Results for 'Organismal Systems Medicine'

997 found
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  1.  52
    The Quest for System-Theoretical Medicine in the COVID-19 Era.Felix Tretter, Olaf Wolkenhauer, Michael Meyer-Hermann, Johannes W. Dietrich, Sara Green, James Marcum & Wolfram Weckwerth - 2021 - Frontiers in Medicine 8:640974.
    Precision medicine and molecular systems medicine (MSM) are highly utilized and successful approaches to improve understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of many diseases from bench-to-bedside. Especially in the COVID-19 pandemic, molecular techniques and biotechnological innovation have proven to be of utmost importance for rapid developments in disease diagnostics and treatment, including DNA and RNA sequencing technology, treatment with drugs and natural products and vaccine development. The COVID-19 crisis, however, has also demonstrated the need for systemic thinking and transdisciplinarity (...)
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  2. Me Medicine Vs. We Medicine: Reclaiming Biotechnology for the Common Good.Donna Dickenson - 2013 - New York, USA: Columbia University Press.
    Even in the increasingly individualized American medical system, advocates of 'personalized medicine' claim that healthcare isn't individualized enough. With the additional glamour of new biotechnologies such as genetic testing and pharmacogenetics behind it, 'Me Medicine'-- personalized or stratified medicine-- appears to its advocates as the inevitable and desirable way of the future. Drawing on an extensive evidence base, this book examines whether these claims are justified. It goes on to examine an alternative tradition rooted in communitarian ideals, (...)
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  3.  59
    The Ontology of Organismic Agency: A Kantian Approach.Hugh Desmond & Philippe Huneman - 2020 - In Andrea Altobrando & Pierfrancesco Biasetti (eds.), Natural Born Monads: On the Metaphysics of Organisms and Human Individuals. De Gruyter. pp. 33-64.
    Biologists explain organisms’ behavior not only as having been programmed by genes and shaped by natural selection, but also as the result of an organism’s agency: the capacity to react to environmental changes in goal-driven ways. The use of such ‘agential explanations’ reopens old questions about how justified it is to ascribe agency to entities like bacteria or plants that obviously lack rationality and even a nervous system. Is organismic agency genuinely ‘real’ or is it just a useful fiction? In (...)
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  4. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Teaching the 7 Characteristics for Living Things.Mohammed A. Hamed & Samy S. Abu Naser - 2017 - International Journal of Advanced Research and Development 2 (1):31-35.
    Recently, due to the rapid progress of computer technology, researchers develop an effective computer program to enhance the achievement of the student in learning process, which is Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). Science is important because it influences most aspects of everyday life, including food, energy, medicine, leisure activities and more. So learning science subject at school is very useful, but the students face some problem in learning it. So we designed an ITS system to help them understand this subject (...)
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  5. Medicine is Not Science: Guessing the Future, Predicting the Past.Clifford Miller - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):865–871.
    Abstract -/- Rationale, aims and objectives: Irregularity limits human ability to know, understand and predict. A better understanding of irregularity may improve the reliability of knowledge. -/- Method: Irregularity and its consequences for knowledge are considered. -/- Results: Reliable predictive empirical knowledge of the physical world has always been obtained by observation of regularities, without needing science or theory. Prediction from observational knowledge can remain reliable despite some theories based on it proving false. A naïve theory of irregularity is outlined. (...)
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  6. Mechanisms: What Are They Evidence for in Evidence-Based Medicine?Holly Andersen - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):992-999.
    Even though the evidence‐based medicine movement (EBM) labels mechanisms a low quality form of evidence, consideration of the mechanisms on which medicine relies, and the distinct roles that mechanisms might play in clinical practice, offers a number of insights into EBM itself. In this paper, I examine the connections between EBM and mechanisms from several angles. I diagnose what went wrong in two examples where mechanistic reasoning failed to generate accurate predictions for how a dysfunctional mechanism would respond (...)
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  7. A New Path for Humanistic Medicine.Juliette Ferry-Danini - 2018 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 39 (1):57-77.
    According to recent approaches in the philosophy of medicine, biomedicine should be replaced or complemented by a humanistic medical model. Two humanistic approaches, narrative medicine and the phenomenology of medicine, have grown particularly popular in recent decades. This paper first suggests that these humanistic criticisms of biomedicine are insufficient. A central problem is that both approaches seem to offer a straw man definition of biomedicine. It then argues that the subsequent definition of humanism found in these approaches (...)
