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  1. Fragmental Presentism and Quantum Mechanics.Paul Merriam - 2021
    This paper develops a Fragmentalist theory of Presentism and shows how it can help to develop a interpretation of quantum mechanics. There are several fragmental interpretations of physics. In the interpretation of this paper, each quantum system forms a fragment, and fragment f1 makes a measurement on fragment f2 if and only if f2 makes a corresponding measurement on f1. The main idea is then that each fragment has its own present (or ‘now’) until a mutual quantum measurement—at which time (...)
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  2. A new theory of time 2 29 2020.Paul Merriam & Jeremy Horne - manuscript
    We motivate and develop a new theory of time and apply it to a few thought experiments in physics.
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  3.  70
    More on the PF theory of Quantum Gravity FCQG and its Theory of Everything FCQG-SM.P. Merriam & M. A. Z. Habeeb - manuscript
    "This self-consistent evolution of the fragments, their causal relationships, and their quantum properties is at the heart of the FCQG-SM framework, providing a unified description of quantum mechanics, general relativity, and the Standard Model.".
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  4.  52
    Concatenated quantum gravity papers 1.Paul Merriam & M. A. Z. Habeeb - manuscript
    The first purpose of this series of articles is to introduce case studies on how current AI models can be used in the development of a possible theory of quantum gravity, their limitations, and the role the researcher has in steering the development in the right direction, even highlighting the errors, weaknesses and strengths of the whole process. The second is to introduce the new Presentist Fragmentalist ontology as a framework and use it for developing theories of quantum gravity and (...)
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  5.  57
    The Presentist Fragmentalist Theory of Quantum Gravity 2.P. Merriam & M. Habeeb - manuscript
    This paper gives a theory of quantum gravity based on the Presentist Fragmentalist interpretation of quantum mechanics. It is a dialogue with the AI Claude Ultra 3.0.
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  6.  55
    A Theory of Everything consistent with the PF interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.P. Merriam & M. Habeeb - manuscript
    This note outlines a Theory of Everything consistent with the PF interpretation of quantum mechanics.
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  7.  55
    The Presentist Fragmentalist Theory of Quantum Gravity: FCQG.P. Merriam & M. Habeeb - manuscript
    Presentist Fragmentalism is a novel interpretation of quantum mechanics. This paper develops the resulting theory of Quantum Gravity.
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  8.  41
    Hilbert Space dimensions 3, 4, 5.Paul Merriam, Daniel Huber & Bob Hanlon - forthcoming - Foundations of Physics:6.
    This is a pdf of a Mathematica calculation that supplements the paper "Presentist Fragmentalism and Quantum Mechanics" forthcoming in Foundations of Physics. In that paper the Born rule (or at least a progenitor) is derived from experimental conditions on the mutual observations of two fragments. In this pdf the experimental conditions are applied to Hilbert space dimensions 3, 4, and 5. It turns out each of these have a 1-dimensional solution space which, it is hoped, can be interpretated as the (...)
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  9.  52
    Merriam-Habeeb-Claude Theory of Quantum Gravity.P. Merriam & M. A. Z. Habeeb - manuscript
    This is the first in a series of papers developing a theory of quantum gravity that is consistent with the PF interpretation of quantum mechanics. "Key Features: Reconciles quantum theory, general relativity, and the PF interpretation in a common framework...".
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  10. Einstein's Train in Fragmentalist Presentism.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    It is often thought the relativity of simultaneity is inconsistent with presentism. This would be troubling as it conflicts with common sense and—arguably—the empirical data. This note gives a novel fragmentalist-presentist theory that allows for the (non-trivial) relativity of simultaneity. A detailed account of the canonical moving train argument is considered. Alice, standing at the train station, forms her own ontological fragment, in which Bob’s frame of reference, given by the moving train, is modified by the Lorentz transformations. On the (...)
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  11.  41
    Yet More on the PF theory of QG and its TOE 3 29 2024.P. Merriam & M. A. Z. Habeeb - manuscript
    This paper continues and extensive exploration of the QG and TOE resulting from the PF interpretation of QM. Some highlights are an exploration of symmetries of the Standard Model, outlines of testable predictions of implications for QG, that this theory can simultaneously give an account of dark matter and dark energy, probabilities and statevector collapse vs. gravity, applications of the causal interaction tensor Cαβγδ(Fi, Fj). Note the first section mentions qualia but this is not a psychological theory this is an (...)
