Results for 'Paul A. Klevgard'

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  1.  86
    The Mach-Zehnder Interferometer and Photon Dualism: With an Analysis of Nonlocality (2021).Paul A. Klevgard - 2020 - SPIE 11481, Light in Nature VIII, 114810B (21 August 2020).
    The Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) is chosen to illustrate the long-standing wave-particle duality problem. Why is which-way (welcher weg) information incompatible with wave interference? How do we explain Wheeler’s delayed choice experiment? Most crucially, how can the photon divide at the first beam splitter and yet terminate on either arm with its undiminished energy? The position advanced is that the photon has two identities, one supporting particle features and the other wave features. There is photon kinetic energy that never splits (on (...)
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  2. Is the Photon Really a Particle?Paul Klevgard - 2021 - Optik 237 (166679):N/A.
    Photons deliver their energy and momentum to a point on a material target. It is commonplace to attribute this to particle impact. But since the in-flight photon also has a wave nature, we are stuck with the paradox of wave-particle duality. It is argued here that the photon’s wave nature is indisputable, but its particle nature is open to question. Photons deliver energy. The problem with invoking impact as a means of delivery is that energy becomes a payload which in (...)
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  3.  25
    The Photon Exhibits Dualism, Constant Velocity and Nonlocality: What Do They Have in Common?Paul Klevgard - 2021 - Optik 248 (168).
    The photon is typically regarded as a unitary object that is both particle-discrete and wave-continuous. This is a paradoxical position and we live with it by making dualism a fundamental feature of radiation. It is argued here that the photon is not unitary; rather it has two identities, one supporting discrete behavior and the other supporting continuous (wave) behavior. There is photon kinetic energy that is always discrete/localized on arrival; it never splits (on half-silvered mirrors) or diffracts (in pinholes or (...)
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  4.  25
    Reassessing Time, Energy and Nonlocality in Quantum Mechanics with Observations on Schrödinger’s Cat.Paul Klevgard -
    Radiation was a big challenge for the quantum pioneers since the photon was massless, probabilistic and appeared to be both wave and particle. Einstein’s special relativity equated mass with energy and space with time. But the equality of mass with energy, then and now, is regarded as quantitative and the equality of space with time is anything but equal; space hosts material entities; time hosts nothing. Exploring these equality issues raises some questions as to how measurable entities – particles and (...)
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  5.  87
    Photon Physics and the Classical Ontology.Paul Klevgard - manuscript
    We think of kinetic energy (KE) as a quantity possessed by rest mass in motion. But somehow electromagnetic (EM) radiation transports KE across space without any rest mass. In addition, a single photon passing through a double slit diffracts into multiple paths in space without affecting its KE. This is hard to explain. Quantum theories that confront the double slit problem do not address these two issues directly. The ontology of radiation KE is examined which leads to some new ideas (...)
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  6. Color as a Secondary Quality.Paul A. Boghossian & J. David Velleman - 1989 - Mind 98 (January):81-103.
    Should a principle of charity be applied to the interpretation of the colour concepts exercised in visual experience? We think not. We shall argue, for one thing, that the grounds for applying a principle of charity are lacking in the case of colour concepts. More importantly, we shall argue that attempts at giving the experience of colour a charitable interpretation either fail to respect obvious features of that experience or fail to interpret it charitably, after all. Charity to visual experience (...)
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  7.  78
    Beyond Understanding: The Career of the Concept of Understanding in the Human Sciences.Paul A. Roth - forthcoming - Philosophy of the Social Sciences.
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  8.  34
    Review of C. Mantzavinos, Naturalistic Hermeneutics[REVIEW]Paul A. Roth - 2006 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (2).
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  9. Content and Self-Knowledge.Paul A. Boghossian - 1989 - Philosophical Topics 17 (1):5-26.
    This paper argues that, given a certain apparently inevitable thesis about content, we could not know our own minds. The thesis is that the content of a thought is determined by its relational properties.
