Results for 'Jason McKenzie Alexander'

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  1. Epistemic Landscapes, Optimal Search, and the Division of Cognitive Labor.Jason McKenzie Alexander, Johannes Himmelreich & Christopher Thompson - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (3):424-453,.
    This article examines two questions about scientists’ search for knowledge. First, which search strategies generate discoveries effectively? Second, is it advantageous to diversify search strategies? We argue pace Weisberg and Muldoon, “Epistemic Landscapes and the Division of Cognitive Labor”, that, on the first question, a search strategy that deliberately seeks novel research approaches need not be optimal. On the second question, we argue they have not shown epistemic reasons exist for the division of cognitive labor, identifying the errors that led (...)
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  2. Intelligence Via Ultrafilters: Structural Properties of Some Intelligence Comparators of Deterministic Legg-Hutter Agents.Samuel Alexander - 2019 - Journal of Artificial General Intelligence 10 (1):24-45.
    Legg and Hutter, as well as subsequent authors, considered intelligent agents through the lens of interaction with reward-giving environments, attempting to assign numeric intelligence measures to such agents, with the guiding principle that a more intelligent agent should gain higher rewards from environments in some aggregate sense. In this paper, we consider a related question: rather than measure numeric intelligence of one Legg- Hutter agent, how can we compare the relative intelligence of two Legg-Hutter agents? We propose an elegant answer (...)
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  3. The Archimedean Trap: Why Traditional Reinforcement Learning Will Probably Not Yield AGI.Samuel Allen Alexander - manuscript
    After generalizing the Archimedean property of real numbers in such a way as to make it adaptable to non-numeric structures, we demonstrate that the real numbers cannot be used to accurately measure non-Archimedean structures. We argue that, since an agent with Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) should have no problem engaging in tasks that inherently involve non-Archimedean rewards, and since traditional reinforcement learning rewards are real numbers, therefore traditional reinforcement learning cannot lead to AGI. We indicate two possible ways traditional reinforcement (...)
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  4. A Type of Simulation Which Some Experimental Evidence Suggests We Don't Live In.Samuel Alexander - 2018 - The Reasoner 12 (7):56-56.
    Do we live in a computer simulation? I will present an argument that the results of a certain experiment constitute empirical evidence that we do not live in, at least, one type of simulation. The type of simulation ruled out is very specific. Perhaps that is the price one must pay to make any kind of Popperian progress.
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  5.  66
    AGI and the Knight-Darwin Law: Why Idealized AGI Reproduction Requires Collaboration.Samuel Alexander - forthcoming - In International Conference on Artificial General Intelligence. Springer.
    Can an AGI create a more intelligent AGI? Under idealized assumptions, for a certain theoretical type of intelligence, our answer is: “Not without outside help”. This is a paper on the mathematical structure of AGI populations when parent AGIs create child AGIs. We argue that such populations satisfy a certain biological law. Motivated by observations of sexual reproduction in seemingly-asexual species, the Knight-Darwin Law states that it is impossible for one organism to asexually produce another, which asexually produces another, and (...)
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  6. After Neofunctionalism: Action, Culture, and Civil Society.Jeffrey C. Alexander - 1998 - In Neofunctionalism and After. Blackwell. pp. 210--33.
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  7. Mathematical Shortcomings in a Simulated Universe.Samuel Alexander - 2018 - The Reasoner 12 (9):71-72.
    I present an argument that for any computer-simulated civilization we design, the mathematical knowledge recorded by that civilization has one of two limitations. It is untrustworthy, or it is weaker than our own mathematical knowledge. This is paradoxical because it seems that nothing prevents us from building in all sorts of advantages for the inhabitants of said simulation.
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  8. Are We All Little Eichmanns?: The Killing Compartments: The Mentality of Mass Murder Author: Abram de Swann New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2015, 332 Pp.Gary Jason - 2016 - Philosophia 44 (1):1-13.
    In this review essay, I review in detail Abram de Swann's fine new book, The Killing Compartments. The book is a theoretical analysis of the varieties and causes of genocides and other mass asymmetrical killing campaigns. I then suggest several criticisms of his analysis.