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  12. Perspectival QM and Presentism: a New Paradigm.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    We motivate and develop a perspectival A-theory of time (future/present/past) and probe its implied interpretation of quantum mechanics. It will emerge that, as a first take, the time of relativity is a B-series (earlier-times to later-times) and the time of quantum mechanics is an A-series. There is philosophical motivation for the idea that mutual quantum measurement happens when and only when the systems’ A-series become one mutual A-series, as in the way qualia work in the Inverted Spectrum. This seems to (...)
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  13.  32
    Concatenated Quantum Gravity papers 2.Paul Merriam & M. A. Z. Habeeb - manuscript
    The first purpose of this series of articles is to introduce case studies on how current AI models can be used in the development of a possible theory of quantum gravity, their limitations, and the role the researcher has in steering the development in the right direction, even highlighting the errors, weaknesses and strengths of the whole process. -/- The second is to introduce the new Presentist Fragmentalist ontology as a framework and use it for developing theories of quantum gravity (...)
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  14.  32
    The Presentist Fragmentalist Theory of Quantum Gravity: FCQG.P. Merriam & M. Habeeb - manuscript
    Two philosophical arguments gave the novel interpretation of quantum mechanics Presentist Fragmentalism. This paper gives the resulting theory of quantum gravity.
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  15.  22
    A Theory of Everything Consistent with the PF interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.P. Merriam & M. A. Z. Habeeb - manuscript
    This paper continues developing the theory of everything consistent with the Presentist Fragmentalist interpretation of quantum mechanics.
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  16.  21
    A Theory of Everything consistent with the PF interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.P. Merriam - manuscript
    This paper appears to give a Theory of Everything.
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  17.  18
    The Theory of Everything consistent with the PF interpretation of quantum mechanics.P. Merriam & M. A. Z. Habeeb - manuscript
    This paper give the first foray into the development of a Theory of Everything that is consistent with the PF interpretation of quantum mechanics.
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  18. Knowledge Arguments for Time 1 30 2023.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    In 1982 Jackson introduced the Knowledge Argument to elucidate the phenomenal, interior aspects of experience. In 1908 McTaggart defined two series that characterize one dimension of time, the A-series and the B-series. The A-series is usually thought to be phenomenal [Farr 2019], [Dainton 2018]. Thus there is the possibility of giving a Knowledge Argument for time [Merriam 2012, 2022a]. One (informal) statement of the classical Knowledge Argument might be “Mary knows all the facts about color qualia but lives in a (...)
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  19. Six Applications of the Calculus of Qualia 1 30 2023.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    Application 1. The case against Materialism and Illusionism Application 2. Ineffability Application 3. Hard Problems Application 4. Knowledge Argument questions Application 5. Argument for A-theories of time Application 6. Possible qualia are necessary.
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  20. Observations 1 30 2023.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    Reference in light of Qualia Calculus (QC); Hard Problems in light of QC; The number of qualia in a room in light of QC; verification of 1st-person phenomena; more advanced neurology; 3rd-person and 1st-person aspects of a system; their symmetries; Well-tempered Clavier; the past is not determined; argument for A-theories in light of QC; frames of reference; Standard Model; String Theory; Bach; time; causality; Schrodinger equation; technology; earth; thick present; Zen; the river; free will; materialists in light of QC.
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  21.  90
    How to Include Qualia in Science.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    How can we expand science to include what-it’s-like information like qualia? This paper gives the beginning of one possible way forward. It is possible to include qualia in communications as their own terms.
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  22. Knowledge Arguments for Time 12 23 2022.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    Jackson (1982) introduced the Knowledge Argument to elucidate the phenomenal, interior aspects of experience. In 1908 McTaggart defined two series that characterize one dimension of time, the A-series and the B-series. The A-series is usually thought to be phenomenal Farr (2019), SEP (2018). Thus there is the possibility of giving a Knowledge Argument for time. One (informal) statement of the classical Knowledge Argument might be “Mary knows all the facts about color qualia but lives in a black-and-white room. Upon being (...)
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  23.  80
    McTaggart’s Time, the Schrodinger equation, Minkowski space, and Qualia 3 30 2023.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    1. Schrodinger Equation, fragmentalism, total time T, Euclidean space 2. Does the A-series have the properties of qualia?
