Results for 'Human capabilities'

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  1. The Effect of Developing Human Capabilities on the Company's Performance through Developing the Company's Capabilities.Nasareldeen Hamed Ahmed Alnor - 2023 - WSEAS Transactions on Business and Economics 21:95-108.
    By studying the effect of human resource development on strengthening the firm's total capabilities this literature review investigates the relationship between the development of human capabilities and company performance by studying the effects of human resource development on strengthening a firm’s total capabilities. To provide a thorough grasp of the subject, the review synthesizes and analyzes pertinent research articles, academic papers, and industry reports. SPSS version 22 statistical software was used for social sciences. Descriptive (...)
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  2. What We Have Reason to Value: Human Capabilities and Public Reason.Nancy S. Jecker - 2021 - In Hon-Lam Li & Michael Campbell (eds.), Public Reason and Bioethics: Three Perspectives. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 337-357.
    This chapter sets forth an interpretation of public reason that appeals to our central capabilities as human beings. I argue that appealing to central human capabilities and to the related idea of respect for threshold capabilities is the best way to understand public reason. My defense of this position advances stepwise: first, I consider a central alternative to a capability account, which regards public reason as a matter of contracting; next, I describe central concerns with (...)
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  3. Augmented Intelligence - The New AI - Unleashing Human Capabilities in Knowledge Work.James M. Corrigan - 2012 - 2012 34Th International Conference on Software Engineering (Icse 2012).
    In this paper I describe a novel application of contemplative techniques to software engineering with the goal of augmenting the intellectual capabilities of knowledge workers within the field in four areas: flexibility, attention, creativity, and trust. The augmentation of software engineers’ intellectual capabilities is proposed as a third complement to the traditional focus of methodologies on the process and environmental factors of the software development endeavor. I argue that these capabilities have been shown to be open to (...)
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  4. Capable but Amoral? Comparing AI and Human Expert Collaboration in Ethical Decision Making.Suzanne Tolmeijer, Markus Christen, Serhiy Kandul, Markus Kneer & Abraham Bernstein - 2022 - Proceedings of the 2022 Chi Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 160:160:1–17.
    While artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly applied for decision-making processes, ethical decisions pose challenges for AI applications. Given that humans cannot always agree on the right thing to do, how would ethical decision-making by AI systems be perceived and how would responsibility be ascribed in human-AI collaboration? In this study, we investigate how the expert type (human vs. AI) and level of expert autonomy (adviser vs. decider) influence trust, perceived responsibility, and reliance. We find that participants consider humans (...)
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  5. Respecting Human Dignity: Contract versus Capabilities.Cynthia A. Stark - 2009 - Metaphilosophy 40 (3-4):366-381.
    There appears to be a tension between two commitments in liberalism. The first is that citizens, as rational agents possessing dignity, are owed a justification for principles of justice. The second is that members of society who do not meet the requirements of rational agency are owed justice. These notions conflict because the first commitment is often expressed through the device of the social contract, which seems to confine the scope of justice to rational agents. So, contractarianism seems to ignore (...)
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  6. A Sketch of a Humane Education: A Capability Approach Perspective.Kevin Ross Nera - 2015 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 2 (3):311–321.
    Poverty, understood as basic capability deprivation, can only be solved through a process of expanding the freedoms that people value and have reason to value. This process can only begin if the capability to imagine and aspire for an altenative lifestyle worthy of human dignity is cultivated by an education program that develops both the capability to reason and to value. These two facets play a major role in the creative exercise of human agency. This program of humane (...)
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  7. Capabilities as Fundamental Entitlements: Sen and Social Justice.Martha Nussbaum - 2003 - Feminist Economics 9 (2-3):33-59.
    Amartya Sen has made a major contribution to the theory of social justice, and of gender justice, by arguing that capabilities are the relevant space of comparison when justice-related issues are considered. This article supports Sen's idea, arguing that capabilities supply guidance superior to that of utility and resources (the view's familiar opponents), but also to that of the social contract tradition, and at least some accounts of human rights. But I argue that capabilities can help (...)
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  8. From Commodity to Capability Fetishism: Human Development as a Harmonisation of Social and Territorial Cartographies.Kizito Michael George - 2021 - Journal of Research in Philosophy and History 4 (3):1-16.
