Results for 'Human challenge vaccine trials'

998 found
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  1. The Ethics of Human Challenge Trials Using Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Virus Variants.Abie Rohrig & Nir Eyal - manuscript
    The world’s first COVID-19 human challenge trial using the D614G strain of SARS-CoV-2 is underway in the United Kingdom. The Wellcome Trust is funding challenge stock preparation of the Beta variant (B.1.351) for a follow-up human challenge trial, and researchers at Imperial College London are considering conducting that trial. However, little has been written thus far about the ethical justifiability of human challenge trials with SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. While vaccine resistance (...)
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  2. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Human Challenge Trials: Too Risky, Too Soon.Liza Dawson, Jake Earl & Jeffrey Livezey - 2020 - Journal of Infectious Diseases 222 (3):514-516.
    Eyal et al have recently argued that researchers should consider conducting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) human challenge studies to hasten vaccine development. We have conducted (J. L.) and overseen (L. D.) human challenge studies and agree that they can be useful in developing anti-infective agents. We also agree that adults can autonomously choose to undergo risks with no prospect of direct benefit to themselves. However, we disagree that SARS-CoV-2 challenge studies are (...)
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  3. Ethical Considerations for International Recruitment in COVID-19 Human Challenge Trials.Kaleem Ahmid, Abie Rohrig, Paul Ndebele, Zacharia Kafuko & Josh Morrison - manuscript
    Ongoing and anticipated COVID-19 human challenge studies in the UK may advance our understanding of COVID-19 and facilitate the licensure of safe, effective, and easily deployable next-generation COVID-19 vaccines and boosters. We argue that international volunteer recruitment for COVID-19 human challenge trials can help promote diversity in these trials and ensure a sufficient number of eligible volunteers, both of which will increase the benefits of challenge research. We explore the ethical ramifications of dealing (...)
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  4. Exploring the Ethics of Tuberculosis Human Challenge Models.Abie Rohrig, Josh Morrison, Jonathan Pugh, Julian Savulescu & Helen McShane - manuscript
    TB human challenge studies could accelerate TB vaccine development by reducing uncertainty in early-stage vaccine testing, selecting promising vaccine candidates for large-scale field trials, and identifying an immune correlate of protection. However, ethical concerns regarding the exposure of trial participants and bystanders to significant risk have been a limiting factor for TB human challenge models. We analyze the expected social value and risks of different types of TB human challenge models, (...)
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  5.  99
    Justifying the Risks of COVID-19 Challenge Trials: The Analogy with Organ Donation.Athmeya Jayaram, Jacob Sparks & Daniel Callies - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (1):100-106.
    In the beginning of the COVID pandemic, researchers and bioethicists called for human challenge trials to hasten the development of a vaccine for COVID. However, the fact that we lacked a specific, highly effective treatment for COVID led many to argue that a COVID challenge trial would be unethical and we ought to pursue traditional phase III testing instead. These ethical objections to challenge trials may have slowed the progress of a COVID (...), so it is important to evaluate their merit. One common way of doing so is to make an analogy to other social practices that are relevantly similar and which we currently sanction. We submit that non-directed live organ donation (NDLOD) is a promising analogy. After arguing that the risks to volunteers for each activity appear similar, we explore potential disanalogies that would undermine the comparison. We note that there are differences in both the kind and certainty of benefit secured by NDLOD compared to challenge trials. We conclude these differences are insufficient to make NDLOD permissible and challenge trials impermissible. Ultimately, if we think the risks associated with NDLOD are ethically permissible, then we should think the same of the risks associated with COVID challenge trials. (shrink)
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  6. Pandemic Ethics: 8 Big Questions of COVID-19.Ben Bramble - 2020 - Sydney: Bartleby Books.
    A clear and provocative introduction to the ethics of COVID-19, suitable for university-level students, academics, and policymakers, as well as the general reader. It is also an original contribution to the emerging literature on this important topic. The author has made it available Open Access, so that it can be downloaded and read for free by all those who are interested in these issues. Key features include: -/- A neat organisation of the ethical issues raised by the pandemic. An exploration (...)
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  7. Pandemic Ethics: The Case for Risky Research.Richard Yetter Chappell & Peter Singer - 2020 - Research Ethics 16 (3-4):1-8.