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  8.  81
    The Promise and Perils of AI in Medicine.Robert Sparrow & Joshua James Hatherley - 2019 - International Journal of Chinese and Comparative Philosophy of Medicine 17 (2):79-109.
    What does Artificial Intelligence (AI) have to contribute to health care? And what should we be looking out for if we are worried about its risks? In this paper we offer a survey, and initial evaluation, of hopes and fears about the applications of artificial intelligence in medicine. AI clearly has enormous potential as a research tool, in genomics and public health especially, as well as a diagnostic aid. It’s also highly likely to impact on the organisational and business (...)
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  9. Indigenous Medicine and Traditional Healing in Africa: A Systematic Synthesis of the Literature.Samuel Adu-Gyamfi & Eugenia Anderson - 2019 - Philosophy, Social and Human Disciplines 1:69-100.
    Literature on traditional medicine in Africa is diverse and broad but most are country based, regional based or time based. There is the need for a systematic review that focuses on the nature of traditional medicine and its healers, the impact of the changing society on traditional medicine, and an analysis of same based on scholarly literature. African Traditional medicine, a mixture of herbal (physical), mystical (spiritual) and social elements of society, is quite varied but share (...)
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  10. Bodily Systems and the Modular Structure of the Human Body.Barry Smith, Igor Papakin & Katherine Munn - 2003 - Artificial Intelligence in Medicine (Lecture Notes on Artificial Intelligence 2780) 9:86-90.
    Medical science conceives the human body as a system comprised of many subsystems at a variety of levels. At the highest level are bodily systems proper, such as the endocrine system, which are central to our understanding of human anatomy, and play a key role in diagnosis and in dynamic modeling as well as in medical pedagogy and computer visualization. But there is no explicit definition of what a bodily system is; such informality is acceptable in documentation created for (...)
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  11. An Expert System for Nausea and Vomiting Problems in Infants and Children.Samy S. Abu Naser & Abed ELhaleem A. El-Najjar - 2016 - International Journal of Medicine Research 1 (2):114--117.
    Infants and children are suffering from a lots of nausea and vomiting problems. Doctors, usually face various difficulties dealing with these problems because of their similarities. In this paper, we present an expert system to help users in getting the correct diagnosis of problems of nausea and vomiting in infants and children (Gastro-esophageal reflux, Gastroenteritis, Systemic Infection, Bowel obstruction, Tumors, A bleeding disease, tonsillitis, and Hepatitis pharynx). Furthermore, this expert system provide information about the disease and how to deal with (...)
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  12. An Expert System for Feeding Problems in Infants and Children.Samy S. Abu Naser & Mariam W. Alawar - 2016 - International Journal of Medicine Research 1 (2):79--82.
    A lot of infants have significant food-related problems, as well as spitting up, rejecting new foods, or not accepting to eat at specific times. These issues are frequently ordinary and are not a sign that the baby is unwell. According to the National Institutes of Health, 25% of generally developing infants and 35% of babies with neurodevelopmental disabilities are tormented by some sort of feeding problem. Some, for example rejecting to eat specific foods or being overly finicky, are momentary and (...)
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  13. An Expert System for Men Genital Problems Diagnosis and Treatment.Samy S. Abu-Naser & Mones M. Al-Hanjori - 2016 - International Journal of Medicine Research 1.
    Male genital problems and injuries may occur quite simply because of the scrotum and penis are not protected like other organs. Genital problems and injuries normally happen through: recreational activities (like Football, Hooky, biking, basketball), work- related tasks (like contact to irritating chemicals), downhill drop, and sexual activity. A genital injury frequently causes harsh pain that typically disappear fast without causing enduring harm. Home handling is generally all that is required for trivial problems or injuries. Pain, inflammation, staining, or rashes (...)
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  14.  69
    No Blame No Gain? From a No Blame Culture to a Responsibility Culture in Medicine.Joshua Parker & Ben Davies - 2020 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (4):646-660.