    The development discourse has been thrown into a disarray and paradigmatic quagmire by the impasse of neo-liberal transnational social cartographies. There are calls within the development discourse fraternity to deterritorise the concept of development so as to grapple with it sufficiently and effectively. Failure to adhere to this call, various development discourses have been accused of methodological territorialism. This paper uses critical hermeneutics to argue that the trajectory from Trickle Down and Basic Needs Theory to Human Rights, Capability and (...)
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  9. Reducing social inequality: the capabilities on the maintenance of human security / Reduzindo as desigualdades sociais: as capacidades na manutenção da segurança humana.Rodrigo Cid - 2010 - Páginas de Filosofía 2 (2):107-137.
    This text is the result of academic research aimed at achieve the goal of finding viable ways to reduce social inequalities in the Brazilian context through the education. Our main focus was the pursuit of reducing violence through education and the ways in which education can promote development and security human in general. In order to achieve this goal with clarity and consistency, I address theoretical and practical issues. The part theory clarifies the essential concepts and establishes the background (...)
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  10. Animal capabilities and freedom in the city.Nicolas Delon - 2021 - Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 22 (1):131-153.
    Animals who live in cities must coexist with us. They are, as a result, entitled to the conditions of their flourishing. This article argues that, as the boundaries of cities and urban areas expand, the boundaries of our conception of captivity should expand too. Urbanization can undermine animals’ freedoms, hence their ability to live good lives. I draw the implications of an account of “pervasive captivity” against the background of the Capabilities Approach. I construe captivity, including that of urban (...)
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  11. Human Rights, Human Dignity, and Power.Pablo Gilabert - 2015 - In Rowan Cruft, Matthew Liao & Massimo Renzo (eds.), Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Oxford University Press. pp. 196-213.
    This paper explores the connections between human rights, human dignity, and power. The idea of human dignity is omnipresent in human rights discourse, but its meaning and point is not always clear. It is standardly used in two ways, to refer to a normative status of persons that makes their treatment in terms of human rights a proper response, and a social condition of persons in which their human rights are fulfilled. This paper pursues (...)
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  12. Mental Capabilities.Eric Merrell, David Limbaugh, Alex Anderson & Barry Smith - 2019 - In David Kasmier, David Limbaugh & Barry Smith (eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO), University at Buffalo, NY.
    We propose capability as a universal or type intermediate between function and disposition. A capability is, broadly speaking, a disposition that is of a type whose instances can be evaluated on the basis of how well they are realized. A function, on the view we are proposing, is a capability the possession of which is the rationale for the existence of its bearer. To say for example that a water pump has the function to pump water is to say that (...)
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  13. Networks of Gene Regulation, Neural Development and the Evolution of General Capabilities, Such as Human Empathy.Alfred Gierer - 1998 - Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung C - A Journal of Bioscience 53:716-722.
    A network of gene regulation organized in a hierarchical and combinatorial manner is crucially involved in the development of the neural network, and has to be considered one of the main substrates of genetic change in its evolution. Though qualitative features may emerge by way of the accumulation of rather unspecific quantitative changes, it is reasonable to assume that at least in some cases specific combinations of regulatory parts of the genome initiated new directions of evolution, leading to novel (...) of the brain. These notions are applied, in this paper, to the evolution of the capability of cognition-based human empa­thy. It is suggested that it has evolved as a secondary effect of the evolution of strategic thought. Development of strategies depends on abstract representations of one’s own pos­sible future states in one’s own brain to allow assessment of their emotional desirability, but also on the representation and emotional evaluation of possible states of others, allowing anticipation of their behaviour. This is best achieved if representations of others are con­nected to one’s own emotional centres in a manner similar to self-representations. For this reason, the evolution of the human brain is assumed to have established representations with such linkages. No group selection is involved, because the quality of strategic thought affects the fitness of the individual. A secondary effect of this linkage is that both the actual states and the future perspectives of others elicit vicarious emotions, which may contribute to the motivations of altruistic behaviour. (shrink)
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  14. The Impact of Human Resource Management on Corporate Social Performance Strengths and Concerns.Sandra Rothenberg, Clyde Eiríkur Hull & Zhi Tang - 2017 - Business and Society 56 (3):391-418.
