-theoretic discourse.
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  16.  26
    Cut-conditions on sets of multiple-alternative inferences.Harold T. Hodes - 2022 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 68 (1):95 - 106.
    I prove that the Boolean Prime Ideal Theorem is equivalent, under some weak set-theoretic assumptions, to what I will call the Cut-for-Formulas to Cut-for-Sets Theorem: for a set F and a binary relation |- on Power(F), if |- is finitary, monotonic, and satisfies cut for formulas, then it also satisfies cut for sets. I deduce the CF/CS Theorem from the Ultrafilter Theorem twice; each proof uses a different order-theoretic variant of the Tukey- Teichmüller Lemma. I then discuss relationships between various (...)
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  17. In Defence of the Letter of Fictionalism.Harold Noonan - 1994 - Analysis 54 (3):133-139.
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  18.  31
    Three Value Logics: An Introduction, A Comparison of Various Logical Lexica and Some Philosophical Remarks.Harold Hodes - 1989 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 43 (2):99-145.
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  19. Medical Models of Addiction.Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan - 2010 - In Kincaid Ross (ed.), What is Addiction?
    Biomedical science has been remarkably successful in explaining illness by categorizing diseases and then by identifying localizable lesions such as a virus and neoplasm in the body that cause those diseases. Not surprisingly, researchers have aspired to apply this powerful paradigm to addiction. So, for example, in a review of the neuroscience of addiction literature, Hyman and Malenka (2001, p. 695) acknowledge a general consensus among addiction researchers that “[a]ddiction can appropriately be considered as a chronic medical illness.” Like other (...)
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  20. Jumping through the transfinite: The master code hierarchy of Turing degrees.Harold T. Hodes - 1980 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 45 (2):204-220.
    Where $\underline{a}$ is a Turing degree and ξ is an ordinal $ , the result of performing ξ jumps on $\underline{a},\underline{a}^{(\xi)}$ , is defined set-theoretically, using Jensen's fine-structure results. This operation appears to be the natural extension through $(\aleph_1)^{L^\underline{a}}$ of the ordinary jump operations. We describe this operation in more degree-theoretic terms, examine how much of it could be defined in degree-theoretic terms and compare it to the single jump operation.
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  21. Immoralism and the Valence Constraint.James Harold - 2008 - British Journal of Aesthetics 48 (1):45-64.
    Immoralists hold that in at least some cases, moral fl aws in artworks can increase their aesthetic value. They deny what I call the valence constraint: the view that any effect that an artwork’s moral value has on its aesthetic merit must have the same valence. The immoralist offers three arguments against the valence constraint. In this paper I argue that these arguments fail, and that this failure reveals something deep and interesting about the relationship between cognitive and moral value. (...)
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  22. Autonomism Reconsidered.James Harold - 2011 - British Journal of Aesthetics 51 (2):137-147.
    This paper has three aims: to define autonomism clearly and charitably, to offer a positive argument in its favour, and to defend a larger view about what is at stake in the debate between autonomism and its critics. Autonomism is here understood as the claim that a valuer does not make an error in failing to bring her moral and aesthetic judgements together, unless she herself values doing so. The paper goes on to argue that reason does not require the (...)
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  23.  94
    In Support of Theory of Appearing: Defending Langsam against Djukic’s Critique.Ali Far - 2015 - GSTF Journal of General Philosophy 1 (2).
    The purpose of this paper is to defend Langsam’s Theory of Appearing (TA) against Djukic et al’s critique. In strengthening Langsam’s defense of TA, I adopt some of Le Morvan's arguments in defending Direct Realism. TA states that experiences are relations between material object and mind, and that phenomenal features are appearances of relations held between material objects and mind. Djukic objects to TA on three grounds of Hallucination, Causal Principle (CP), and Time-Gap: First, Djukic objects to TA (...)
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  24.  95
    Uniform Upper Bounds on Ideals of Turing Degrees.Harold T. Hodes - 1978 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 43 (3):601-612.
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  25.  91
    Individual-actualism and three-valued modal logics, part 1: Model-theoretic semantics.Harold T. Hodes - 1986 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 15 (4):369 - 401.
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  26.  79
    One-Step Modal Logics, Intuitionistic and Classical, Part 2.Harold T. Hodes - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 50 (5):873-910.
    Part 1 [Hodes, 2021] “looked under the hood” of the familiar versions of the classical propositional modal logic K and its intuitionistic counterpart. This paper continues that project, addressing some familiar classical strengthenings of K and GL), and their intuitionistic counterparts. Section 9 associates two intuitionistic one-step proof-theoretic systems to each of the just mentioned intuitionistic logics, this by adding for each a new rule to those which generated IK in Part 1. For the systems associated with the intuitionistic counterparts (...)