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  9. Legg-Hutter Universal Intelligence Implies Classical Music is Better Than Pop Music for Intellectual Training.Samuel Alexander - 2019 - The Reasoner 13 (11):71-72.
    In their thought-provoking paper, Legg and Hutter consider a certain abstrac- tion of an intelligent agent, and define a universal intelligence measure, which assigns every such agent a numerical intelligence rating. We will briefly summarize Legg and Hutter’s paper, and then give a tongue-in-cheek argument that if one’s goal is to become more intelligent by cultivating music appreciation, then it is bet- ter to use classical music (such as Bach, Mozart, and Beethoven) than to use more recent pop music. The (...)
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  10. Salience and Epistemic Egocentrism: An Empirical Study.Joshua Alexander, Chad Gonnerman & John Waterman - 2014 - In James Beebe (ed.), Advances in Experimental Epistemology. Continuum. pp. 97-117.
    Jennifer Nagel (2010) has recently proposed a fascinating account of the decreased tendency to attribute knowledge in conversational contexts in which unrealized possibilities of error have been mentioned. Her account appeals to epistemic egocentrism, or what is sometimes called the curse of knowledge, an egocentric bias to attribute our own mental states to other people (and sometimes our own future and past selves). Our aim in this paper is to investigate the empirical merits of Nagel’s hypothesis about the psychology involved (...)
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  11.  86
    Measuring the Intelligence of an Idealized Mechanical Knowing Agent.Samuel Alexander - forthcoming - Lecture Notes in Computer Science.
    We define a notion of the intelligence level of an idealized mechanical knowing agent. This is motivated by efforts within artificial intelligence research to define real-number intelligence levels of compli- cated intelligent systems. Our agents are more idealized, which allows us to define a much simpler measure of intelligence level for them. In short, we define the intelligence level of a mechanical knowing agent to be the supremum of the computable ordinals that have codes the agent knows to be codes (...)
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  12.  62
    Self-Graphing Equations.Samuel Alexander - manuscript
    Can you find an xy-equation that, when graphed, writes itself on the plane? This idea became internet-famous when a Wikipedia article on Tupper’s self-referential formula went viral in 2012. Under scrutiny, the question has two flaws: it is meaningless (it depends on fonts) and it is trivial. We fix these flaws by formalizing the problem.
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  13. Portraits of Egoism in Classic Cinema I: Sympathetic Portrayals.Gary James Jason - 2014 - Reason Papers 36 (1).
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  14. Nicholas Phillipson: Adam Smith: An Enlightened Life: New Haven, CT: Yale University Press 346 Pages.Gary Jason - 2012 - Philosophia 40 (4):919-922.
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  15. The History of Cinema and America’s Role in It: Review Essay of D. Gomery and C. Pafort-Overduin’s Movie History: A Survey. [REVIEW]Gary James Jason - 2013 - Reason Papers 35 (1):170-186.
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  16. Eamonn Butler, Classical Liberalism: A Primer: London: The Institute of Economic Affairs, 2015. 132 Pp.Gary Jason - 2017 - Philosophia 45 (1):387-395.
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  17. Debunking Neosocialism: A review of C. Snowden, Debunking Myths about the Free Market.Gary James Jason - 2017 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 17 (1):84.
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  18. Eamonn Butler, Public Choice: A Primer London: Institute of Economic Affairs, 2012.Gary Jason - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (3):917-922.
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  19. The Problem of Respecting Higher-Order Doubt.David J. Alexander - 2013 - Philosophers' Imprint 13.
    This paper argues that higher-order doubt generates an epistemic dilemma. One has a higher-order doubt with regards to P insofar as one justifiably withholds belief as to what attitude towards P is justified. That is, one justifiably withholds belief as to whether one is justified in believing, disbelieving, or withholding belief in P. Using the resources provided by Richard Feldman’s recent discussion of how to respect one’s evidence, I argue that if one has a higher-order doubt with regards to P, (...)
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  20. Film and Propaganda: The Lessons of the Nazi Film Industry.Gary James Jason - 2013 - Reason Papers 35 (1):203-219.