    Although high-performance human resource practices do not directly affect corporate social performance strengths, they do positively affect CSP strengths in companies that are highly innovative or have high levels of slack. High-performance human resource management practices also directly and negatively affect CSP concerns. Drawing on the resource-based view and using secondary data from an objective, third-party database, the authors develop and test hypotheses about how high-performance HRM affects a company’s CSP strengths and concerns. Findings suggest that HRM and (...)
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  15. Human ≠ AGI.Roman Yampolskiy - manuscript
    Terms Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) and Human-Level Artificial Intelligence (HLAI) have been used interchangeably to refer to the Holy Grail of Artificial Intelligence (AI) research, creation of a machine capable of achieving goals in a wide range of environments. However, widespread implicit assumption of equivalence between capabilities of AGI and HLAI appears to be unjustified, as humans are not general intelligences. In this paper, we will prove this distinction.
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  16. Human Needs (Annotated Bibliography).Michael A. Dover - 2016 - In Mullen Edward (ed.), Oxford Bibliographies Online: Social Work. Oxford University Press.
    Social work has long been concerned with the respective roles of the social work profession and the social welfare system in addressing human needs. Social workers engage in needs assessment together with client systems. They provide and advocate for the needs of clients, as well enabling and empowering clients and communities to address their needs. They also advocate for social welfare benefits and services and overall social policies that take human needs into account. However, explicit ethical content was (...)
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  17. Capability to Health, Health Agency and Vulnerability.Christine Straehle - forthcoming - Bioethics.
    In this paper, I challenge the argument that if we take health to be a meta-capability, we will be able to address the vulnerabilities that characterize human life. Instead, I argue that some vulnerabilities, like that attached to being a patient, can not be successfully addressed.
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  18. Are humans the only rational animals?Giacomo Melis & Susana Monsó - 2023 - The Philosophical Quarterly (3):844-864.
    While growing empirical evidence suggests a continuity between human and non-human psychology, many philosophers still think that only humans can act and form beliefs rationally. In this paper, we challenge this claim. We first clarify the notion of rationality. We then focus on the rationality of beliefs and argue that, in the relevant sense, humans are not the only rational animals. We do so by first distinguishing between unreflective and reflective responsiveness to epistemic reasons in belief formation and (...)
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  19. Human Wisdom, Studies in Ancient Greek Philosophy.Ostenfeld Erik - 2016 - Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag.
    This book offers inter alia a systematic investigation of the actual argumentative strategy of Socratic conversation and explorations of Socratic and Platonic morality including an examination ofeudaimonia and the mental conception of health in the Republic as self-control, with a view to the relation of individual health/happiness to social order. The essays cover a period from 1968 to 2012. Some of them are now published for the first time. Self-motion in the later dialogues involves tripartition and tripartition in turn involves (...)
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  20. Conceptualising Capabilities and Dimensions of Advantage as Needs.Benjamin Fardell - 2020 - Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 21.
    Amartya Sen’s critique of the concept of need and his case for the superiority of capability as a measure of advantage have been highly influential. However, Sen perpetuates a caricature. Needs are not necessarily mere instrumental resource requirements for the achievement of ends; the valuable ends of people’s lives can themselves constitute needs, as can freedoms. Indeed, these ideas are already present in basic needs theory. Moreover, official disavowals notwithstanding, expansive notions of need are implicitly present in certain important theories (...)
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  21. Human Rights as Fundamental Conditions for a Good Life.S. Matthew Liao - 2015 - In The Right to Be Loved. Oxford University Press USA.
    What grounds human rights? How do we determine that something is a genuine human right? This chapter offers a new answer: human beings have human rights to the fundamental conditions for pursuing a good life. The fundamental conditions for pursuing a good life are certain goods, capacities, and options that human beings qua human beings need whatever else they qua individuals might need in order to pursue a characteristically good human life. This chapter (...)
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  22. Usage Degree of the Capabilities of DSS in Al-Aqsa University of Gaza.Mazen J. Al-Shobaki & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2017 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 1 (2):33-47.