    There is too much that we do not know about COVID-19. The longer we take to find it out, the more lives will be lost. In this paper, we will defend a principle of risk parity: if it is permissible to expose some members of society (e.g. health workers or the economically vulnerable) to a certain level of ex ante risk in order to minimize overall harm from the virus, then it is permissible to expose fully informed volunteers to a (...)
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  8. VO: Vaccine Ontology.Yongqun He, Lindsay Cowell, Alexander D. Diehl, H. L. Mobley, Bjoern Peters, Alan Ruttenberg, Richard H. Scheuermann, Ryan R. Brinkman, Melanie Courtot, Chris Mungall, Barry Smith & Others - 2009 - In ICBO 2009: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Biomedical Ontology. Buffalo:
    Vaccine research, as well as the development, testing, clinical trials, and commercial uses of vaccines involve complex processes with various biological data that include gene and protein expression, analysis of molecular and cellular interactions, study of tissue and whole body responses, and extensive epidemiological modeling. Although many data resources are available to meet different aspects of vaccine needs, it remains a challenge how we are to standardize vaccine annotation, integrate data about varied vaccine types (...)
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  9. Comparing the Understanding of Subjects Receiving a Candidate Malaria Vaccine in the United States and Mali.R. D. Ellis, I. Sagara, A. Durbin, A. Dicko, D. Shaffer, L. Miller, M. H. Assadou, M. Kone, B. Kamate, O. Guindo, M. P. Fay, D. A. Diallo, O. K. Doumbo, E. J. Emanuel & J. Millum - 2010 - American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 83 (4):868-72.
    Initial responses to questionnaires used to assess participants' understanding of informed consent for malaria vaccine trials conducted in the United States and Mali were tallied. Total scores were analyzed by age, sex, literacy (if known), and location. Ninety-two percent (92%) of answers by United States participants and 85% of answers by Malian participants were correct. Questions more likely to be answered incorrectly in Mali related to risk, and to the type of vaccine. For adult participants, independent predictors (...)
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  10.  69
    Off-Label Prescription of COVID-19 Vaccines in Children: Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Issues.Govind Persad, Holly Fernandez Lynch & Patricia J. Zettler - 2021 - Pediatrics 2021:e2021054578.
    We argue that the universal recommendations against “off-label” pediatric use of approved COVID-19 issued by the FDA, CDC, and AAP are overbroad. Especially for higher-risk children, vaccination can be ethically justified even before FDA authorization or approval – and similar reasoning is relevant for even younger patients. Legal risks can also be managed, although the FDA, CDC, and Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) should move quickly to provide clarity.
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  11. Making Better Informed, More Confident COVID-19 Decisions: Vaccine Hesitancy, Its Barriers and Impact Studies: Taking Bayelsa State as an Example.Morufu Olalekan Raimi, Emeka Chisom Lucky, Ebikapaye Okoyen, Angalabiri Clement, Christopher Ogbointuwei & Atoyebi Babatunde - 2021 - International Journal of Vaccines and Immunization 5 (1):1-13.
    Background: Health care practitioners are recognized to have a large influence in shaping uptake of vaccine in new borns, children, adolescents, as well as adults. Parents remain more secure in their decisions when health care practitioners communicate successfully with them about vaccine dangers and benefits, the value as well as necessity for vaccinations, as well as vaccine safety. Thus, immunization remain the foundation of the primary health care system, an indisputable human right as well as a (...)
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  12. The 50th Anniversary of the Declaration of Helsinki: Progress but Many Remaining Challenges.J. Millum - 2013 - Journal of the American Medical Association 310 (20):2143-44.
    Since 1964, through 7 revisions, the World Medical Association’s Declaration of Helsinki has stood as an important statement regarding the ethical principles guiding medical research with human participants. It is consulted by ethics review committees, funders, researchers, and research participants. It has been incorporated into national legislation and is routinely invoked to ascertain the ethical appropriateness of clinical trials. There is much to praise about the revision process and the latest revision, which coincides with the declaration’s 50th anniversary. (...)
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  13. COVID-19 Vaccine Trial Ethics Once We Have Efficacious Vaccines.David Wendler, Jorge Ochoa, Joseph Millum, Christine Grady & Holly Taylor - 2020 - Science 370 (6522):1277-1279.
    Some placebo-controlled trials can continue ethically after a candidate vaccine is found to be safe and efficacious.
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  14. Avoiding Exploitation in Multinational Covid-19 Vaccine Trials.Alexander A. Iyer, Joseph Millum, Christine Grady & David Wendler - 2021 - The BMJ 372:n541.