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  21.  94
    Livingston, Donald, Ed. Rethinking the American Union for the Twenty-First Century. Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing Company, 2012. [REVIEW]Gary James Jason - 2012 - Reason Papers 34 (2):211-214.
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  22. A Machine That Knows Its Own Code.Samuel A. Alexander - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (3):567-576.
    We construct a machine that knows its own code, at the price of not knowing its own factivity.
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  23. Book Review Of: Karen Liebreich, The Black Page: Interviews with Nazi Filmmakers. [REVIEW]Gary James Jason - 2017 - Reason Papers 39 (2):pp. 105-107.
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  24. Review Essay,"Another Small Piece of a War: A Review of 'Charlie and His Orchestra'".Gary James Jason - 2017 - Liberty (December 4, 2017).
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  25. Whence Did German Propaganda Films Derive Their Power?Gary James Jason - 2016 - Reason Papers 38 (1).
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  26. Review Essay: A. Gini and A. Marcoux, The Ethics of Business: A Concise Introduction.Gary James Jason - 2014 - Reason Papers 36 (1).
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  27. Three Rival Views of Tradition (Arendt, Oakeshott and MacIntyre).James Alexander - 2012 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 6 (1):20-43.
    If we define tradition too hastily we leave to one side the question of what the relevance of tradition is for us. Here the concept of tradition is opened up by considering the different views of it taken by Hannah Arendt, Michael Oakeshott and Alasdair MacIntyre. We see that each has put tradition into a fully developed picture of what our predicament is in modernity; and that each has differed in their assessment of what our relation to tradition is or (...)
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  28. An Axiomatic Version of Fitch’s Paradox.Samuel Alexander - 2013 - Synthese 190 (12):2015-2020.
    A variation of Fitch’s paradox is given, where no special rules of inference are assumed, only axioms. These axioms follow from the familiar assumptions which involve rules of inference. We show (by constructing a model) that by allowing that possibly the knower doesn’t know his own soundness (while still requiring he be sound), Fitch’s paradox is avoided. Provided one is willing to admit that sound knowers may be ignorant of their own soundness, this might offer a way out of the (...)
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  29. Book Review Of: P. Booth, ...And the Pursuit of Happiness: Wellbeing and the Role of Government.Gary James Jason - 2015 - Reason Papers 37 (1).
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  30.  32
    Appendix for 'Salient Alternatives in Perspective'.Mikkel Gerken, Joshua Alexander, Chad Gonnerman & John Philip Waterman - manuscript
    This is an appendix containing the stimulus materials for the experiments reported in the paper ‘Salient Alternatives in Perspective.’.
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  31. Affective Startle Potentiation Differentiates Primary and Secondary Variants of Juvenile Psychopathy.Goulter Natalie, Kimonis Eva, Fanti Kostas & Hall Jason - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
    Background: Individuals with psychopathic traits demonstrate an attenuated emotional response to aversive stimuli. However, recent evidence suggests heterogeneity in emotional reactivity among individuals with psychopathic or callous-unemotional (CU) traits, the emotional detachment dimension of psychopathy. We hypothesize that primary variants of psychopathy will respond with blunted affect to negatively valenced stimuli, whereas individuals marked with histories of childhood trauma/maltreatment exposure, known as secondary variants, will display heightened emotional reactivity. To test this hypothesis, the present study examined fear-potentiated startle between psychopathy (...)
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  32. Selling Genocide II: The Later Films.Gary James Jason - 2017 - Reason Papers 39 (1):97-123.
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  33. Portraits of Egoism in Classic Cinema II: Negative Portrayals.Gary James Jason - 2015 - Reason Papers 37 (1).
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  34.  98
    Selling Genocide I: The Earlier Films.Gary James Jason - 2016 - Reason Papers 38 (1).
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  35. Two Problems of Induction.Gary James Jason - 1985 - Dialectica 39 (1):53-74.
    SummaryIn this paper, two different theoretical problems of induction are delineated. The first problem is addressed; the second problem is deferred to the sequel to this paper. The first problem of induction is taken to be the seemingly unformalizable nature of traditional inductive arguments. It is shown that the problem does not arise out of some particularly dubious argument form , but rather from the presupposition that inductive “logic” is, like deductive logic, assertoric. Rather , inductive logic is dialectical in (...)