    Abstract— This study aimed to identify the degree of use of the capabilities of decision-support systems in Palestinian institutions higher education, Aqsa University in Gaza - a case study. The study used a analytical descriptive approach, and the researchers used the of questionnaire tool to collect the data, the researchers using stratified random sample distributed (150) questioners to the study population and (126) was obtained back with rate of 84%. The study showed that the most important results are: that (...)
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  23. A Capabilities-Based Account of Patient Welfare.Peter Koch - 2016 - Dissertation, Suny @ Buffalo
    The promotion of patient welfare is a central goal of medical professionals and serves as a fundamental principle of medical professionalism. Despite its importance, however, it is unclear what is meant by patient welfare. In my dissertation, I explore patient welfare by analyzing the ordinary notion of welfare and applying this analysis to the patient population. I argue that welfare is best understood and expressed in terms of capabilities, which I define using the structure and vocabulary of Basic Formal (...)
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  24. Human Augmentation and the Age of the Transhuman.James Hughes - 2018 - In Tony J. Prescott, Nathan Lepora & Paul F. M. J. Verschure (eds.), Living Machines: A Handbook of Research in Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems. Oxford University Press.
    Human augmentation is discussed in three axes: the technological means, the ability being augmented, and the social systems that will be affected. The technological augmentations considered range from exocortical information and communication systems, to pharmaceuticals, tissue and genetic engineering, and prosthetic limbs and organs, to eventually nanomedical robotics, brain-computer interfaces and cognitive prostheses. These technologies are mapped onto the capabilities which we are in the process of enabling and augmenting, which include extending longevity and physical, sensory and cognitive (...)
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  25. What Can the Capabilities Approach Learn from an Ubuntu Ethic? A Relational Approach to Development Theory.Nimi Hoffmann & Thaddeus Metz - 2017 - World Development 97 (September):153–164.
    Over the last two decades, the capabilities approach has become an increasingly influential theory of development. It conceptualises human wellbeing in terms of an individual's ability to achieve functionings we have reason to value. In contrast, the African ethic of ubuntu views human flourishing as the propensity to pursue relations of fellowship with others, such that relationships have fundamental value. These two theoretical perspectives seem to be in tension with each other; while the capabilities approach focuses (...)
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  26. Beyond Human Nature: Human-Racism in the Debate Over Genetic and Nanotechnological Enhancement.James J. Hughes - 2007 - In Nanoscale. New York, NY, USA: pp. 61-70.
    The alleged threats to human nature are at the root of many concerns about the use of nanotechnology to extend human health and capabilities. Bu the concept of human nature is illusory, selectively deployed, and does not impose any ethical constraint on human enhancement. Human nature is not only a meaningless concept, a product of our imperfect human cognition and a relic of the idea of a "soul," but, as it is deployed today (...)
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  27. Sen and Nussbaum: Agency and Capability-Expansion.Lori Keleher - 2014 - Ethics and Economics (1):54-70.
    Capability approach pioneers Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum both recognize empowerment as an important aspect of human development. They seem to disagree, however, about how empowerment should be represented within the capability approach (CA). This essay is concerned with the analysis of the foundational concepts at work within Sen and Nussbaum’s CAs. Part One concerns the key concepts of empowerment at work in Sen’s CA and has three goals. 1) Clarify Sen’s various empowerment concepts. 2) Argue that Sen’s concept (...)
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  28. Putting sustainability into sustainable human development.Wouter Peeters, jo Dirix & Sigrid Sterckx - 2013 - Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 1 (14):58-76.
    Abating the threat climate change poses to the lives of future people clearly challenges our development models. The 2011 Human Devel- opment Report rightly focuses on the integral links between sustainability and equity. However, the human development and capabilities approach emphasizes the expansion of people’s capabilities simpliciter, which is ques- tionable in view of environmental sustainability. We argue that capabilities should be defined as triadic relations between an agent, constraints and poss- ible functionings. This triadic (...)
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  29. Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach in the Analysis of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program.Givheart Dano - 2022 - United International Journal for Research and Technology (Uijrt) 3 (10):33-42.
    What is new about poverty? A question that anyone can answer and mostly can validate it through life experiences. Poverty is a concern for everyone, so it is hoped that everyone will work to interfere. However, with the number of research on poverty in a global context, it is practically difficult to track how each country addresses global poverty on its own. Hence, poverty is broad as its concept is concerned. Poverty is a difficult concept to describe, especially because it (...)
