Results for 'Lucien von Schomberg'

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  1. The turbulent age of innovation.Lucien von Schomberg & Vincent Blok - 2018 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 19):1-17.
    The concept of innovation has entered a turbulent age. On the one hand, it is uncritically understood as ‘technological innovation’ and ‘commercialized innovation.’ On the other hand, ongoing research under the heading responsible research and innovation suggests that current global issues require innovation to go beyond its usual intent of generating commercial value. However, little thought goes into what innovation means conceptually. Although there is a focus on enabling outcomes of innovation processes to become more responsible and desirable, the technological (...)
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  2. Technology in the Age of Innovation: Responsible Innovation as a New Subdomain Within the Philosophy of Technology.Lucien von Schomberg & Vincent Blok - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):309-323.
    Praised as a panacea for resolving all societal issues, and self-evidently presupposed as technological innovation, the concept of innovation has become the emblem of our age. This is especially reflected in the context of the European Union, where it is considered to play a central role in both strengthening the economy and confronting the current environmental crisis. The pressing question is how technological innovation can be steered into the right direction. To this end, recent frameworks of Responsible Innovation focus on (...)
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  3. Open Science, Open Data, and Open Scholarship: European Policies to Make Science Fit for the Twenty-First Century.Rene Von Schomberg, Jean-Claude Burgelman, Corina Pascu, Kataezyna Szkuta, Athanasios Karalopoulos, Konstantinos Repanas & Michel Schouppe - 2019 - Frontiers in Big Data 2:43.
    Open science will make science more efficient, reliable, and responsive to societal challenges. The European Commission has sought to advance open science policy from its inception in a holistic and integrated way, covering all aspects of the research cycle from scientific discovery and review to sharing knowledge, publishing, and outreach. We present the steps taken with a forward-looking perspective on the challenges laying ahead, in particular the necessary change of the rewards and incentives system for researchers (for which various actors (...)
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  4. A vision of Responsible Innovation.Rene Von Schomberg - 2017 - In L. Asveld, R. Van Dam-Mieras, T. Swierstra, S. Lavrijssen, K. Linse & J. Van Den Hoven (eds.), Responsible Innovation. Springer International Publishing. pp. 51-74.
    This Article outlines a vision of responsible innovation and outlines a public policy and implementation strategy for it.
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  5. why responsible innovation.Rene Von Schomberg - 2019 - In René von Schomberg & Jonathan Hankins (eds.), International Handbook on Responsible Innovation. A global resource. Cheltenham, Royaume-Uni: Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 12-32.
    Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) reflects an innovation paradigm that acknowledges that market innovations do not automatically deliver on socially desirable objectives, and requires a broad governance of knowledge coalitions of governmental bodies as well as industrial and societal actors to address market deficits. Responsible Innovation should be understood as a new paradigm for innovation which requires institutional changes in the research and innovation system and the public governance of the economy. It also requires the institutionalisation of an ethics of (...)
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  6. Towards Responsible Research and Innovation in the Information and Communication Technologies and Security Technologies Fields.Rene Von Schomberg (ed.) - 2011 - Publications Office of the European Union.
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  7. an unfinished journey? Reflection on a decade of responsible innovation.Rene Von Schomberg, Richard Owen & Phil Macnaghten - 2021 - Journal of Responsible Innovation 1 (2):1-17.
    We reflect on a decade of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) as a discourse emerging from the European Commission (EC) 10 years ago. We discuss the foundations for RRI, its emergence during the Seventh Framework programme and its subsequent evolution during Horizon 2020. We discuss how an original vision for RRI became framed around five so-called ‘keys’: gender, open access, science communication, ethics and public engagement. We consider the prospects for RRI within the context of the EC’s Open Science agenda (...)
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  8. Introduction to the International Handbook on Responsible Innovation.Rene Von Schomberg - 2019 - In René von Schomberg & Jonathan Hankins (eds.), International Handbook on Responsible Innovation. A global resource. Cheltenham, Royaume-Uni: Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 1-11.
    he Handbook constitutes a global resource for the fast growing interdisciplinary research and policy communities addressing the challenge of driving innovation towards socially desirable outcomes. This book brings together well-known authors from the US, Europe, Asia and South-Africa who develop conceptual, ethical and regional perspectives on responsible innovation as well as exploring the prospects for further implementation of responsible innovation in emerging technological practices ranging from agriculture and medicine, to nanotechnology and robotics. The emphasis is on the socio-economic and normative (...)