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  10. Physicalist Theories of Color.Paul A. Boghossian & J. David Velleman - 1991 - Philosophical Review 100 (January):67-106.
    The dispute between realists about color and anti-realists is actually a dispute about the nature of color properties. The disputants do not disagree over what material objects are like. Rather, they disagree over whether any of the uncontroversial facts about material objects--their powers to cause visual experiences, their dispositions to reflect incident light, their atomic makeup, and so on--amount to their having colors. The disagreement is thus about which properties colors are and, in particular, whether colors are any of the (...)
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  11. Mistakes.Paul A. Roth - 2003 - Synthese 136 (3):389-408.
    A suggestion famously made by Peter Winch and carried through to present discussions holds that what constitutes the social as a kind consists of something shared – rules or practices commonly learned, internalized, or otherwise acquired by all members belonging to a society. This essays argues against the explanatory efficacy of appeals to this shared something as constitutive of a social kind by examining a violation of social norms or rules, viz., mistakes. I argue that an asymmetric relation exists between (...)
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  12. The Pasts.Paul A. Roth - 2012 - History and Theory 51 (3):313-339.
    ABSTRACTThis essay offers a reconfiguration of the possibility‐space of positions regarding the metaphysics and epistemology associated with historical knowledge. A tradition within analytic philosophy from Danto to Dummett attempts to answer questions about the reality of the past on the basis of two shared assumptions. The first takes individual statements as the relevant unit of semantic and philosophical analysis. The second presumes that variants of realism and antirealism about the past exhaust the metaphysical options . This essay argues that both (...)
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  13. The Silence of the Norms: The Missing Historiography of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.Paul A. Roth - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (4):545-552.
    History has been disparaged since the late 19th century for not conforming to norms of scientific explanation. Nonetheless, as a matter of fact a work of history upends the regnant philosophical conception of science in the second part of the 20th century. Yet despite its impact, Kuhn’s Structure has failed to motivate philosophers to ponder why works of history should be capable of exerting rational influence on an understanding of philosophy of science. But all this constitutes a great irony and (...)
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  14. Hearts of Darkness: 'Perpetrator History' and Why There is No Why.Paul A. Roth - 2004 - History of the Human Sciences 17 (2-3):211-251.
    Three theories contend as explanations of perpetrator behavior in the Holocaust as well as other cases of genocide: structural, intentional, and situational. Structural explanations emphasize the sense in which no single individual or choice accounts for the course of events. In opposition, intentional/cutltural accounts insist upon the genocides as intended outcomes, for how can one explain situations in which people ‘step up’ and repeatedly kill defenseless others in large numbers over sustained periods of time as anything other than a choice? (...)
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  15. Darcy's Law and Structural Explanation in Hydrology.James R. Hofmann & Paul A. Hofmann - 1992 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:23 - 35.
    Darcy's law is a phenomenological relationship for fluid flow rate that finds one of its principle applications in hydrology. Theoretical hydrologists rely upon a multiplicity of conceptual models to carry out approximate derivations of Darcy's law. These derivations provide structural explanations of the law; they require the application of fundamental principles, such as conservation of momentum, to idealized models of the porous media within which the flow occurs. In practice, recognition of the idealized conditions incorporated into models facilitates the empirical (...)
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  16. Wave/Particle Duality: The La Brea Tar Pit of Quantum Theory.Paul Klevgard - 2007 - Physics Essays 20:119-126.
    Why do photons and speeding electrons have both wave features and particle features when common sense tells us that they should be either particle or wave and not an amalgam of both? Part I of this paper deals with photons and argues that there are flaws in the assumptions we have made regarding their particle nature. The argument depends upon distinguishing between two identities of the photon, namely unstored energy and its stored (relativistic) mass. Part II extends these arguments to (...)
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  17. A One Category Ontology.L. A. Paul - forthcoming - In John A. Keller (ed.), Being, Freedom, and Method: Themes From the Philosophy of Peter van Inwagen. Oxford University Press.