    Healthcare systems need to consider not only how to prevent error, but how to respond to errors when they occur. In the United Kingdom’s National Health Service, one strand of this latter response is the ‘No Blame Culture’, which draws attention from individuals and towards systems in the process of understanding an error. Defences of the No Blame Culture typically fail to distinguish between blaming someone and holding them responsible. This article argues for a ‘responsibility culture’, where healthcare (...)
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  15. Non-Genetic Inheritance: Evolution Above the Organismal Level.Anton Sukhoverkhov & Nathalie Gontier - 2021 - Biosystems 1 (200):104325.
    The article proposes to further develop the ideas of the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis by including into evolutionary research an analysis of phenomena that occur above the organismal level. We demonstrate that the current Extended Synthesis is focused more on individual traits (genetically or non-genetically inherited) and less on community system traits (synergetic/organizational traits) that characterize transgenerational biological, ecological, social, and cultural systems. In this regard, we will consider various communities that are made up of interacting populations, and for (...)
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  16. Medicinal Uses of Cashew (Anacardium Occidentale): Review.Akram Muhammad & Talha Muhammad - 2021 - Journal of Science Technology and Research (JSTAR) 2 (1):1-10.
    The cashew nut is essential for physical and emotional well-being. It is an energetic diet and the best food medication for many illnesses. Nuts protects from malignant growth, coronary illness, circulatory strain, and various degenerative infirmities connected to aging. It can be used for several medicinal purposes. Every part of cashew has some important medicinal properties. Cashew kernel contains proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and fats which help gain energy. Cashew nuts are used for many purposes like blood sugar, weight loss, cancer, (...)
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  17.  15
    Medicine and Ethics.Lasker Shamima & Arif Hossain - 2015 - Encyclopedia of Global Bioethics.
    A new world has probably emerged through the progression of technology which has led to significant debates on social, cultural, legal, and ethical issues, especially in the biomedical field in this century. Application of physician-patient relationship, principles of pluralism, autonomy, democracy, human dignity, and human rights is being challenged within the medicine and health-care system of today. Development of technology-based remedies has fostered greater degrees of medicalization. Hence, the automatic application of such technologies risks distorting the nature of (...). To be sure, there is a cultural shift that is affecting the society that is increasingly unable to adapt to traditional legal systems. This cultural shift, perhaps, demands new ethics. This entry aims to evaluate the gap between traditional deontological nature of medicine and the emerging new ethics and assess why bioethical reflection is needed. (shrink)
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  18.  42
    Trust, Risk, and Race in American Medicine.Laura Specker Sullivan - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (1):18-26.
    Trust is a core feature of the physician-patient relationship, and risk is central to trust. Patients take risks when they trust their providers to care for them effectively and appropriately. Not all patients take these risks: some medical relationships are marked by mistrust and suspicion. Empirical evidence suggests that some patients and families of color in the United States may be more likely to mistrust their providers and to be suspicious of specific medical practices and institutions. Given both historical and (...)
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  19. Genetic Determinism and the Innate-Acquired Distinction in Medicine.Maria E. Kronfeldner - 2009 - Medicine Studies (2):167-181.
    This article illustrates in which sense genetic determinism is still part of the contemporary interactionist consensus in medicine. Three dimensions of this consensus are discussed: kinds of causes, a continuum of traits ranging from monogenetic diseases to car accidents, and different kinds of determination due to different norms of reaction. On this basis, this article explicates in which sense the interactionist consensus presupposes the innate?acquired distinction. After a descriptive Part 1, Part 2 reviews why the innate?acquired distinction is under (...)
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  20. An Expert System for Men Genital Problems Diagnosis and Treatment.Samy S. Abu Naser & Mones M. Al-Hanjori - 2016 - International Journal of Medicine Research 1 (2):83--86.
    Male genital problems and injuries may occur quite simply because of the scrotum and penis are not protected like other organs. Genital problems and injuries normally happen through: recreational activities (like Football, Hooky, biking, basketball), workrelated tasks (like contact to irritating chemicals), downhill drop, and sexual activity. A genital injury frequently causes harsh pain that typically disappear fast without causing enduring harm. Home handling is generally all that is required for trivial problems or injuries. Pain, inflammation, staining, or rashes that (...)
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  21. The Cybernetic Revolution and the Forthcoming Epoch of Self-Regulating Systems.Leonud Grinin & Anton Grinin - 2016 - Moscow,Russia: "Uchitel" Publishing House.