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  15. Conducting Controlled Human Infection Model Studies in India is an Ethical Obligation.Saumil Dholakia & S. Y. Dholakia - 2018 - Indian Journal of Medical Ethics 3 (4).
    Weighing competing obligations and achieving the “greatest balance” of right over wrong guides an individual, an agency or a country in determining what ought to be done in an ethically challenging situation. Conducting controlled human infection model (CHIM) studies in India is one such situation. The ethical challenge in conducting a CHIM study lies in completing the difficult task of introducing standardised, attenuated strains of micro-organisms into normal healthy volunteers, at the same time ensuring the safety of these (...)
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  16.  27
    Informed Consent in Clinical Studies Involving Human Participants: Ethical Insights of Medical Researchers in Germany and Poland.Cristian Timmermann, Marcin Orzechowski, Oxana Kosenko, Katarzyna Woniak & Florian Steger - 2022 - Frontiers in Medicine 9:901059.
    Background: The internationalization of clinical studies requires a shared understanding of the fundamental ethical values guiding clinical studies. It is important that these values are not only embraced at the legal level but also adopted by clinicians themselves during clinical studies. Objective: Our goal is to provide an insight on how clinicians in Germany and Poland perceive and identify the different ethical issues regarding informed consent in clinical studies. Methods: To gain an understanding of how clinicians view clinical studies in (...)
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  17. Pandemic Ethics and Status Quo Risk.Richard Yetter Chappell - 2022 - Public Health Ethics 15 (1):64-73.
    Conservative assumptions in medical ethics risk immense harms during a pandemic. Public health institutions and public discourse alike have repeatedly privileged inaction over aggressive medical interventions to address the pandemic, perversely increasing population-wide risks while claiming to be guided by ‘caution’. This puzzling disconnect between rhetoric and reality is suggestive of an underlying philosophical confusion. In this paper, I argue that we have been misled by status quo bias—exaggerating the moral significance of the risks inherent in medical interventions, while systematically (...)
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  18. Vaccinating for Whom? Distinguishing Between Self-Protective, Paternalistic, Altruistic and Indirect Vaccination.Steven R. Kraaijeveld - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (2):190-200.
    Preventive vaccination can protect not just vaccinated individuals, but also others, which is often a central point in discussions about vaccination. To date, there has been no systematic study of self- and other-directed motives behind vaccination. This article has two major goals: first, to examine and distinguish between self- and other-directed motives behind vaccination, especially with regard to vaccinating for the sake of third parties, and second, to explore some ways in which this approach can help to clarify and guide (...)
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  19. Human Suffering as a Challenge for the Meaning of Life.Ulrich Diehl - 2009 - Existenz. An International Journal in Philosophy, Religion, Politics, and the Arts.
    When people suffer they always suffer as a whole human being. The emotional, cognitive and spiritual suffering of human beings cannot be completely separated from all other kinds of suffering, such as from harmful natural, ecological, political, economic and social conditions. In reality they interact with each other and influence each other. Human beings do not only suffer from somatic illnesses, physical pain, and the lack of decent opportunities to satisfy their basic vital, social and emotional needs. (...)
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  20. The Challenge of Human Rights: Origin, Development and Significance.Jack Mahoney - 2008 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _The Challenge of Human Rights_ traces the history of human rights theory from classical antiquity through the enlightenment to the modern human rights movement, and analyses the significance of human rights in today’s increasingly globalized world. Provides an engaging study of the origin and the philosophical and political development of human rights discourse. Offers an original defence of human rights. Explores the significance of human rights in the context of increasing globalisation. Confronts (...)
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  21. Granting Automata Human Rights: Challenge to a Basis of Full-Rights Privilege.Lantz Fleming Miller - 2015 - Human Rights Review 16 (4):369-391.
    As engineers propose constructing humanlike automata, the question arises as to whether such machines merit human rights. The issue warrants serious and rigorous examination, although it has not yet cohered into a conversation. To put it into a sure direction, this paper proposes phrasing it in terms of whether humans are morally obligated to extend to maximally humanlike automata full human rights, or those set forth in common international rights documents. This paper’s approach is to consider the ontology (...)
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  22. The Story of Humanity and the Challenge of Posthumanity.Zoltán Boldizsár Simon - 2019 - History of the Human Sciences 32 (2).