    I defend a one category ontology: an ontology that denies that we need more than one fundamental category to support the ontological structure of the world. Categorical fundamentality is understood in terms of the metaphysically prior, as that in which everything else in the world consists. One category ontologies are deeply appealing, because their ontological simplicity gives them an unmatched elegance and spareness. I’m a fan of a one category ontology that collapses the distinction between particular and property, replacing it (...)
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  18. Rencontre de l'incroyant et inculturation. Paul à Athènes.J. Radermakers & P. Bossuyt - 1995 - Nouvelle Revue Théologique 117 (1):19-43.
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  19.  83
    Paul Veyne e a revolução da história: possibilidades em meio ao debate filosófico.Gustavo Ruiz da Silva - 2021 - Revista Opinião Filosófica 1 (12):1-25.
    This article aims to grope how Paul Veyne's thought operates from his interlocutors. For this, seeking to clarify the “methodological” issues of his historiographic making and his aesthetic bases, a series of relations will be introduced between the mentioned author and Nietzsche, Deleuze, Foucault, and Borges. Starting from Nietzsche, in the first part, entitled “Veyne and the relational methodology”, it will be justified how it is possible to make a historiographical theory that merges philosophy and anthropology in its constitution. (...)
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  20.  5
    Paul Davies and Why Time Is Not a Flow.Vincent Vesterby -
    John Steele interviewed Paul Davies on the subject of time. In that interview Davies stated that time is not a flow, which is correct. His reasoning for that conclusion, however, was flawed, based on a confused version of the flowing river analogy with time. A correct version of the analogy is presented, followed by an analysis of Davies’ argument. A detailed explanation is presented of the intrinsic nature of the type of change that time is. Transdisciplinary methodology based on (...)
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  21.  10
    A Filosofia do Direito de Kant segundo Paul Guyer a partir do oitavo capítulo da obra “Kant”.Rubin Souza - 2012 - Jus Navigandi 1 (1):1-17.
    O presente artigo apresentou a interpretação de Paul Guyer acerca da filosofia jurídica de Kant, delimitando seu objeto no oitavo capítulo da obra “Kant”. Procurou-se, por estratégia argumentativa, fixar-se no texto de Guyer, apresentado claramente o problema envolvido, a sua hipótese a e análise das variáveis. Concomitantemente procurou-se inserir uma breve apreciação crítica na forma de notas numéricas. Buscou-se, dessa forma, privilegiar o texto do autor, focando especificamente nos problemas por ele apresentado, sem, contudo, deixar de apresentar uma crítica (...)
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  22. John Paul II on Totalitarianism: A Timeless Lesson.Pawel Tarasiewicz - 2019 - In Pedro García Casas & Antonio R. Miñón Sáenz (eds.), La humildad del maestro. Madrid: Ediciones Encuentro. pp. 440-451.
    The article shows that Pope John Paul II contributed not only to a practical weakening of totalitarian systems in the political world, but also to a significant deepening of theoretical knowledge about them. In the light of his teaching, totalitarianism appears as an attack on the human person, consisting in an attempt to subordinate him to a collective subject. The main reason for the emergence and implementation of totalitarian ideologies is the negation of God as the ultimate guarantor of (...)
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  23.  51
    A identidade narrativa em Paul Ricoeur: do texto poético à poética do eu.Helena Costa Carvalho - 2020 - A Escrita Do Eu: A Literatura Como Laboratório da Vida.
    Indagando a possibilidade e o sentido de uma poética do eu, será nosso objetivo clarificar, a partir do contributo incontornável do filósofo francês Paul Ricœur, de que forma o texto poéticose assume como uma mediação fundamental da compreensãodo si, bem como da sua configuração e refiguração enquanto um si mesmo. Neste sentido, atentaremos especialmente nas obras Temps et Récit (1983‑85) e Soi-Même Comme un Autre (1990), fulcrais para entendermos a relação que o filósofo tece entre narrativa, tempo e identidade, (...)