    The monograph presents the ideas about the main changes that occurred in the development of technologies from the emergence of Homo sapiens till present time and outlines the prospects of their development in the next 30–60 years and in some respect until the end of the twenty-first century. What determines the transition of a society from one level of development to another? One of the most fundamental causes is the global technological transformations. Among all major technological breakthroughs in history the (...)
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  22.  85
    Global Population Ageing, the Sixth Kondratieff Wave, and the Global Financial System.Leonid Grinin & Andrey Korotayev - 2016 - Journal of Globalization Studies 7 (2):11-31.
    Concerns about population ageing apply to both developed and many developing countries and it has turned into a global issue. In the forthcoming decades the population ageing is likely to become one of the most important processes determining the future society characteristics and the direction of technological development. The present paper analyzes some aspects of the population ageing and its important consequences for particular societies and the whole world. Basing on this analysis, we can draw a conclusion that the future (...)
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  23.  60
    Materializing Systemic Racism, Materializing Health Disparities.Vanessa Carbonell & Shen-yi Liao - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (9):16-18.
    The purpose of cultural competence education for medical professionals is to ensure respectful care and reduce health disparities. Yet as Berger and Miller (2021) show, the cultural competence framework is dated, confused, and self-defeating. They argue that the framework ignores the primary driver of health disparities—systemic racism—and is apt to exacerbate rather than mitigate bias and ethnocentrism. They propose replacing cultural competence with a framework that attends to two social aspects of structural inequality: health and social policy, and institutional-system activity; (...)
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  24.  82
    Four Basic Concepts of Medicine in Kant and the Compound Yijing.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2018 - Journal of Wuxi Zhouyi 21 (June):31-40.
    This paper begins the last instalment of a six-part project correlating the key aspects of Kant’s architectonic conception of philosophy with a special version of the Chinese Book of Changes that I call the “Compound Yijing”, which arranges the 64 hexagrams (gua) into both fourfold and threefold sets. I begin by briefly summarizing the foregoing articles: although Kant and the Yijing employ different types of architectonic reasoning, the two systems can both be described in terms of three “levels” of (...)
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  25.  90
    Theorica Et Practica: Historical Epistemology and the Re-Visioning of Thirteenth and Fourteenth-Century Medicine.Brenda S. Gardenour - 2011 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 33 (1):83-110.
    Positivist medical historians, guided by the savoir of modern western biomedicine, have long depicted medieval medicine as an aberration along the continuum of scientific and medical progress. Historical epistemology, founded in the ideas of Cavailles, Foucault, Davidson, and Hacking, however, allows the historian to disrupt this false continuum and to unchain medieval medicine from modern medicine. Postmodernist approaches, such as those sourced in Lyotard, Barthes, and Derrida, allow the historian to further deconstruct medieval and modern medical discourse, (...)
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  26. Why Human "Altered Nuclear Transfer" is Unethical: A Holistic Systems View.W. Malcolm Byrnes - 2005 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 5 (2):271-279.
    A remarkable event occurred at the December 3, 2004, meeting of the U. S. President’s Council on Bioethics. Council member William Hurlbut, a physician and Consulting Professor in the Program in Human Biology at Stanford University, formally unveiled a proposal that he claimed would solve the ethical problems surrounding the extraction of stem cells from human embryos. The proposal would involve the creation of genetically defective embryos that “never rise to the level of integrated organismal existence essential to be (...)
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  27.  77
    Understanding the Pharmaceutical Patent System in Spain and Europe: A Perspective From the Need to Take its Protection-Access Tradeoff Seriously.Iván Vargas-Chaves & José López-Oliva - 2020 - In Iván Vargas-Chaves & Daniel Alzate-Mora (eds.), Derecho y Salud: debates contemporáneos. Sincelejo: Editorial CECAR. pp. 73-86.
    As a result of the doctoral research developed by the main author (Vargas-Chaves, 2017), it was identified the evolution and perspectives of the pharmaceutical patent in the international trade system, as well as it future legal research needs in this topic, both immediate and long-term. Furthermore, a number of problems of public health were highlighted in which the patent-term-extension mechanisms have produced a lack of access to medicines.