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  24. Mechanism for Awareness after Death 12 23 2022.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    The only processes that could correlate to awareness thatgo on after brain-death are quantum processes. These processes contain information. But in quantum mechanics information is never lost. Therefore this information goes on after death and the awareness will still be correlated to it. Therefore awareness goes on after death.
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  25.  75
    7th application of the Calculus of Qualia 2 15 2023.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    It could be argued that -/- (1) red is not green -/- is contingently true, but -/- (2) █_1 is not █_2 -/- is necessarily true.
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  26.  89
    An Argument for Temporal A-theories Based on the Calculus of Qualia 12 23 2022.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    We give an argument for temporal A-theories based on the calculus of qualia.
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  27.  65
    Correction to “A Theory of the Big Bang in McTaggart’s Time”.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    The line that reads “But this leaves open the question of why the Big Bang did not happen a billion years before now, such that we are also a billion years before now.5” should instead read “But this leaves open the question of why the Big Bang did not happen a billion years before it did, such that we are also a billion years before now.5” -/- Merriam, P. A Theory of the Big Bang in McTaggart’s Time. Axiomathes 32 (Suppl (...)
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  28. A Calculus of Qualia 9 30 2022.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    The idea of this paper is to put actual qualia into equations (broadly understood) to get what might be called qualations. Qualations arguably have different meanings and truth behaviors than the analogous equations. For example, the term ‘ black ’ arguably has a different meaning and behavior than the term ‘ █ ’. This is a step in the direction of a ‘calculus of qualia’ and of expanding science to include 1st-person phenomena.
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  29.  94
    Notes for “Calculus of Qualia...” 9 16 2022 work in progress.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    1. First section notes: subtraction -/- Evidently -/- (1) black – black = empty-set -/- because anything minus itself is the empty set, but -/- (2) █ – █ = █ + █ -/- because there are two instances of black on the left and two instances of black on the right...
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  30. Calculus of Qualia: Introduction to Qualations 7 2 2022.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    The basic idea is to put qualia into equations (broadly understood) to get what might as well be called qualations. Qualations arguably have different truth behaviors than the analogous equations. Thus ‘black’ has a different behavior than ‘ █ ’. This is a step in the direction of a ‘calculus of qualia’. It might help clarify some issues.
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  31. Equations vs. Qualations.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    A *qualation* does not contain merely references to qualia, but contains actual qualia. There are many differences to equations. Qualations are irreducibly 1st-person and are required for the statement of a hard problem.
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  32. On the Big Bang, Qualia, Einstein’s Train, Temporal Flow Rates, Existence, Free Will, Hard Problems, etc.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    On Einstein's Train and the Big Bang in Fragmental Presentism, Temporal Flow Rates, Existence, Free Will, Qualia, Hard Problems, etc.
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  33. Mechanism for Life After Death v. 2.0.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    We give a mechanism for how awareness could (indeed *must*) continue after death.
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  34. 9 Temporal Knowledge Arguments and a Note on Presentism 2 17 2022.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    This note gives 9 Temporal Knowledge Arguments and, also, makes a few observations about presentism.
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  35. Philosophical Derivation(?) of the ‘Presentist Fragmentalist’ interpretation of quantum mechanics.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    We give the derivation, as opposed to justification, of the Presentist Fragmentalist interpretation of quantum mechanics in perhaps its most basic form, and then several other considerations.
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  36. Three Arguments from Science *for* Free Will.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    I give three brief scientifically informed arguments that free will is causally efficacious over-and-above the efficaciousness of its physical substrate. (This is a second attempt at putting it up on PhilPapers--there seems to have been some problem with downloading the previous version.).
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  37. Do Qualia Exist Necessarily? v. 2.0.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    Why is there something rather than nothing? I don’t know. But ‘nothing’ may not be the correct default state. It may be that the existence of possibilities requires fewer (weaker) assumptions. In this case, arguably, we should start with the existence of possibilities and not ‘nothing’. In this case, there exists the possibility of (for example) red qualia. But the possible existence of a red quale does not delineate what it is the possibility of if the possibility contains only a (...)
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  38. A Mechanism for Life after Death.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    A mechanism for life after death is given.
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  39. Do Qualia exist Necessarily?Paul Merriam - manuscript
    Why is there something rather than nothing? I don't know. But I give an argument that qualia exist *necessarily*. The *possibility* of the existence of red qualia requires actual red qualia to specify what the possibility is a possibility *of*.