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  9. An unfinished journey? Reflections on a decade of responsible research and innovation, Journal of Responsible Innovation.Rene Von Schomberg, Richard Owen & Phil Macnaghten - 2021 - Journal of Responsible Innovation 2:1-17.
    We reflect on a decade of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) as a discourse emerging from the European Commission (EC) 10 years ago. We discuss the foundations for RRI, its emergence during the Seventh Framework programme and its subsequent evolution during Horizon 2020. We discuss how an original vision for RRI became framed around five so-called ‘keys’: gender, open access, science communication, ethics and public engagement. We consider the prospects for RRI within the context of the EC’s Open Science agenda (...)
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  10. In Memory of Karl-Otto Apel: The challenges of a universalistic ethics of collective co-responsibility.Rene Von Schomberg - 2020 - Topologik : Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Filosofiche, Pedagogiche e Sociali 2 (26):151-162.
    On the basis of Karl-Otto Apels’ diagnosis of the shortcomings of philosophical ethics in general, and any ethics of individual accountability in particular, I give an outline how these shortcoming are currently to be articulated in the context of ecological crisis and socio-technical change. This will be followed with three interpretations of Karl-Otto Apels’ proposal for an ethics of collective coresponsibility. In conclusion, I will advocate that only a further social evolution of the systems of science, economy and law will (...)
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  11. Understanding Public Debate on Nanotechnologies.Rene von Schomberg (ed.) - 2010 - Publications Office of the European Union.
    This book features the contribution of major European research projects on the governance and ethics of Nanotechnology. They focus on the responsible development of nanotechnology and on the understanding of public debate.
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  12.  91
    Global public goods.Rene von Schomberg - 2023 - In Konfigurationen der Zeitlichkeit. Baden-baden: Nomos verlaggesellschaft. pp. 326-328.
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  13. The Future of Research Assesment.Rene Von Schomberg - manuscript
    I make the case that research assesment should be employed to assess the scientific system, or research missions, rather than individual researchers. In order to shift to a more open science ,a thorough revision of the reward and incentives system is since long overdue. I propose here an alternative based on review of research behaviour, such as colkaboration and knowledge sharing,rather than research outcomes.
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  14. Ethical challenges and limits of RRI for improv-ing the governance of research and innovation processes.René Von Schomberg, Elsa González Esteban & Rosana Sanahuja-Sanahuja - 2022 - Recerca.Revista de Pensament I Anàlisi 27 (2):1-6.
    Responsible research and innovation imposes normative requirements on research and innovation processes resembling three successive steps, each more ambitious than its predecessor, with distinct features. For the research dimension the distinct features reflect the normative requirements of, first, credible research ; second, responsive research ; and third, responsible research. Equally distinct features reflect the requirements of credible innovation, responsive innovation, and responsible innovation.
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  15. The normative challenges of the precautionary principle.Rene von Schomberg - 2006 - In Elizabeth Fisher & Rene von Schomberg (eds.), Implementing the Precautionary Principle: Perspectives and Prospects. Edward Elgar. pp. 19-42.
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  16. The precautionary principle: Its use within hard and soft law.Rene Von Schomberg - 2012 - European Journal of Risk Regulation 2 (3):147-156.
    The precautionary principle in public decision making concerns situations where following an assessment of the available scientific information, there are reasonable grounds for concern for the possibility of adverse effects on the environment or human health, but scientific uncertainty persists. In such cases provisional risk management measures may be adopted, without having to wait until the reality and seriousness of those adverse effects become fully apparent. This is the definition of the precautionary principle as operationalized under EU law. The precautionary (...)
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  17. The Erosion of our Value Spheres.René von Schomberg - 2007 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 3:197-218.
    In the following, I will discuss the current social reaction to the ecological crisis and the ways in which society reacts to technological risks, which can be understood primarily as a reaction to scientific and moral or ethical uncertainty. In the first section, I will clarify what is meant by scientific and moral or ethical uncertainty. In the second section, I will contrast Max Weber's differentiation of science, law [Recht) and morality in the modern world with the process of de-differentiation (...)
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  18. From the ethics of technology towards an ethics of knowledge policy.René von Schomberg - 2007 - AI and Society.