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  28. The Health System and the Russian Orthodox Church: Prospects for Development.Bogdan Ershov & E. Enter Author Name Without Selecting A. Profile: Muhina Natalia - 2017 - PhilArchive (5).
    The article examines the participation and assistance of the Orthodox Church in solving problems that allowed to give a scientific justification for the cooperation of health care and Orthodox religious institutions, to determine their role in the historical context and structure of modern healthcare in Russia. The article presents an algorithm for organizing sisters of mercy, their system of upbringing. Particular attention is given to the possibility of teaching the course "Foundations of Orthodox Culture" in secular educational institutions. -/- Research (...)
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  29.  84
    Will the World Decrease Births or Increase Deaths?—A Review of ‘Reproductive Medicine’--E. Coutinho & P. Spinola Eds. 366p (1999).Michael Starks - 2016 - In Suicidal Utopian Delusions in the 21st Century: Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization-- Articles and Reviews 2006-2017 2nd Edition Feb 2018. Michael Starks. pp. 581-584.
    I review this report of an old medical congress on reproductive medicine. Much has happened in the 17 years since its publication but the most urgent task of preventing further population growth has largely failed on a global scale. I try to bring it up to date and briefly discuss the inexorable disaster coming as the world population passes 11 billion in the 22nd century. -/- Those wishing a comprehensive up to date framework for human behavior from the modern (...)
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  30. Application of Double-Cusp Catastrophe Theory to the Physical Evolution of Qualia: Implications for Paradigm Shift in Medicine and Psychology.Richard L. Amoroso - 2004 - Anticipative and Predictive Models in Systems Science 1 (1):19-26.
    Seminal work intended to found a new field of integrative Noetic Science is summarized. Until now the philosophy of Biological Mechanism has ruled medicine and psychology. Penrose claims, AA scientific world-view which does not profoundly come to terms with the problem of conscious mind can have no serious pretensions of [email protected] A noetic action principle synonymous with the historic concept of élan vital is introduced as the basis of a Continuous State Conscious Universe (CSCU). The least unit of CSCU (...)
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  31.  74
    The Need for a System View to Regulate Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning-Based Software as Medical Device.Sara Gerke, Boris Babic, Theodoros Evgeniou & I. Glenn Cohen - 2020 - Nature Digital Medicine 53 (3):1-4.
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  32.  29
    Improving the Ethical Review of Health Policy and Systems Research: Some Suggestions.Govind Persad - 2021 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 49 (1):123-125.
    Consistent and well-designed frameworks for ethical oversight enable socially valuable research while forestalling harmful or poorly designed studies. I suggest some alterations that might strengthen the valuable checklist Rattani & Hyder propose for the ethical review of health policy and systems research (HPSR), or prompt future work in the area.
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  33.  78
    Hair Loss Diagnosis and Treatment Expert System.Amal Nabahhin, Alaa Abu Aloun & Suheir H. Almurshidi - 2017 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 1 (4):160-169.
    Though hair loss (alopecia) is not a debilitating or life threatening sickness, the very thought of becoming bald can lead to emotional stress and traumatic experience for those who suffer from premature or excessive hair loss. Many will try anything and everything to bring back their locks. Or at least, some of their once full head of hair. Hair loss sufferers spend billions of dollars annually on remedies ranging from drugs, vitamins to special tonics and shampoos. Conventional treatments of hair (...)
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  34. Impact of Wireless Electronic Medical Record System on the Quality of Patient Documentation by Emergency Field Responders During a Disaster Mass-Casualty Exercise.David Kirsh - 2011 - Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 26 (4):268-275.
    The use of wireless, electronic, medical records and communications in the prehospital and disaster field is increasing. Objective: This study examines the role of wireless, electronic, medical records and com- munications technologies on the quality of patient documentation by emergency field responders during a mass-casualty exercise.
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  35. Artificial Intelligence and Patient-Centered Decision-Making.Jens Christian Bjerring & Jacob Busch - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (2):349-371.
    Advanced AI systems are rapidly making their way into medical research and practice, and, arguably, it is only a matter of time before they will surpass human practitioners in terms of accuracy, reliability, and knowledge. If this is true, practitioners will have a prima facie epistemic and professional obligation to align their medical verdicts with those of advanced AI systems. However, in light of their complexity, these AI systems will often function as black boxes: the details of (...)