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  27.  76
    Cardinality logics, part I: inclusions between languages based on ‘exactly’.Harold Hodes - 1988 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 39 (3):199-238.
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  28.  11
    An Exact Pair for the Arithmetic Degrees Whose Join is Not a Weak Uniform Upper Bound.Harold T. Hodes - 1982 - Recursive Function Theory-Newsletters 28.
    Proof uses forcing on perfect trees for 2-quantifier sentences in the language of arithmetic. The result extends to exact pairs for the hyperarithmetic degrees.
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  29. More about uniform upper Bounds on ideals of Turing degrees.Harold T. Hodes - 1983 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 48 (2):441-457.
    Let I be a countable jump ideal in $\mathscr{D} = \langle \text{The Turing degrees}, \leq\rangle$ . The central theorem of this paper is: a is a uniform upper bound on I iff a computes the join of an I-exact pair whose double jump a (1) computes. We may replace "the join of an I-exact pair" in the above theorem by "a weak uniform upper bound on I". We also answer two minimality questions: the class of uniform upper bounds on I (...)
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  30.  80
    Individual-actualism and three-valued modal logics, part 2: Natural-deduction formalizations.Harold T. Hodes - 1987 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 16 (1):17 - 63.
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  31. Corrections to "where do sets come from?".Harold T. Hodes - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (4):1486.
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  32.  66
    The Modal Theory Of Pure Identity And Some Related Decision Problems.Harold Hodes - 1984 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 30 (26-29):415-423.
    Relative to any reasonable frame, satisfiability of modal quantificational formulae in which “= ” is the sole predicate is undecidable; but if we restrict attention to satisfiability in structures with the expanding domain property, satisfiability relative to the familiar frames (K, K4, T, S4, B, S5) is decidable. Furthermore, relative to any reasonable frame, satisfiability for modal quantificational formulae with a single monadic predicate is undecidable ; this improves the result of Kripke concerning formulae with two monadic predicates.
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  33. The Ethics of Non-Realist Fiction: Morality’s Catch-22.James Harold - 2007 - Philosophia 35 (2):145-159.
    The topic of this essay is how non-realistic novels challenge our philosophical understanding of the moral significance of literature. I consider just one case: Joseph Heller’s Catch-22. I argue that standard philosophical views, based as they are on realistic models of literature, fail to capture the moral significance of this work. I show that Catch-22 succeeds morally because of the ways it resists using standard realistic techniques, and suggest that philosophical discussion of ethics and literature must be pluralistic if it (...)
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  34.  76
    Well-behaved modal logics.Harold T. Hodes - 1984 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 49 (4):1393-1402.
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  35.  45
    Finite level borel games and a problem concerning the jump hierarchy.Harold T. Hodes - 1984 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 49 (4):1301-1318.
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  36. On the Ancient Idea that Music Shapes Character.James Harold - 2016 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 15 (3):341-354.
    Ancient Chinese and Greek thinkers alike were preoccupied with the moral value of music; they distinguished between good and bad music by looking at the music’s effect on moral character. The idea can be understood in terms of two closely related questions. Does music have the power to affect the ethical character of either listener or performer? If it does, is it better as music for doing so? I argue that an affirmative answers to both questions are more plausible than (...)
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  37.  88
    Upper bounds on locally countable admissible initial segments of a Turing degree hierarchy.Harold T. Hodes - 1981 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 46 (4):753-760.
    Where AR is the set of arithmetic Turing degrees, 0 (ω ) is the least member of { $\mathbf{\alpha}^{(2)}|\mathbf{a}$ is an upper bound on AR}. This situation is quite different if we examine HYP, the set of hyperarithmetic degrees. We shall prove (Corollary 1) that there is an a, an upper bound on HYP, whose hyperjump is the degree of Kleene's O. This paper generalizes this example, using an iteration of the jump operation into the transfinite which is based on (...)
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  38.  67
    Cardinality logics. Part II: Definability in languages based on `exactly'.Harold Hodes - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (3):765-784.
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  39. Literary Cognitivism.James Harold - 2015 - In Noel Carroll & John Gibson (eds.), Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Literature. Routledge.
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  40. The Value of Fidelity in Adaptation.James Harold - 2018 - British Journal of Aesthetics 58 (1):89-100.
    © British Society of Aesthetics 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society of Aesthetics. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: [email protected] adaptation of literary works into films has been almost completely neglected as a philosophical topic. I discuss two questions about this phenomenon:What do we mean when we say that a film is faithful to its source?Is being faithful to its source a merit in a film adaptation?In response to, I set out two distinct (...)