    Today’s technological-scientific prospect of posthumanity simultaneously evokes and defies historical understanding. On the one hand, it implies a historical claim of an epochal transformation concerning posthumanity as a new era. On the other, by postulating the birth of a novel, better-than-human subject for this new era, it eliminates the human subject of modern Western historical understanding. In this article, I attempt to understand posthumanity as measured against the story of humanity as the story of history itself. I examine (...)
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  23. Challenging the ‘Born Alive’ Threshold: Fetal Surgery, Artificial Wombs, and the English Approach to Legal Personhood.Elizabeth Chloe Romanis - 2019 - Medical Law Review.
    English law is unambiguous that legal personality, and with it all legal rights and protections, is assigned at birth. This rule is regarded as a bright line that is easily and consistently applied. The time has come, however, for the rule to be revisited. This article demonstrates that advances in fetal surgery and (anticipated) artificial wombs do not marry with traditional conceptions of birth and being alive in law. These technologies introduce the possibility of ex utero gestation, and/or temporary existence (...)
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  24. Eating Meat and Not Vaccinating: In Defense of the Analogy.Ben Jones - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (2):135-142.
    The devastating impact of the COVID‐19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic is prompting renewed scrutiny of practices that heighten the risk of infectious disease. One such practice is refusing available vaccines known to be effective at preventing dangerous communicable diseases. For reasons of preventing individual harm, avoiding complicity in collective harm, and fairness, there is a growing consensus among ethicists that individuals have a duty to get vaccinated. I argue that these same grounds establish an analogous duty to avoid buying and (...)
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  25. Post‐Trial Access to Antiretrovirals: Who Owes What to Whom?Joseph Millum - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (3):145-154.
    ABSTRACTMany recent articles argue that participants who seroconvert during HIV prevention trials deserve treatment when they develop AIDS, and there is a general consensus that the participants in HIV/AIDS treatment trials should have continuing post‐trial access. As a result, the primary concern of many ethicists and activists has shifted from justifying an obligation to treat trial participants, to working out mechanisms through which treatment could be provided. In this paper I argue that this shift frequently conceals an important (...)
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  26. Towards More-Than-Human Heritage: Arboreal Habitats as a Challenge for Heritage Preservation.Stanislav Roudavski & Julian Rutten - 2020 - Built Heritage 4 (4):1-17.
    Trees belong to humanity’s heritage, but they are more than that. Their loss, through catastrophic fires or under business-as-usual, is devastating to many forms of life. Moved by this fact, we begin with an assertion that heritage can have an active role in the design of future places. Written from within the field of architecture, this article focuses on structures that house life. Habitat features of trees and artificial replacement habitats for arboreal wildlife serve as concrete examples. Designs of such (...)
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  27.  36
    COVID-19 Vaccination and the Right to Take Risks.Pei-hua Huang - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics (8):534-537.
    The rare but severe cerebral venous thrombosis occurring in some AstraZeneca vaccine recipients has prompted some governments to suspend part of their COVID-19 vaccination programmes. Such suspensions have faced various challenges from both scientific and ethical angles. Most of the criticisms against such suspensions follow a consequentialist approach, arguing that the suspension will lead to more harm than benefits. In this paper, I propose a rights-based argument against the suspension of the vaccine rollouts amid this highly time-sensitive combat (...)
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  28.  73
    An Ethical Analysis of Vaccinating Children Against COVID-19: Benefits, Risks, and Issues of Global Health Equity [Version 2; Peer Review: 1 Approved, 1 Approved with Reservations].Rachel Gur-Arie, Steven R. Kraaijeveld & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - forthcoming - Wellcome Open Research.
    COVID-19 vaccination of children has begun in various high-income countries with regulatory approval and general public support, but largely without careful ethical consideration. This trend is expected to extend to other COVID-19 vaccines and lower ages as clinical trials progress. This paper provides an ethical analysis of COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children. Specifically, we argue that it is currently unclear whether routine COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children is ethically justified in most contexts, given the minimal direct benefit that COVID-19 (...)
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  29. Covid-19 Vaccines Production and Societal Immunization Under the Serendipity-Mindsponge-3D Knowledge Management Theory and Conceptual Framework.Quan-Hoang Vuong, Tam-Tri Le, Viet-Phuong La, Huyen Thanh Thanh Nguyen, Manh-Toan Ho, Van Quy Khuc & Minh-Hoang Nguyen - 2022 - Humanities and Social Sciences Communications 9:22.