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  30. Human Symmetry Uncertainty Detected by a Self-Organizing Neural Network Map.Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2021 - Symmetry 13:299.
    Symmetry in biological and physical systems is a product of self-organization driven by evolutionary processes, or mechanical systems under constraints. Symmetry-based feature extraction or representation by neural networks may unravel the most informative contents in large image databases. Despite significant achievements of artificial intelligence in recognition and classification of regular patterns, the problem of uncertainty remains a major challenge in ambiguous data. In this study, we present an artificial neural network that detects symmetry uncertainty states in human observers. To (...)
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  31. Robots and human dignity: a consideration of the effects of robot care on the dignity of older people.Amanda Sharkey - 2014 - Ethics and Information Technology 16 (1):63-75.
    This paper explores the relationship between dignity and robot care for older people. It highlights the disquiet that is often expressed about failures to maintain the dignity of vulnerable older people, but points out some of the contradictory uses of the word ‘dignity’. Certain authors have resolved these contradictions by identifying different senses of dignity; contrasting the inviolable dignity inherent in human life to other forms of dignity which can be present to varying degrees. The Capability Approach (CA) is (...)
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  32. Humans and Persons.Mostyn W. Jones - manuscript
    Traditional ways of characterizing humans and persons are vague and simplistic. For example, persons are often defined as having free will and responsibility – but what actual powers underlie these vague metaphysical abstractions? Traditional answers like "rationality" and "creativity" are still vague, and also simplistic. Similar traits appear as defining traits of humans, yet we’re far too complex to be distinguished from other species in such simple and tight ways. But there may be a looser hallmark of humans that just (...)
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  33. Toward a Capability-Based Account of Intergenerational Justice.Alex M. Richardson - 2018 - Ethic@: An International Journal for Moral Philosophy 17 (3):363–388.
    In this paper, I will draw on the capabilities approach to social justice and human development as advanced, among others, by Martha Nussbaum, and seek to provide some theoretical resources for better understanding our obligations to future persons. My argumentative strategy is as follows: First, I’ll briefly reconstruct a capabilities approach to justice, examining this sort of view’s normative foundations and methodology. Using Nussbaum’s capabilities list as a basis, I will argue that various social and environmental (...)
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  34. Human Dignity and the Non-Utilitarist Consequentialist Ethics of Social Consequences.V. Gluchman - 2004 - Filozofia 59:502-506.
    Prominent critics of consequentialism hold that utilitarianism is not capable of accepting authentic human values, because the consequentialist viewpoint is impersonal. According to it consequentialist rationality has no axiological limits and it can think about doing the unthinkable. The main objective of the paper is to show that human dignity has a significant position in the author’s conception of ethics of social consequences arguing for a particular theory of the value of human dignity. The author argues that (...)
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  35. Human Mind - Its Fickleness, Transformation and Quietude (A Perspective from Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur's Hymns).Devinder Pal Singh - 2021 - Asia Samachar.
    The human mind possesses matchless creativity and extensive capacity to create its own reality. It has a remarkable capability for contemplation, reflection and even manipulation. Sadly, the excellent human mind has been polluted by the rituals, dogmas, and deceptions of cultures, religions and politics. Its fickleness leads to its being held captive by maya (material world). In his hymns, Guru Tegh Bahadur enunciates that the fickleness of the mind is the primary cause of unhappiness and failure in achieving (...)
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  36. Understanding human action: integrating meanings, mechanisms, causes, and contexts.Machiel Keestra - 2011 - In Repko Allen, Szostak Rick & Newell William (eds.), Interdisciplinary Research: Case Studies of Integrative Understandings of Complex Problems. Sage Publications. pp. 201-235.
    Humans are capable of understanding an incredible variety of actions performed by other humans. Even though these range from primary biological actions, like eating and fleeing, to acts in parliament or in poetry, humans generally can make sense of each other’s actions. Understanding other people’s actions is called action understanding, and it can transcend differences in race, gender, culture, age, and social and historical circumstances. Action understanding is the cognitive ability to make sense of another person’s action by integrating perceptual (...)
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  37. Classification of Real and Fake Human Faces Using Deep Learning.Fatima Maher Salman & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 6 (3):1-14.