    My analysis takes as its point of departure the controversial assumption that contemporary ethical theories cannot capture adequately the ethical and social challenges of scientific and technological development. This assumption is rooted in the argument that classical ethical theory invariably addresses the issue of ethical responsibility in terms of whether and how intentional actions of individuals can be justified. Scientific and technological developments, however, have produced unintentional consequences and side-consequences. These consequences very often result from collective decisions concerning the way (...)
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  19. Full Throttle: COVID-19 Open Science to Build Planetary Public Goods.Rene Von Schomberg & Vural Ozdemir - 2020 - Omics: A Journal of Integrative Biology 24:1-3.
    this article makes the case that the rationale of open science and responsible innovation will help to build public planetary goods: the necessity of this rationale is illustrated on the COViD-19 case.
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  20. Organising collective responsibility: On Precaution, Codes of Conduct and Understanding Public Debate.von Schomberg - 2010 - In U. Fiedeler (ed.), Understanding Nanotechnology. pp. 61-70.
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  21.  70
    Futures of Science for Policy in Europe: Scenarios and Policy Implications.Rene Von Schomberg - 2023 - Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
    This policy brief explores important trends for the future of science for policy in Europe and the challenges and opportunities that they present for the development of science for policy ecosystems in the European Union. On the background of an increasing prominence of science in public debates and an increasing willingness of governments to mobilize scientific advice, the policy brief explores trends that shape the practices and processes of information exchange between knowledge actors and policy-makers with the intention to produce (...)
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  22. Science, politics, and morality: scientific uncertainty and decision making.René von Schomberg (ed.) - 1993 - Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Current environmental problems and technological risks are a challenge for a new institutional arrangement of the value spheres of Science, Politics and Morality. Distinguished authors from different European countries and America provide a cross-disciplinary perspective on the problems of political decision making under the conditions of scientific uncertainty. cases from biotechnology and the environmental sciences are discussed. The papers collected for this volume address the following themes: (i) controversies about risks and political decision making; (ii) concepts of science for policy; (...)
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  23. Technology in the Age of Innovation: Responsible Innovation as a New Subdomain Within the Philosophy of Technology.Lucien Schomberg & Vincent Blok - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):309–323.
    Praised as a panacea for resolving all societal issues, and self-evidently presupposed as technological innovation, the concept of innovation has become the emblem of our age. This is especially reflected in the context of the European Union, where it is considered to play a central role in both strengthening the economy and confronting the current environmental crisis. The pressing question is how technological innovation can be steered into the right direction. To this end, recent frameworks of Responsible Innovation (RI) focus (...)
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  24. On Identifying Plausibility and Deliberative Public Policy.René Schomberg - 2011 - Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (4):739-742.
    The identification of plausible epistemic approaches in science as well as the social problem definitions with which scientists implicitly work is essential for the quality of a deliberative public policy. While responding to the Nanofutures project, I will reflect on the essential elements of such a policy.
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  25. The meaning of ‘reasonable’: Evidence from a corpus-linguistic study.Lucien Baumgartner & Markus Kneer - forthcoming - In Kevin P. Tobia (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Experimental Jurisprudence. Cambridge University Press.
    The reasonable person standard is key to both Criminal Law and Torts. What does and does not count as reasonable behavior and decision-making is frequently deter- mined by lay jurors. Hence, laypeople’s understanding of the term must be considered, especially whether they use it predominately in an evaluative fashion. In this corpus study based on supervised machine learning models, we investigate whether laypeople use the expression ‘reasonable’ mainly as a descriptive, an evaluative, or merely a value-associated term. We find that (...)
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  26. Conspiracy theories are not theories: Time to rename conspiracy theories.Kevin Reuter & Lucien Baumgartner - forthcoming - In Manuel Gustavo Isaac, Steffen Koch & Kevin Scharp (eds.), New Perspectives on Conceptual Engineering. Springer.
    This paper presents the results of two corpus studies investigating the discourse surrounding conspiracy theories and genuine theories. The results of these studies show that conspiracy theories lack the epistemic and scientific standing characteristic of theories more generally. Instead, our findings indicate that conspiracy theories are spread in a manner that resembles the dissemination of rumors and falsehoods. Based on these empirical results, we argue that it is time for both re-engineering conspiracy theory and for relabeling "conspiracy theory". We propose (...)