    Since the outbreak of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), tremendous efforts have been made by scientists, health professionals, business people, politicians, and laypeople around the world. Covid-19 vaccines are one of the most crucial innovations that help fight against the virus. This paper attempts to revisit the Covid-19 vaccines production process by employing the serendipity-mindsponge-3D creativity management theory. Vaccine production can be considered an information process and classified into three main stages. The first stage involved the processes of absorbing (...)
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  30.  84
    From Responsible Robotics Towards a Human Rights Regime Oriented to the Challenges of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence.Hin-Yan Liu & Karolina Zawieska - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):321-333.
    As the aim of the responsible robotics initiative is to ensure that responsible practices are inculcated within each stage of design, development and use, this impetus is undergirded by the alignment of ethical and legal considerations towards socially beneficial ends. While every effort should be expended to ensure that issues of responsibility are addressed at each stage of technological progression, irresponsibility is inherent within the nature of robotics technologies from a theoretical perspective that threatens to thwart the endeavour. This is (...)
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  31.  44
    COVID-19 Vaccine Refusal and Fair Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources.Govind Persad & Emily A. Largent - 2022 - JAMA Health Forum 3 (4):e220356.
    When hospitals face surges of patients with COVID-19, fair allocation of scarce medical resources remains a challenge. Scarcity has at times encompassed not only hospital and intensive care unit beds—often reflecting staffing shortages—but also therapies and intensive treatments. Safe, highly effective COVID-19 vaccines have been free and widely available since mid-2021, yet many Americans remain unvaccinated by choice. Should their decision to forgo vaccination be considered when allocating scarce resources? Some have suggested it should, while others disagree. We offer (...)
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  32.  48
    Hope and Human Longevity, an Actual Challenging Topic.Gabriel Hasmațuchi & Maria Sinaci - 2021 - Revue Roumaine de Philosophie 2 (65):337-346.
    This paper represents an attempt to correlate the concept of hope with the notion of human longevity and reflects the actual debates around the problem of life extension. Our analysis combines ideas from philosophy, sociology, bioethics, and religion to illustrate the problem of longevity in the context of biomedical and technological progress, and - at the same time - to show the (possible) consequences of prolonging life over the human body limits. Extending human life through emerging technologies (...)
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  33. Why Should HCWs Receive Priority Access to Vaccines in a Pandemic?Xavier Symons, Steve Matthews & Bernadette Tobin - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-9.
    BackgroundViral pandemics present a range of ethical challenges for policy makers, not the least among which are difficult decisions about how to allocate scarce healthcare resources. One important question is whether healthcare workers should receive priority access to a vaccine in the event that an effective vaccine becomes available. This question is especially relevant in the coronavirus pandemic with governments and health authorities currently facing questions of distribution of COVID-19 vaccines.Main textIn this article, we critically evaluate the most (...)
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  34. The Challenge of Evolution to Religion.Johan De Smedt & Helen De Cruz - 2020 - Cambridge University Press.
    This Element focuses on three challenges of evolution to religion: teleology, human origins, and the evolution of religion itself. First, religious worldviews tend to presuppose a teleological understanding of the origins of living things, but scientists mostly understand evolution as non-teleological. Second, religious and scientific accounts of human origins do not align in a straightforward sense. Third, evolutionary explanations of religion, including religious beliefs and practices, may cast doubt on their justification. We show how these tensions arise and (...)
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  35. Enacting Productive Dialogue: Addressing the Challenge That Non-Human Cognition Poses to Collaborations Between Enactivism and Heideggerian Phenomenology.Marilyn Stendera - 2016 - In Jack Reynolds & Richard Sebold (eds.), Phenomenology and Science. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 69-85.
    This chapter uses one particular proposal for interdisciplinary collaboration – in this case, between early Heideggerian phenomenology and enactivist cognitive science – as an example of how such partnerships may confront and negotiate tensions between the perspectives they bring together. The discussion begins by summarising some of the intersections that render Heideggerian and enactivist thought promising interlocutors for each other. It then moves on to explore how Heideggerian enactivism could respond to the challenge of reconciling the significant differences in (...)
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  36. Rethinking Representation: The Challenge of Non-Humans.Mihnea Tanasescu - 2014 - Australian Journal of Political Science 49 (1).