    Artificial intelligence (AI), deep learning, machine learning and neural networks represent extremely exciting and powerful machine learning-based techniques used to solve many real-world problems. Artificial intelligence is the branch of computer sciences that emphasizes the development of intelligent machines, thinking and working like humans. For example, recognition, problem-solving, learning, visual perception, decision-making and planning. Deep learning is a subset of machine learning in artificial intelligence that has networks capable of learning unsupervised from data that is unstructured or unlabeled. Deep learning (...)
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  38. On Modern Science, Human Cognition, and Cultural Diversity.Alfred Gierer - 2009 - In Preprint series Max Planck Institute for the History of Science. Berlin: mpi history of science. pp. Preprint 137, 1-16.
    The development of modern science has depended strongly on specific features of the cultures involved; however, its results are widely and trans-culturally accepted and applied. The science and technology of electricity provides a particularly interesting example. It emerged as a specific product of post-Renaissance Europe, rooted in the Greek philosophical tradition that encourages explanations of nature in theoretical terms. It did not evolve in China presumably because such encouragement was missing. The trans-cultural acceptance of modern science and technology is postulated (...)
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  39. Krause’s Ethics as a Precursor to Capability Theory.Claus Dierksmeier - 2022 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 14 (2):83-107.
    There are striking parallels between current capability theories and the moral philosophy of Karl Christian Friedrich Krause. This article reconstructs central arguments of Krause’s ethics and correlates them with passages from the works of Martha Nussbaum, showing that such similarities extend not only to what, substantially, is being professed in either philosophy but also, procedurally, to the question of how the respective moral conclusions are reached. As Krause correlates responsibility with capability, the article begins with an examination of Krause’s idea (...)
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  40. From Caged Bird to Phenomenal Woman: Capability Approach in Feminist Literature.Baiju Anthony - 2019 - In Ratnakar D. B. (ed.), Reflections on Gender Equality, Feminism & Language Studies. IMRF. pp. 45-52.
    Interpretation of feminist literature with the help of Capability approach unveils different possibilities. It authenticates the truth of the capability theory that stands for the empowerment of human beings. It underlines the necessity of individual and collective journey of women for their liberation. It brings forward the role of personal narrative while aiming for emancipation. Moreover, the approach offers a better way of interpreting feminist literature which reveals the shattered and shining aspects of women’s existence.
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  41. The material difference in human cognition.Karenleigh Anne Overmann - 2021 - Adaptive Behavior 29 (2):123-136.
    Humans leverage material forms for unique cognitive purposes: We recruit and incorporate them into our cognitive system, exploit them to accumulate and distribute cognitive effort, and use them to recreate phenotypic change in new individuals and generations. These purposes are exemplified by writing, a relatively recent tool that has become highly adept at eliciting specific psychological and behavioral responses in its users, capability it achieved by changing in ways that facilitated, accumulated, and distributed incremental behavioral and psychological change between individuals (...)
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  42. Compensation for Energy Infrastructures: Can a Capability Approach be More Equitable?Fausto Corvino, Giuseppe Pellegrini-Masini, Alberto Pirni & Stefano Maran - 2021 - Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 22 (2):197-217.
    In this article, we deal with the evaluation of the losses suffered by persons living in urban areas as a result of energy services. In the first part, we analyse how by adopting different informational foci we obtain contrasting interpersonal evaluations regarding the same loss. In the second part, we distinguish between a diachronic and a hypothetical/moralised threshold for harm in order to assess whether individuals are benefiting from or being harmed by a given energy service. Our argument is that (...)
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  43. From the four-color theorem to a generalizing “four-letter theorem”: A sketch for “human proof” and the philosophical interpretation.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Logic and Philosophy of Mathematics eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 12 (21):1-10.
    The “four-color” theorem seems to be generalizable as follows. The four-letter alphabet is sufficient to encode unambiguously any set of well-orderings including a geographical map or the “map” of any logic and thus that of all logics or the DNA plan of any alive being. Then the corresponding maximally generalizing conjecture would state: anything in the universe or mind can be encoded unambiguously by four letters. That admits to be formulated as a “four-letter theorem”, and thus one can search for (...)