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  24. Sprawiedliwość a prawo w nauczaniu Jana Pawła II [Justice and Law in the Teaching of John Paul II].Marek Piechowiak - 2014 - Przegląd Tomistyczny 20:209-237.
    The contribution focuses on philosophical issues of justice of positive law in the light of the social teaching of John Paul II. The analyses start with consideration of anthropological foundations of justice as virtue, develop with the reflexion upon justice of actions realizing justice and finally arrive at examination of the criteria of justice of law. -/- It is argued that relations between a human being and goods (ends of actions) form ontological basis of natural law and justice of (...)
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  25.  78
    A Game We Can't Abstain From!Paul Bali - manuscript
    contents -/- i. a game we can't abstain from ii. a sudden God, a Boltzmann God iii. the Hard Problem & Humean causation iv. Turing gave a recipe for consciousness v. the Honeymoon Algorithm vi. Tech Civ takes Earth in vii. Borges, the Compressor viii. Hollywood, where faeries enter ix. in the age of Macbeth, magic x. from King to this vile politician xi. Medieval blue not our color blue xii. the austerities prioritize braingrowth xiii. taste is tactile xiv. if (...)
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  26. Paul Taylors Biocentric Ethics: A Survey of Contemporary Environmental Conflicts.Sotonye Big-Alabo - 2019 - The PHILOSOPHICAL QUEST 6 (2):99-111.
    This work is on Paul Taylors Biocentric Ethics: A Survey of Contemporary Environmental Conflicts. When we accept the concept of biocentrism there is bound to exist conflicts between interests and cultural values of humans and the well-being of nonhuman living beings. These conflicts as we shall see need fair resolution principles because they are equal competing claims. Thus, the concept of equality here deals with the fact already established. This work exposes that both humans and nonhuman living beings of (...)
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  27. A Temporal Knowledge Argument.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    There appears to be a temporal analogue to the Knowledge argument. If correct, it could be read as an argument that B-theorism is false: time is not completely described by McTaggart's B-series. We analyse the temporal knowledge argument in terms of Chalmers's 2-dimensional semantics. An adaptation of the most popular response to the Knowledge argument indicates that McTaggart's A-series and B-series have different modes of presentation.
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  28. A New Theory of Time 2 29 2020.Paul Merriam & Jeremy Horne - manuscript
    We motivate and develop a new theory of time and apply it to a few thought experiments in physics.
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  29.  64
    A Mathematical Definition of the Present and its Duration.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    We give a mathematical definition of the present or 'what is real' and its duration on McTaggart's A-series future/present/past. This is applicable to at least one conception of the block-world, the growing-block, and presentism.
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  30. A Theory of Time: Bringing McTaggart Into Physics.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    This paper proposes an interpretation of time that incorporates both McTaggart's A-series and his B-series, and attempts to cast it in a way that might be usable by physicists. This interpretation allows one to reconcile special relativity with temporal becoming as the latter is understood as 'ontologically private', which is given a mathematical definition. This allows one to define a unit of becoming, as well as the rates of becoming. This paper gives a picture of this interpretation and applies a (...)
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  31. The Praxis of Alain Badiou.Paul Ashton, A. J. Bartlett & Justin Clemens (eds.) - 2006 - Re.Press.
    Following the publication of his magnum opus L’être et l’événement (Being and Event) in 1988, Alain Badiou has been acclaimed as one of France’s greatest living philosophers. Since then, he has released a dozen books, including Manifesto for Philosophy, Conditions, Metapolitics and Logiques des mondes (Logics of Worlds), many of which are now available in English translation. Badiou writes on an extraordinary array of topics, and his work has already had an impact upon studies in the history of philosophy, the (...)
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  32. A New Theory of Time.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    This article proposes an interpretation of time that incorporates both McTaggart's A-series and his B-series, and tries to cast it in a role that could be useful to physicists. This AB-series allows one, to reconcile special relativity with temporal becoming if the latter is understood as 'ontologically private', which is given a mathematical definition. This allows one to define a unit of becoming, as well as the rates of becoming. This article gives a picture of this interpretation.