    This article argues that the standard model of political representation mischaracterises the structure of representation. After surveying the classical types of representation and their application to non-humans, the basic nature of representation is shown to have been unduly centred on interests, responsiveness and unidirectional protocols. It proposes a different structure by drawing inspiration from recent scholarship and developments in political philosophy, as well as the representation of non-human actors. It proposes an ontological grounding of representation in ‘irreducible multiplicity’, and (...)
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  37. Beneficence, Paternalism, and the Parental Prerogative – the Ethics of Mandatory Early Childhood Vaccination.Frej Thomsen -
    Insufficient vaccination coverage is an important public health problem in many countries, since it leads to the loss of herd protection and the resurgence of previously exterminated diseases. However, policies of mandatory childhood vaccination capable of raising vaccination rates continue to be controversial. In this article I review the arguments for mandatory childhood vaccination, setting out the strongest teleological argument in favour, and then critically examining the two strongest potential objections: paternalism and the parental prerogative. I argue that the (...) of paternalism fails because it confuses the identities of those subject to restricted liberty and those who autonomously dissent, and because non-vaccination imposes risks on others. I argue that the challenge of a parental prerogative fails because it cannot be intuitively or theoretically supported in a form that would make it permissible to impose risks on others. I conclude that in lieu of further and more plausible objections at least some policies of mandatory childhood vaccination are morally permissible. (shrink)
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  38. The Memory-Modifying Potential of Optogenetics and the Need for Neuroethics.Agnieszka K. Adamczyk & Przemysław Zawadzki - 2020 - NanoEthics 14 (3):207-225.
    Optogenetics is an invasive neuromodulation technology involving the use of light to control the activity of individual neurons. Even though optogenetics is a relatively new neuromodulation tool whose various implications have not yet been scrutinized, it has already been approved for its first clinical trials in humans. As optogenetics is being intensively investigated in animal models with the aim of developing novel brain stimulation treatments for various neurological and psychiatric disorders, it appears crucial to consider both the opportunities and (...)
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  39. A Taxonomy of Multinational Ethical and Methodological Standards for Clinical Trials of Therapeutic Interventions.C. M. Ashton, N. P. Wray, A. F. Jarman, J. M. Kolman, D. M. Wenner & B. A. Brody - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (6):368-373.
    Background If trials of therapeutic interventions are to serve society's interests, they must be of high methodological quality and must satisfy moral commitments to human subjects. The authors set out to develop a clinical - trials compendium in which standards for the ethical treatment of human subjects are integrated with standards for research methods. Methods The authors rank-ordered the world's nations and chose the 31 with >700 active trials as of 24 July 2008. Governmental and (...)
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  40. Values of the Human Person. Contemporary Challenges.Pop Mihaela (ed.) - 2014 - Bucharest: Editura Universității din București.
    Contemporary knowledge is centered on the research on human dimensions. Philosophy should particularly appeal to values in the process of understanding the human nature. The valuable “becoming” of each human person requires growing ever more aware of his/her personal identity and of his/her role in this lifetime. In ethics, especially, values suppose moral choices or criteria on which a moral behavior is based. Max Scheler based his ethical theory on the distinction between goods and values. The “goods” (...)
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  41. What’s Left of Human Nature? A Post-Essentialist, Pluralist and Interactive Account of a Contested Concept.Maria Kronfeldner - 2018 - Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Human nature has always been a foundational issue for philosophy. What does it mean to have a human nature? Is the concept the relic of a bygone age? What is the use of such a concept? What are the epistemic and ontological commitments people make when they use the concept? In What’s Left of Human Nature? Maria Kronfeldner offers a philosophical account of human nature that defends the concept against contemporary criticism. In particular, she takes on (...)
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  42.  30
    Painless Civilization and Fundamental Sense of Security: A Philosophical Challenge in the Age of Human Biotechnology.Masahiro Morioka - 2005 - Polylog: Forum for Intercultural Philosophy 6:1-1.
    This paper discusses some philosophical problems lurking behind the issues of human biotechnology, particularly prenatal screening. Firstly, prenatal screening technology disempowers existing disabled people. The second problem is that it systematically deprives us of the “fundamental sense of security.” This is a sense of security that allows us to believe that we will never be looked upon by anyone with such unspoken words as, “I wish you were never born” or “I wish you would disappear from the world.” Thirdly, (...)
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  43.  13
    Reasons to Genome Edit and Metaphysical Essentialism About Human Identity.Tomasz Żuradzki & Vilius Dranseika - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (9):34-36.