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  27. Tracing thick and thin concepts through corpora.Kevin Https://Orcidorg Reuter, Lucien Baumgartner & Pascale Willemsen - 2024 - Language and Cognition.
    Philosophers and linguists currently lack the means to reliably identify evaluative concepts and measure their evaluative intensity. Using a corpus-based approach, we present a new method to distinguish evaluatively thick and thin adjectives like ‘courageous’ and ‘awful’ from descriptive adjectives like ‘narrow,’ and from value-associated adjectives like ‘sunny.’ Our study suggests that the modifiers ‘truly’ and ‘really’ frequently highlight the evaluative dimension of thick and thin adjectives, allowing for them to be uniquely classified. Based on these results, we believe our (...)
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  28. Astrobiology and astrophilosophy: subsuming or bifurcating diciplines?Ian von Hegner - 2019 - Philosophy and Cosmology 23:62-79.
    Initially, astrobiology subsumed into philosophy. However, philosophy has increasingly subsumed into astrobiology concurrent with it steadily becoming an observational and experimental activity that mainly focuses on the link between life and the cosmos, rather than on extra-terrestrial life per se. However, the steadily increasing probability of locating such extra-terrestrial life and the questions this will lead to might require a refinement of astrobiology, with a bifurcation into astrobiology and astrophilosophy. There are many reasons for the emergence and necessity of astrobiology. (...)
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  29. Entrevista Com Fausto Castilho.Alexandre de Soares, Luciene Torino & Marcos Seneda - 2013 - Educação E Filosofia 27 (53).
    Com toda uma vida dedicada à reflexão, Fausto Castilho teve a sua trajetória marcada por duas grandes paixões: a Filosofia e o Brasil. Ambas o acompanharam desde a infância e a adolescência, tendo atravessado o seu caminho personagens emblemáticos, que o ajudaram a demarcar o traçado peculiar do seu destino. Formado na Sorbonne, numa época em que ela reunia, com seu corpo docente, um dos mais significativos e completos departamentos de filosofia do ocidente, Fausto Castilho trouxe consigo diversos métodos rigorosos (...)
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  30. God’s Action in History.Klaus Von Stosch - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 7 (3):187--206.
    The explication of the Christian hope of resurrection requires Christianity to spell out the way in which God actually deals in the world. Only if we succeed, with regard to past, present, and future, in making the talk of God’s special action in history plausible, are we able to reasonably assert essential Christian beliefs. Yet due to past horrors, present ongoing suffering, and a future that promises of little else, it is precisely this talk that has become doubtful. This article (...)
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  31. Real Free Will.von Wachter Daniel - manuscript
    Many authors hold that we cannot have the kind of free will that we seem to have. This article spells out and defends that kind of free will. Most libertarians hold that a free action involves a probabilistic process at some stage. Like the compatibilists, I hold that this is not only not required for free will but even reduces or excludes freedom. But contrary to the compatibilist and contrary to most libertarians, I claim that free will requires that we (...)
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  32. Effort and Achievement.Hasko von Kriegstein - 2017 - Utilitas 29 (1):27-51.
    Achievements have recently begun to attract increased attention from value theorists. One recurring idea in this budding literature is that one important factor determining the magnitude or value of an achievement is the amount of effort the achiever invested. The aim of this paper is to present the most plausible version of this idea. This advances the current state of debate where authors are invoking substantially different notions of effort and are thus talking past each other. While the concept of (...)
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  33. Democratic Rights and the Choice of Economic Systems.Platz Jeppe von - 2017 - Analyse & Kritik 39 (2):405-412.
    Holt argues that Rawls’s first principle of justice requires democratic control of the economy and that property owning democracy fails to satisfy this requirement; only liberal socialism is fully democratic. However, the notion of democratic control is ambiguous, and Holt has to choose between the weaker notion of democratic control that Rawls is committed to and the stronger notion that property owning democracy fails to satisfy. It may be that there is a tension between capitalism and democracy, so that only (...)
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  34. Are Economic Liberties Basic Rights?Jeppe von Platz - 2014 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (1):23-44.