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  36. Steps to a "Properly Embodied" Cognitive Science.Mog Stapleton - 2013 - Cognitive Systems Research 22 (June):1-11.
    Cognitive systems research has predominantly been guided by the historical distinction between emotion and cognition, and has focused its efforts on modelling the “cognitive” aspects of behaviour. While this initially meant modelling only the control system of cognitive creatures, with the advent of “embodied” cognitive science this expanded to also modelling the interactions between the control system and the external environment. What did not seem to change with this embodiment revolution, however, was the attitude towards affect and emotion in (...)
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  37. Human Photo-Energetic Transduction.Stephen I. Ternyik - manuscript
    A methodical synopsis of photomedicine is given, for a deeper understanding of dis-ease, from the viewpoint of humanistic systems medicine; the physical anthropology of medical photo-physics is elaborated, with special reference to psychophysical circadianity.
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  38. The Limited Effectiveness of Prestige as an Intervention on the Health of Medical Journal Publications.Carole J. Lee - 2013 - Episteme 10 (4):387-402.
    Under the traditional system of peer-reviewed publication, the degree of prestige conferred to authors by successful publication is tied to the degree of the intellectual rigor of its peer review process: ambitious scientists do well professionally by doing well epistemically. As a result, we should expect journal editors, in their dual role as epistemic evaluators and prestige-allocators, to have the power to motivate improved author behavior through the tightening of publication requirements. Contrary to this expectation, I will argue that the (...)
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  39. Early Modern Experimental Philosophy.Peter R. Anstey & Alberto Vanzo - 2016 - In Justin Sytsma & Wesley Buckwalter (eds.), A Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Blackwell. pp. 87-102.
    In the mid-seventeenth century a movement of self-styled experimental philosophers emerged in Britain. Originating in the discipline of natural philosophy amongst Fellows of the fledgling Royal Society of London, it soon spread to medicine and by the eighteenth century had impacted moral and political philosophy and even aesthetics. Early modern experimental philosophers gave epistemic priority to observation and experiment over theorising and speculation. They decried the use of hypotheses and system-building without recourse to experiment and, in some quarters, developed (...)
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  40. How Is Meaning Grounded in the Organism?Liz Stillwaggon Swan & Louis J. Goldberg - 2010 - Biosemiotics 3 (2):131-146.
    In this paper we address the interrelated questions of why and how certain features of an organism’s environment become meaningful to it. We make the case that knowing the biology is essential to understanding the foundation of meaning-making in organisms. We employ Miguel Nicolelis et al’s seminal research on the mammalian somatosensory system to enrich our own concept of brain-objects as the neurobiological intermediary between the environment and the consequent organismic behavior. In the final section, we explain how brain-objects advance (...)
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  41.  64
    The Patient in the Family and the Family in the Patient.Barry Hoffmaster & Wayne Weston - 1987 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 8 (3).
    The notion that the family is the unit of care for family doctors has been enigmatic and controversial. Yet systems theory and the biopsychosocial model that results when it is imported into medicine make the family system an indispensable and important component of family medicine. The challenge, therefore, is to provide a coherent, plausible account of the role of the family in family practice. Through an extended case presentation and commentary, we elaborate two views of the family (...)
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  42. The Debate on the Ethics of AI in Health Care: A Reconstruction and Critical Review.Jessica Morley, Caio C. V. Machado, Christopher Burr, Josh Cowls, Indra Joshi, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - manuscript
    Healthcare systems across the globe are struggling with increasing costs and worsening outcomes. This presents those responsible for overseeing healthcare with a challenge. Increasingly, policymakers, politicians, clinical entrepreneurs and computer and data scientists argue that a key part of the solution will be ‘Artificial Intelligence’ (AI) – particularly Machine Learning (ML). This argument stems not from the belief that all healthcare needs will soon be taken care of by “robot doctors.” Instead, it is an argument that rests on the (...)
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  43. Revising the UMLS Semantic Network.Steffen Schulze-Kremer, Barry Smith & Anand Kumar - 2004 - In MedInfo.