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  33. A Knowledge Argument for Time.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    On being released from her black-and-white room into a colorful world it would seem Mary learns something new (the Knowledge Argument). On being released from his B-theory room into an A-theory world it would seem Mark learns something new (the Temporal Knowledge Argument). These thought experiments are parallel to each other and can inform each other.
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  34. Perspectivalism, A-Theorism, and Their Interpretation of QM.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    Abstract We motivate and develop an A-theory of time and probe its implied interpretation of quantum mechanics. It will emerge that, as a first take, the time of relativity is a B-series and the time of quantum mechanics is an A-series. There is philosophical motivation for the idea that mutual quantum measurement happens when and only when the systems’ A-series become one mutual A-series. This accounts almost trivially for many quantum phenomena, including that the electrons of a Bell pair do (...)
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  35. A Taxonomy for the Mereology of Entangled Quantum Systems.Paul M. Näger & Niko Strobach - manuscript
    The emerging field of quantum mereology considers part-whole relations in quantum systems. Entangled quantum systems pose a peculiar problem in the field, since their total states are not reducible to that of their parts. While there exist several established proposals for modelling entangled systems, like monistic holism or relational holism, there is considerable unclarity, which further positions are available. Using the lambda operator and plural logic as formal tools, we review and develop conceivable models and evaluate their consistency and distinctness. (...)
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  36. A Mechanism for Life After Death.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    A mechanism for life after death is given.
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  37. Towards a Computational Account of Inferentialist Meaning.Paul Piwek - 2014
    Both in formal and computational natural language semantics, the classical correspondence view of meaning – and, more specifically, the view that the meaning of a declarative sentence coincides with its truth conditions – is widely held. Truth (in the world or a situation) plays the role of the given, and meaning is analysed in terms of it. Both language and the world feature in this perspective on meaning, but language users are conspicuously absent. In contrast, the inferentialist semantics that Robert (...)
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  38.  21
    A Curiosity About Newtonian Gravity V. 2.0.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    We give a very curious curiosity about Newtonian Gravity.
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  39.  14
    A Curiosity About Newtonian Gravity.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    We give a very curious curiosity about Newtonian gravity.
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  40. A Model for Creation: Part II.Paul Bernard White - manuscript
    In Part I we developed a model, called system P, for constructing the physical universe. In the present paper (Part II) we explore the hypothesis that something exists prior to the physical universe; i.e. we suppose that there exists a sequence of projections (and levels) that is prior to the sequence that constructs the physical universe itself. To avoid an infinite regress, this prior sequence must be finite, meaning that the whole chain of creative projections must begin at some primal (...)
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  41. A Model for Creation: Part I.Paul Bernard White - manuscript
    Four initial postulates are presented (with two more added later), which state that construction of the physical universe proceeds from a sequence of discrete steps or "projections" --- a process that yields a sequence of discrete levels (labeled 0, 1, 2, 3, 4). At or above level 2 the model yields a (3+1)-dimensional structure, which is interpreted as ordinary space and time. As a result, time does not exist below level 2 of the system, and thus the quantum of action, (...)
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  42. A Derivation of Space and Time.Paul Bernard White - 2019 - Progress in Physics 15 (2).
    Four simple postulates are presented, from which we derive a (3+1)‑dimensional structure, interpreted as ordinary space and time. We then derive further properties of space: isotropy and homogeneity; a rapid expansion within the first instant of time (i.e. inflation); and a continual and uniform expansionary pressure, due to a continual influx of (non-zero-point) energy that is uniformly distributed (i.e. dark energy). In addition, the time dimension is shown to have an "arrow". These results suggest that the four postulates may be (...)