    In this essay I discuss a powerful challenge to high-liberalism: the challenge presented by neoclassical liberals that the high-liberal assumptions and values imply that the full range of economic liberties are basic rights. If the claim is true, then the high-liberal road from ideals of democracy and democratic citizenship to left-liberal institutions is blocked. Indeed, in that case the high-liberal is committed to an institutional scheme more along the lines of laissez-faire capitalism than property-owning democracy. To present and discuss this (...)
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  35. Moral Encroachment, Symmetry, and Believing Against the Evidence.Caroline von Klemperer - 2023 - Philosophical Studies (7).
    It is widely held that our beliefs can be epistemically faultless despite being morally flawed. Theories of moral encroachment challenge this, holding that moral considerations bear on the epistemic status of our attitudes. According to attitude-based theories of moral encroachment, morality encroaches upon the epistemic standing of our attitudes on the grounds that we can morally injure others with our epistemic practices. In this paper, I aim to show that current attitude-based theories have asymmetric mechanisms: moral features only make it (...)
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  36. On 'Gestalt qualities' (trans. B. Smith).C. Von Ehrenfels & Barry Smith - 1988 - In Barry Smith (ed.), Foundations of Gestalt Theory. Philosophia. pp. 82--117.
    The theory of Gestalt qualities arose from the attempt to explain how a melody is distinct from the collection of the tones which it comprehends. In this essay from 1890 Christian von Ehrenfels coined the term 'Gestaltqualität' to capture the idea of a pattern which is comprehensible in a single experience. This idea can be applied not only to melodies and other occurrent patterns, but also to continuant patterns such as shapes and colour arrays such as the array of a (...)
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  37. On being difficult: towards an account of the nature of difficulty.Hasko von Kriegstein - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (1):45-64.
    This paper critically assesses existing accounts of the nature of difficulty, finds them wanting, and proposes a new account. The concept of difficulty is routinely invoked in debates regarding degrees of moral responsibility, and the value of achievement. Until recently, however, there has not been any sustained attempt to provide an account of the nature of difficulty itself. This has changed with Gwen Bradford’s Achievement, which argues that difficulty is a matter of how much intense effort is expended. But while (...)
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  38. Affective Societies: Key Concepts.Jan Slaby & Christian von Scheve (eds.) - 2019 - New York: Routledge.
    Affect and emotion have come to dominate discourse on social and political life in the mobile and networked societies of the early 21st century. This volume introduces a unique collection of essential concepts for theorizing and empirically investigating societies as Affective Societies. The concepts engender insights into the affective foundations of social coexistence and are indispensable to comprehend the many areas of conflict linked to emotion such as migration, political populism, or local and global inequalities. Each chapters provides historical orientation; (...)
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  39. An essay in deontic logic and the general theory of action: with a bibliography of deontic and imperative logic.Georg Henrik von Wright (ed.) - 1968 - Amsterdam: North-Holland Pub. Co..
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  40. Professionalism, Agency, and Market Failures.Hasko von Kriegstein - 2016 - Business Ethics Quarterly 26 (4):445-464.
    According to the Market Failures Approach to business ethics, beyond-compliance duties can be derived by employing the same rationale and arguments that justify state regulation of economic conduct. Very roughly the idea is that managers have a duty to behave as if they were complying with an ideal regulatory regime ensuring Pareto-optimal market outcomes. Proponents of the approach argue that managers have a professional duty not to undermine the institutional setting that defines their role, namely the competitive market. This answer (...)
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  41. Succeeding competently: towards an anti-luck condition for achievement.Hasko von Kriegstein - 2019 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 49 (3):394-418.
    ABSTRACTAchievements are among the things that make a life good. Assessing the plausibility of this intuitive claim requires an account of the nature of achievements. One necessary condition for achievement appears to be that the achieving agent acted competently, i.e. was not just lucky. I begin by critically assessing existing accounts of anti-luck conditions for achievements in both the ethics and epistemology literature. My own proposal is that a goal is reached competently, only if the actions of the would-be-achiever make (...)
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  42. Fictional Realism and Negative Existentials.Tatjana von Solodkoff - 2014 - In Manuel García-Carpintero & Genoveva Martí (eds.), Empty Representations: Reference and Non-Existence. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 333-352.
    In this paper I confront what I take to be the crucial challenge for fictional realism, i.e. the view that fictional characters exist. This is the problem of accounting for the intuition that corresponding negative existentials such as ‘Sherlock Holmes does not exist’ are true (when, given fictional realism, taken literally they seem false). I advance a novel and detailed form of the response according to which we take them to mean variants of such claims as: there is no concrete (...)