    In this commentary paper, we are taking one step further in questioning the central assumptions in the bioethical debates about reproductive technologies. We argue that the very distinction between “person affecting” and “identity affecting” interventions is based on a questionable form of material-origin essentialism. Questioning of this form of essentialist approach to human identity allows treating genome editing and genetic selection as more similar than they are taken to be in the standard approaches. It would also challenge the (...)
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  44. Human Rights, Claimability and the Uses of Abstraction.Adam Etinson - 2013 - Utilitas 25 (4):463-486.
    This article addresses the so-called to human rights. Focusing specifically on the work of Onora O'Neill, the article challenges two important aspects of her version of this objection. First: its narrowness. O'Neill understands the claimability of a right to depend on the identification of its duty-bearers. But there is good reason to think that the claimability of a right depends on more than just that, which makes abstract (and not welfare) rights the most natural target of her objection (section (...)
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  45. Green Human Resource Management Practices Among Palestinian Manufacturing Firms- An Exploratory Study.Samer Arqawi, Ahmed A. Zaid, Ayham A. M. Jaaron, Amal A. Al Hila, Mazen J. Al Shobaki & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - Journal of Resources Development and Management 59:1-8.
    Organizations are increasingly finding it challenging to balance economic and environmental performance particularly those that face competitive, regulatory and community pressure. With the increasing pressures for environmental sustainability, this calls for the new formulation of strategies by the manufacturers in order to minimize their products and services negative impact on the environment. Hence, Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) continues to be an important research agenda among the researchers. In Palestine, green issues are new and still developing. Constant study is (...)
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  46.  69
    The Challenge of Migration. Is Liberalism the Problem?Karsten Schubert - 2021 - Archiv Für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie Beihefte (ARSP-B) 167:173-192.
    The challenge of developing humane migration and refugee politics in Western states is far from resolved. This ongoing failure is typically attributed to the increased influence of right-wing populism and neo-fascism in Western migration politics. In this article I discuss a more radical explanation: Christoph Menke argues that political liberalism and its framing of migration as an issue of subjective human rights is the deeper root of the problem. While the merit of Menke’s approach is its criticism of (...)
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  47. The Challenge of a New Naturalism.Arran Gare & Wayne Hudson - 2017 - In Arran Gare & Wayne Hudson (eds.), For a New Naturalism. Candor, NY, USA: Telos Press.
    Contemporary naturalism is changing and scientific reductionism is under challenge from those who advocate a more comprehensive outlook. This special issue of Telos, based on the first Telos Australia Symposium held at Swinburne University in Melbourne in February 2014, introduces some of the key questions in the current debates. It also poses the question of whether more satisfactory political and social thought can be produced if scientific reductionism is replaced by a richer and more hermeneutical naturalism, one that takes (...)
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  48. What Is Special About Human Rights?Christian Barry & Nicholas Southwood - 2011 - Ethics and International Affairs 25 (3):369-83.
    Despite the prevalence of human rights discourse, the very idea or concept of a human right remains obscure. In particular, it is unclear what is supposed to be special or distinctive about human rights. In this paper, we consider two recent attempts to answer this challenge, James Griffin’s “personhood account” and Charles Beitz’s “practice-based account”, and argue that neither is entirely satisfactory. We then conclude with a suggestion for what a more adequate account might look like (...)
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  49. Special Section: Moving Forward in Animal Research Ethics Guest Editorial Reassessing Animal Research Ethics.David DeGrazia - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (4):385-389.
    Animal research has long been a source of biomedical aspirations and moral concern. Examples of both hope and concern are abundant today. In recent months, as is common practice, monkeys have served as test subjects in promising preclinical trials for an Ebola vaccine or treatment 1 , 2 , 3 and in controversial maternal deprivation studies. 4 The unresolved tension between the noble aspirations of animal research and the ethical controversies it often generates motivates the present issue of (...)
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  50. Autonomous Weapons and the Nature of Law and Morality: How Rule-of-Law-Values Require Automation of the Rule of Law.Duncan MacIntosh - 2016 - Temple International and Comparative Law Journal 30 (1):99-117.
    While Autonomous Weapons Systems have obvious military advantages, there are prima facie moral objections to using them. By way of general reply to these objections, I point out similarities between the structure of law and morality on the one hand and of automata on the other. I argue that these, plus the fact that automata can be designed to lack the biases and other failings of humans, require us to automate the formulation, administration, and enforcement of law as much as (...)
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