    The integration of standardized biomedical terminologies into a single, unified knowledge representation system has formed a key area of applied informatics research in recent years. The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is the most advanced and most prominent effort in this direction, bringing together within its Metathesaurus a large number of distinct source-terminologies. The UMLS Semantic Network, which is designed to support the integration of these source-terminologies, has proved to be a highly successful combination of formal coherence and broad scope. (...)
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  44. The Cybernetic Revolution and Historical Process.Leonid Grinin & Anton Grinin - 2015 - Social Evolution and History 14 (1):125-184.
    The article analyzes the technological shifts which took place in the second half of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries and predict the main shifts in the next half a century. On the basis of the analysis of the latest achievements in medicine, bio- and nanotechnologies, robotics, ICT and other technological directions and also on the basis of the opportunities provided by the theory of production revolutions the authors present a detailed analysis of the latest production revolution which is (...)
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  45. How to Count Biological Minds: Symbiosis, the Free Energy Principle, and Reciprocal Multiscale Integration.Matthew Sims - 2020 - Synthese 8:1-1.
    The notion of a physiological individuals has been developed and applied in the phi- losophy of biology to understand symbiosis, an understanding of which is key to theorising about the major transition in evolution from multi-organismality to multi- cellularity. The paper begins by asking what such symbiotic individuals can help to reveal about a possible transition in the evolution of cognition. Such a transition marks the movement from cooperating individual biological cognizers to a function- ally integrated cognizing unit. Somewhere along (...)
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  46. Genetic Determinism and the Innate-Acquired Distinction.Maria Kronfeldner - 2009 - Medicine Studies 1 (2):167-181.
    This article illustrates in which sense genetic determinism is still part of the contemporary interactionist consensus in medicine. Three dimensions of this consensus are discussed: kinds of causes, a continuum of traits ranging from monogenetic diseases to car accidents, and different kinds of determination due to different norms of reaction. On this basis, this article explicates in which sense the interactionist consensus presupposes the innate?acquired distinction. After a descriptive Part 1, Part 2 reviews why the innate?acquired distinction is under (...)
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  47. Defining Quality of Care Persuasively.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2012 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (4):243-261.
    As the quality movement in health care now enters its fourth decade, the language of quality is ubiquitous. Practitioners, organizations, and government agencies alike vociferously testify their commitments to quality and accept numerous forms of governance aimed at improving quality of care. Remarkably, the powerful phrase ‘‘quality of care’’ is rarely defined in the health care literature. Instead it operates as an accepted and assumed goal worth pursuing. The status of evidence-based medicine, for instance, hinges on its ability to (...)
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  48.  31
    Theory of Signs and Statistical Approach to Big Data in Assessing the Relevance of Clinical Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress.Pietro Ghezzi, Kevin Davies, Aidan Delaney & Luciano Floridi - 2018 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (10):2473-2477.
    Biomarkers are widely used not only as prognostic or diagnostic indicators, or as surrogate markers of disease in clinical trials, but also to formulate theories of pathogenesis. We identify two problems in the use of biomarkers in mechanistic studies. The first problem arises in the case of multifactorial diseases, where different combinations of multiple causes result in patient heterogeneity. The second problem arises when a pathogenic mediator is difficult to measure. This is the case of the oxidative stress (OS) theory (...)
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  49. Holism, Organicism and the Risk of Biochauvinism.Charles T. Wolfe - 2014 - Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 43 (1-3):39-57.
    In this essay I seek to critically evaluate some forms of holism and organicism in biological thought, as a more deflationary echo to Gilbert and Sarkar's reflection on the need for an 'umbrella' concept to convey the new vitality of holistic concepts in biology (Gilbert and Sarkar 2000). Given that some recent discussions in theoretical biology call for an organism concept (from Moreno and Mossio’s work on organization to Kirschner et al.’s research paper in Cell, 2000, building on chemistry to (...)
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  50. Understanding Multicellularity: The Functional Organization of the Intercellular Space.Leonardo Bich, Thomas Pradeu & Jean-Francois Moreau - 2019 - Frontiers in Physiology 10.
    The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework to understand how multicellular systems realize functionally integrated physiological entities by organizing their intercellular space. From a perspective centered on physiology and integration, biological systems are often characterized as organized in such a way that they realize metabolic self-production and self-maintenance. The existence and activity of their components rely on the network they realize and on the continuous management of the exchange of matter and energy with their (...)
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