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  41. Flexing the imagination.James Harold - 2003 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 61 (3):247–258.
    I explore the claim that “fictive imagining” – imagining what it is like to be a character – can be morally dangerous. In particular, I consider the controversy over William Styron’s imagining the revolutionary protagonist in his Confessions of Nat Turner. I employ Ted Cohen’s model of fictive imagining to argue, following a generally Kantian line of thought, that fictive imagining can be dangerous if one has the wrong motives. After considering several possible motives, I argue that only internally directed (...)
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  42. Modal realism, still at your convenience.Harold Noonan & Mark Jago - 2017 - Analysis 77 (2):299-303.
    Divers presents a set of de re modal truths which, he claims, are inconvenient for Lewisean modal realism. We argue that there is no inconvenience for Lewis.
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  43. Reflections on Putnam, Wright and brains in vats.Harold W. Noonan - 1998 - Analysis 58 (1):59-62.
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  44. Cognitivism, non-cognitivism, and skepticism about folk psychology.James Harold - 2012 - Philosophical Psychology 25 (2):165 - 185.
    In recent years it has become more and more difficult to distinguish between metaethical cognitivism and non-cognitivism. For example, proponents of the minimalist theory of truth hold that moral claims need not express beliefs in order to be (minimally) truth-apt, and yet some of these proponents still reject the traditional cognitivist analysis of moral language and thought. Thus, the dispute in metaethics between cognitivists and non-cognitivists has come to be seen as a dispute over the correct way to characterize our (...)
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  45. Coin perception studies and the concept of schemata.Harold G. McCurdy - 1956 - Psychological Review 63 (3):160-168.
    The proposition that perception is in- fluenced by object value and perceiver need has enjoyed an exciting career since it was given prominence by Bruner and Goodman in an oral and, later, a printed report (3) of dramatic differ- ences between rich and poor children in their judgments of coin sizes. Whether that study or subsequent ones can be said to have upheld the proposition may be questionable; but the effect on psy- chologists is beyond doubt. They were refreshed and (...)
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  46. Brill’s Companion to the Reception of Plato in Antiquity.Harold Tarrant, Danielle A. Layne, Dirk Baltzly & François Renaud (eds.) - 2017 - Leiden: Brill.
    31 chapters covering the Old Academy to Late Antiquity. See attached TOC.
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  47. Can Expressivists Tell the Difference Between Beauty and Moral Goodness?James Harold - 2008 - American Philosophical Quarterly 45 (3):289-300.
    One important but infrequently discussed difficulty with expressivism is the attitude type individuation problem.1 Expressivist theories purport to provide a unified account of normative states. Judgments of moral goodness, beauty, humor, prudence, and the like, are all explicated in the same way: as expressions of attitudes, what Allan Gibbard calls “states of norm-acceptance”. However, expressivism also needs to explain the difference between these different sorts of attitude. It is possible to judge that a thing is both aesthetically good and morally (...)
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  48. How To Do Things With Signs: Semiotics in Legal Theory, Practice, and Education.Harold Anthony Lloyd - forthcoming - University of Richmond Law Review.
    Note: This draft was updated on November 10, 2020. Discussing federal statutes, Justice Scalia tells us that “[t]he stark reality is that the only thing that one can say for sure was agreed to by both houses and the president (on signing the bill) is the text of the statute. The rest is legal fiction." How should we take this claim? If we take "text" to mean the printed text, that text without more is just a series of marks. If (...)
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  49. Theory without practice is empty; Practice without theory is blind: The inherent inseparability of doctrine and skills.Harold Anthony Lloyd - 2017 - In Linda H. Edwards (ed.), The Doctrine Skills Divide: Legal Education's Self-Inflicted Wound. Durham, NC, USA: pp. 77-90.
    This article maintains that the so-called theory-practice divide in legal education is not only factually false but semantically impossible. -/- As to the divide's falsity, practitioners have of course performed excellent scholarship and academics have excelled in practice. As to the divide's semantic impossibility, this article examines, among other things: -/- (1) the essential role of experience in meaning, -/- (2) the resulting inseparability of theory and practice in the world of experience, -/- (3) problems the divide shares in common (...)
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  50. Here is Harold Pinter.Subhasis Chattopadhyay - 2005 - THE BULLETIN OF THE RAMAKRISHNA MISSION INSTITUTE OF CULTURE (December):561-66.
    This essay interrogates the philosophy of Pinter through analyses of his language, religious understanding of life and through passing references to Buddhism.
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