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  40. 26 More Observations.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    Observations on why is there something rather than nothing, fine tuning, beauty, time, intelligent design, qualia, Zen, Bach, Jesus, poetry, consciousness.
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  41. The ineffable now in physics.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    While physicists know how to use quantum mechanics, there is no consensus on what quantum mechanics is a mechanics of. The aim of this paper is to introduce the beginning of what might turn out to be an interpretation of quantum mechanics—one that leaves all calculated probabilities intact. The basic idea is that quantum mechanics describes the objective world, but there must be added to it ineffable variables, one of which is the temporal 'now'. Ineffable variables are not 'hidden variables'.
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  42. On the Solutions to the Hard Problems.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    There is a profound difference between asking a 'hard problem' and asking a 'hard problem' that has qualia in the question. There are plausible answers to the former that are nevertheless clearly not answers to the latter. I give a method by which hard problems will be able to be solved, if possible. I speculate on the (possible) causal efficaciousness of consciousness in evolution and in quantum mechanics.
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  43. Equations, Qualia, and Qualations.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    Abstract to Equations, Qualia, and Qualations -/- With regard to consciousness, we could write an equation B = black. But it is possible to rewrite this using a quale, namely, B = █. This latter equation might be called a ‘qualation’. It has the same meaning regardless of the physiology that apprehends it. This article argues a whole theory of qualations could be developed. Further, to a Dualist, it could be that a materialist is convinced by materialist arguments involving the (...)
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  44. Perspectivalism, A-theorism, and their Interpretation of QM.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    Abstract We motivate and develop an A-theory of time and probe its implied interpretation of quantum mechanics. It will emerge that, as a first take, the time of relativity is a B-series and the time of quantum mechanics is an A-series. There is philosophical motivation for the idea that mutual quantum measurement happens when and only when the systems’ A-series become one mutual A-series. This accounts almost trivially for many quantum phenomena, including that the electrons of a Bell pair do (...)
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  45. A Curiosity about Newtonian Gravity v. 2.0.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    We give a very curious curiosity about Newtonian Gravity.
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  46. Notes for "Existence and the Big Bang".Paul Merriam - manuscript
    This brief note gives a modest argument that there may be states-of-affairs that require fewer (weaker) assumptions than the assumption or 'default state' of Nothingness. It is meant as an add-on to the paper "Existence and the Big Bang" and to work in concert with several other papers on PhilPapers. This is meant to modestly help the idea that the Big Bang could have happened in the first place.
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  47. A theory of time: bringing McTaggart into physics.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    This paper proposes an interpretation of time that incorporates both McTaggart's A-series and his B-series, and attempts to cast it in a way that might be usable by physicists. This interpretation allows one to reconcile special relativity with temporal becoming as the latter is understood as 'ontologically private', which is given a mathematical definition. This allows one to define a unit of becoming, as well as the rates of becoming. This paper gives a picture of this interpretation and applies a (...)
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  48. Towards an AB-series interpretation of time in physics.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    How can McTaggart's A-series notion of time be incorporated into physics while retaining the B-series notion? It may be the A-series 'now' can be construed as ontologically private. How is that modeled? Could a definition of a combined AB-series entropy help with the Past Hypothesis problem? What if the increase in entropy as a system goes from earlier times to later times is canceled by the decrease in entropy as a system goes from future, to present, to past?
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  49. McTaggart saves Schrodinger's Cat?Paul Merriam - manuscript
    This paper proposes an interpretation of time that is an 'A-theory' in that it incorporates both McTaggart's A-series and his B-series. The A-series characteristics are supposed to be 'ontologically private' analogous to qualia in the Inverted Spectrum thought experiment and is given a definition. The main idea is that the experimenter and the cat do not share the same A-series characteristics. So there is no single time at which the cat gets ascribed different states. It is proposed one may define (...)
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  50. Existence and the Big Bang 8 21 2021.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    We start by asking the question of ‘why there is something rather than nothing’ and change this to the question of ‘what are the weakest assumptions for existence’ Eagle [1]. Then we give a kind of Fragmental Perspectivalism. Within this Fragmentalist interpretation of quantum mechanics (each quantum mechanical system forms a fragment) Merriam [2], it turns out McTaggart’s [3] A-series of time (the A-series is future to the present to the past) has a kind of perspectivalism. We then use McTaggart’s (...)
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