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  43. The Radical Behavioral Challenge and Wide-Scope Obligations in Business.Hasko von Kriegstein - 2022 - Journal of Business Ethics 177 (3):507-517.
    This paper responds to the Radical Behavioral Challenge to normative business ethics. According to RBC, recent research on bounded ethicality shows that it is psychologically impossible for people to follow the prescriptions of normative business ethics. Thus, said prescriptions run afoul of the principle that nobody has an obligation to do something that they cannot do. I show that the only explicit response to this challenge in the business ethics literature is flawed because it limits normative business ethics to condemning (...)
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  44. Oxymoron: taking business ethics denial seriously.Hasko von Kriegstein - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics Education 16:103-134.
    Business ethics denial refers to one of two claims about moral motivation in a business context: that there is no need for it, or that it is impossible. Neither of these radical claims is endorsed by serious theorists in the academic fields that study business ethics. Nevertheless, public commentators, as well as university students, often make claims that seem to imply that they subscribe to some form of business ethics denial. This paper fills a gap by making explicit both the (...)
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  45. Non-probabilistic Causation without Necessitation.Daniel Von Wachter - manuscript
    This article introduces the notion of the directedness of a process, which underlies event causation as well as the persistence of things. Using this notion it investigates what happens in typical cases of active event causation. Causes never necessitate their effects because even non- probabilistic causes can be counteracted.
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  46. Robin Hood Justice: Why Robin Hood Took from the Rich and Gave to the Poor (and We Should Too).Jeppe von Platz - 2016 - Public Affairs Quarterly 3 (2).
    The legend of Robin Hood exemplifies a distinct concern of justice neglected by theorists: the distributive results of systemic injustices. Robin Hood’s redistributive activities are justified by the principle that the distributive results of systemic injustices are unjust and should be corrected. This principle has relevance beyond the legend: since current inequalities in the US are results of systemic injustices, the US has good reason to take from the rich and give to the poor.
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  47. An essay on the relativity of categories.L. von Bertalanffy - 1955 - Philosophy of Science 22 (4):243-263.
    Among recent developments in the anthropological sciences, hardly any have found so much attention and led to so much controversy as have the views advanced by the late Benjamin Whorf.The hypothesis offered by Whorf is,“that the commonly held belief that the cognitive processes of all human beings possess a common logical structure which operates prior to and independently of communication through language, is erroneous. It is Whorf's view that the linguistic patterns themselves determine what the individual perceives in this world (...)
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  48.  87
    The ethics of voluntary ethics standards.Hasko von Kriegstein & Chris MacDonald - 2024 - Business and Society Review 129 (1):50-71.
    Many nongovernmental forms of business regulation aim at reducing ethical violations in commerce. We argue that such nongovernmental ethics standards, while often laudable, raise their own ethical challenges. In particular, when such standards place burdens upon vulnerable market participants (often, though not always, SMEs), they do so without the backing of traditional legitimate political authority. We argue that this constitutes a structural analogy to wars of humanitarian intervention. Moreover, we show that, while some harms imposed by such standards are desirable, (...)
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  49. Shareholder Primacy and Deontology.Hasko von Kriegstein - 2015 - Business and Society Review 120 (3):465-490.
    This article argues that shareholder primacy cannot be defended on the grounds that there is something special about the position of shareholders that grounds a right to preferential treatment on part of management. The notions of property and contract, traditionally thought to ground such a right, are now widely recognized as incapable of playing that role. This leaves shareholder theorists with two options. They can either abandon the project of arguing for their view on broadly deontological grounds and try to (...)
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  50. Gestalt level and Gestalt purity (trans. B. Smith).Christian von Ehrenfels & Barry Smith - 1988 - In Barry Smith (ed.), Foundations of Gestalt Theory. Philosophia. pp. 118-120.
    The fact that there is such a thing as a degree of formedness [Gestaltung], that every Gestalt has a certain Gestalt level, is of fundamental significance. A rose is a Gestalt of higher level than a heap of sand: this we recognize just as immediately as that red is a fuller, more lively colour than grey. The higher Gestalten are distinguished further from the lower by the fact that the product of unity and multiplicity [Einheit und Mannigfaltigkeit] is in their (...)
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