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  36. Unauthorized Freud: Doubters Confront a Legend: Ed. By Frederick C. Cress. New York: Viking Penguin Publishers, 1998, 301 Pages.Gary Jason - 2005 - Philosophia 33 (1-4):343-349.
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  37. Fast-Collapsing Theories.Samuel A. Alexander - 2013 - Studia Logica (1):1-21.
    Reinhardt’s conjecture, a formalization of the statement that a truthful knowing machine can know its own truthfulness and mechanicalness, was proved by Carlson using sophisticated structural results about the ordinals and transfinite induction just beyond the first epsilon number. We prove a weaker version of the conjecture, by elementary methods and transfinite induction up to a smaller ordinal.
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  38. Book Review Of: D. Flynn, Intellectual Morons: How Ideology Makes Smart People Fall for Stupid Ideas. [REVIEW]Gary James Jason - 2006 - Liberty (September):47-49.
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  39. Movie Review Of: The Man Who Knew Infinity.Gary James Jason - 2016 - Liberty 6.
    This is a review of the biopic of the great mathematician Ramanujan, 'The Man Who Knew Infinity'(2016).
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  40.  73
    A Purely Epistemological Version of Fitch's Paradox.Samuel Alexander - 2012 - The Reasoner 6 (4):59-60.
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  41. This Sentence Does Not Contain the Symbol X.Samuel Alexander - 2013 - The Reasoner 7 (9):108.
    A suprise may occur if we use a similar strategy to the Liar's paradox to mathematically formalize "This sentence does not contain the symbol X".
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  42. Does Virtue Epistemology Provide a Better Account of the Ad Hominem Argument? A Reply to Christopher Johnson.Gary James Jason - 2011 - Philosophy 86 (1):95-119.
    Christopher Johnson has put forward in this journal the view that ad hominem reasoning may be more generally reasonable than is allowed by writers such as myself, basing his view on virtue epistemology. I review his account, as well as the standard account, of ad hominem reasoning, and show how the standard account would handle the cases he sketches in defense of his own view. I then give four criticisms of his view generally: the problems of virtue conflict, vagueness, conflation (...)
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  43. Guessing, Mind-Changing, and the Second Ambiguous Class.Samuel Alexander - 2016 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 57 (2):209-220.
    In his dissertation, Wadge defined a notion of guessability on subsets of the Baire space and gave two characterizations of guessable sets. A set is guessable if and only if it is in the second ambiguous class, if and only if it is eventually annihilated by a certain remainder. We simplify this remainder and give a new proof of the latter equivalence. We then introduce a notion of guessing with an ordinal limit on how often one can change one’s mind. (...)
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  44. Are Fallacies Common? A Look at Two Debates.Gary James Jason - 1986 - Informal Logic 8 (2).
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  45. Whence This Libertarian View of Life?Gary James Jason - 2008 - Liberty:54-60.
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  46. Book Review Of: S. Hicks, Explaining Postmodernism: Skepticism and Socialism From Rousseau to Foucault. [REVIEW]Gary James Jason - 2005 - Liberty (June):37-41.
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  47. Biologically Unavoidable Sequences.Samuel Alexander - 2013 - Electronic Journal of Combinatorics 20 (1):1-13.
    A biologically unavoidable sequence is an infinite gender sequence which occurs in every gendered, infinite genealogical network satisfying certain tame conditions. We show that every eventually periodic sequence is biologically unavoidable (this generalizes König's Lemma), and we exhibit some biologically avoidable sequences. Finally we give an application of unavoidable sequences to cellular automata.
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  48.  83
    Epistemologies and Apologies.Gary James Jason - 1986 - Dialectica 40 (1):45-58.
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  49.  98
    A Classical Liberal Case for Immigration Reform.Gary James Jason - 2012 - Liberty (December):1-18.
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  50.  95
    Portraits of Egoism in Classic Cinema III: Nietzschean Portrayals.Gary James Jason - 2015 - Reason Papers 37 (2).
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