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  43.  11
    A Calculus of Qualia 9 30 2022.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    The idea of this paper is to put actual qualia into equations (broadly understood) to get what might be called qualations. Qualations arguably have different meanings and truth behaviors than the analogous equations. For example, the term ‘ black ’ arguably has a different meaning and behavior than the term ‘ █ ’. This is a step in the direction of a ‘calculus of qualia’ and of expanding science to include 1st-person phenomena.
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  44. A Life Without Affects and Passions: Kant on the Duty of Apathy.Paul Formosa - 2011 - Parrhesia 13:96-111.
    An apathetic life is not the sort of life that most of us would want for ourselves or believe that we have a duty to strive for. And yet Kant argues that we have a duty of apathy, a duty to strive to be without affects (Affecten) and passions (Leidenschaften). But is Kant’s claim that there is a duty of apathy really as problematic as it sounds? In arguing that it is not, this paper investigates in detail in Kant’s accounts (...)
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  45. A New Objection to Representationalist Direct Realism.Paul H. Griffiths - manuscript
    Representationalism (aka intentionalism) has been the most significant weapon in the late twentieth century defence of direct realism. However, although the representationalist objection to the Phenomenal Principle might provide an effective response to the arguments from illusion and hallucination, plausible representationalist theories of perception are, when fleshed-out, incompatible with metaphysical direct realism’s directness-claim. Indeed within cognitive science, direct perception is the avowedly-radical anti-representationalist heterodoxy. Drawing on both the philosophy and cognitive science, we develop a robust argument against representationalist direct realism (...)
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  46. A Category Semantics.Paul Symington - 2018 - In Paul Hackett (ed.), Mereologies, Ontologies, and Facets: The Categorial Structure of Reality. New York: Lexington Books. pp. 65-85.
    In this paper, I present a categorial theory of meaning which asserts that the meaning of a sentence is the function from the actualization of some potentiality or the potentiality of some actuality to the truth of the sentence. I argue that it builds on the virtues of David Lewis’s Possible World Semantics but advances beyond problems that Lewis’s theory faces with its distinctly Aristotelian turn toward actuality and potentiality.
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  47. A Critique of New Materialism: Ethics and Ontology.Paul Rekret - 2016 - Subjectivity 9 (3):225-245.
    This article seeks to offer a critical assessment of the conception of ethics underlying the growing constellation of ‘new materialist’ social theories. It argues that such theories offer little if any purchase in understanding the contemporary transformations of relations between mind and body or human and non-human natures. Taking as exemplary the work of Jane Bennett, Rosi Braidotti, and Karen Barad, this article asserts that a continuity between ethics and ontology is central to recent theories of ‘materiality’. These theories assert (...)
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  48.  97
    Notes 2 A Theory of Time 6 7 2019.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    A theory of time was proposed in "A theory of time", an early version of which is on PhilPapers. The idea was that the A-series features of a physical system are ontologically private, and this was given a mathematical definition. Also B-series features are ontologically public. This brief note is a detailed rumination on path-integrals and Schrodinger's Cat, in this theory.
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  49. The Subjectively Enduring Self.L. A. Paul - forthcoming - In Ian Phillips (ed.), Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Temporal Experience. Routledge.
    The self can be understood in objective metaphysical terms as a bundle of properties, as a substance, or as some other kind of entity on our metaphysical list of what there is. Such an approach explores the metaphysical nature of the self when regarded from a suitably impersonal, ontological perspective. It explores the nature and structure of the self in objective reality, that is, the nature and structure of the self from without. This is the objective self. I am taking (...)
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  50.  39
    A Model for Constructing the Physical Universe.White Paul - manuscript
    In the introduction I argue that the basic element (or primitive) for constructing the physical universe is "displacement from a prior level", and the basic structure is "a sequence of such displacements" (summarized as postulates 1 and 2). The displacements are then defined as one-dimensional objects with a direction (postulate 3). The relations between these displacements are stated in postulate 4. In section 2 we discuss basic consequences of the postulates, and in section 3 we use the postulates to derive (...)
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