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  44.  17
    Caretakers of Value: A Theory of Human Personhood.Philip Woodward - forthcoming - Philosophical Forum.
    According to a traditional view, humans are superior to their non-human terrestrial companions because they alone are “rational animals.” Although the traditional view is presupposed by our social and legal institutions, it has been called into question by modern science: Darwin himself claimed that humans differ in degree rather than in kind from animals, and recent discoveries in comparative animal cognition have seemed to confirm Darwin's assertion. Sustaining the traditional view in light of these discoveries calls out for a (...)
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  45. AI Extenders: The Ethical and Societal Implications of Humans Cognitively Extended by AI.Jose Hernandez-Orallo & Karina Vold - 2019 - In Jose Hernandez-Orallo & Karina Vold (eds.), Proceedings of the AAAI/ACM. pp. 507-513.
    Humans and AI systems are usually portrayed as separate sys- tems that we need to align in values and goals. However, there is a great deal of AI technology found in non-autonomous systems that are used as cognitive tools by humans. Under the extended mind thesis, the functional contributions of these tools become as essential to our cognition as our brains. But AI can take cognitive extension towards totally new capabil- ities, posing new philosophical, ethical and technical chal- lenges. To (...)
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  46. Animal Ethics and India: Understanding the Connection through the Capabilities Approach.Rhyddhi Chakraborty - 2017 - Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics 8 (1):33-43.
    This paper, unveiling the visionary short-sightedness of animal protection, argues for a just vision towards animals in India. Critically analysing the wide range of animal protections in India, the paper finds that in spite of such protections, animals continue to suffer out of unfair and unjust treatments in the country. Considering visionary short-sightedness as the reason behind these unfair and unjust treatments, the paper argues that ensuring the rights of non-human animals to basic capabilities is a fundamental and (...)
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  47.  11
    In Our Own Image: What the Quest for Artificial General Intelligence Can Teach Us About Being Human.Janna Hastings - 2024 - Cosmos+Taxis 12 (5+6):1-4.
    In August 2022, only a few months before ChatGPT was released, Barry Smith, well-known contemporary philosopher, together with Jobst Landgrebe, artificial intelligence entrepreneur, published a book entitled Why Machines will Never Rule the World: Artificial Intelligence without Fear (Landgrebe and Smith 2022). In this important, dense and far-reaching work, Landgrebe and Smith argue from the mathematical theory of complex systems, and a sophisticated analysis of the capabilities of human intelligence, that AGI— at the level of human intelligence—will (...)
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  48. Maximizing the Benefits of Participatory Design for Human–Robot Interaction Research With Older Adults.Wendy A. Rogers, Travis Kadylak & Megan A. Bayles - 2021 - Human Factors 64 (3):441–450.
    Objective We reviewed human–robot interaction (HRI) participatory design (PD) research with older adults. The goal was to identify methods used, determine their value for design of robots with older adults, and provide guidance for best practices. Background Assistive robots may promote aging-in-place and quality of life for older adults. However, the robots must be designed to meet older adults’ specific needs and preferences. PD and other user-centered methods may be used to engage older adults in the robot development process (...)
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  49. Human brain evolution, theories of innovation, and lessons from the history of technology.Alfred Gierer - 2004 - J. Biosci 29 (3):235-244.
    Biological evolution and technological innovation, while differing in many respects, also share common features. In particular, implementation of a new technology in the market is analogous to the spreading of a new genetic trait in a population. Technological innovation may occur either through the accumulation of quantitative changes, as in the development of the ocean clipper, or it may be initiated by a new combination of features or subsystems, as in the case of steamships. Other examples of the latter type (...)
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  50. Symbiont Consciousness: Sociocultural Embodied Augmentation of Humanity.Anthony Faiola, Preethi Srinivas, Rebecca Finch & Zhengxiao Wu - manuscript
    The psychology of consciousness as explained by Vygotsky is the ability of one to focus on the inner state of being. Vygotsky’s proposition of external tools redistributing mental and external processes into internalized acts lacks the concept of embodied mediational tools existing in the current world as computational artifacts extending or augmenting human capabilities. This paper proposes sociocultural embodied augmentation theory (SEAT) as a means to explain the impact of augmenting technologies on Vygotsky’s original notion of “psychological tool,” (...)
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