Results for 'Relation algebras'

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  1. The Contact Algebra of the Euclidean Plane has Infinitely Many Elements.Thomas Mormann - manuscript
    Abstract. Let REL(O*E) be the relation algebra of binary relations defined on the Boolean algebra O*E of regular open regions of the Euclidean plane E. The aim of this paper is to prove that the canonical contact relation C of O*E generates a subalgebra REL(O*E, C) of REL(O*E) that has infinitely many elements. More precisely, REL(O*,C) contains an infinite family {SPPn, n ≥ 1} of relations generated by the relation SPP (Separable Proper Part). This relation can (...)
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    Logical reduction of relations: From relational databases to Peirce’s reduction thesis.Sergiy Koshkin - 2023 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 31.
    We study logical reduction (factorization) of relations into relations of lower arity by Boolean or relative products that come from applying conjunctions and existential quantifiers to predicates, i.e. by primitive positive formulas of predicate calculus. Our algebraic framework unifies natural joins and data dependencies of database theory and relational algebra of clone theory with the bond algebra of C.S. Peirce. We also offer new constructions of reductions, systematically study irreducible relations and reductions to them and introduce a new characteristic of (...)
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  3. Hyperboolean Algebras and Hyperboolean Modal Logic.Valentin Goranko & Dimiter Vakarelov - 1999 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 9 (2):345-368.
    Hyperboolean algebras are Boolean algebras with operators, constructed as algebras of complexes (or, power structures) of Boolean algebras. They provide an algebraic semantics for a modal logic (called here a {\em hyperboolean modal logic}) with a Kripke semantics accordingly based on frames in which the worlds are elements of Boolean algebras and the relations correspond to the Boolean operations. We introduce the hyperboolean modal logic, give a complete axiomatization of it, and show that it lacks (...)
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  4. Cognition, Algebra, and Culture in the Tongan Kinship Terminology.Giovanni Bennardo & Dwight Read - 2007 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 7 (1-2):49-88.
    We present an algebraic account of the Tongan kinship terminology (TKT) that provides an insightful journey into the fabric of Tongan culture. We begin with the ethnographic account of a social event. The account provides us with the activities of that day and the centrality of kin relations in the event, but it does not inform us of the conceptual system that the participants bring with them. Rather, it is a slice in time of an ongoing dynamic process that links (...)
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  5.  15
    The Algebras of Lewis Counterfactuals.Giuliano Rosella & Sara Ugolini - manuscript
    The logico-algebraic study of Lewis's hierarchy of variably strict conditional logics has been essentially unexplored, hindering our understanding of their mathematical foundations, and the connections with other logical systems. This work aims to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive logico-algebraic analysis of Lewis's logics. We begin by introducing novel finite axiomatizations for varying strengths of Lewis's logics, distinguishing between global and local consequence relations on Lewisian sphere models. We then demonstrate that the global consequence relation is strongly algebraizable (...)
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  6. Álgebras booleanas, órdenes parciales y axioma de elección.Franklin Galindo - 2017 - Divulgaciones Matematicas 18 ( 1):34-54.
    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una demostración de un teorema clásico sobre álgebras booleanas y ordenes parciales de relevancia actual en teoría de conjuntos, como por ejemplo, para aplicaciones del método de construcción de modelos llamado “forcing” (con álgebras booleanas completas o con órdenes parciales). El teorema que se prueba es el siguiente: “Todo orden parcial se puede extender a una única álgebra booleana completa (salvo isomorfismo)”. Donde extender significa “sumergir densamente”. Tal demostración se realiza utilizando cortaduras de (...)
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  7. ¿Dónde queda el álgebra en Crítica de la razón pura? El álgebra y su relación con las construcciones simbólicas en la interpretación de Lisa Shabel.Maria Carolina Álvarez Puerta - 2019 - Apuntes Filosóficos 28 (55):9-20.
    The purpose of this article is to present Lisa Shabel's interpretive proposal that relates algebra to symbolic constructions. This briefly covers the problem of the status of algebra and how some of the interpretations given relate it to the numerical calculation. Subsequently, by the hand of Shabel and with an eye on the mathematical practice of Cristian Wolff, the ways of proceeding algebraically in the eighteenth century will be identified and then analyze the two meanings of the term “magnitude”. Finally, (...)
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  8. Algebraic structures of neutrosophic triplets, neutrosophic duplets, or neutrosophic multisets. Volume I.Florentin Smarandache, Xiaohong Zhang & Mumtaz Ali - 2018 - Basel, Switzerland: MDPI. Edited by Florentin Smarandache, Xiaohong Zhang & Mumtaz Ali.
    The topics approached in the 52 papers included in this book are: neutrosophic sets; neutrosophic logic; generalized neutrosophic set; neutrosophic rough set; multigranulation neutrosophic rough set (MNRS); neutrosophic cubic sets; triangular fuzzy neutrosophic sets (TFNSs); probabilistic single-valued (interval) neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set; neutro-homomorphism; neutrosophic computation; quantum computation; neutrosophic association rule; data mining; big data; oracle Turing machines; recursive enumerability; oracle computation; interval number; dependent degree; possibility degree; power aggregation operators; multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM); expert set; soft sets; LA-semihypergroups; single valued (...)
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  9. Algebraic structures of neutrosophic triplets, neutrosophic duplets, or neutrosophic multisets. Volume II.Florentin Smarandache, Xiaohong Zhang & Mumtaz Ali - 2019 - Basel, Switzerland: MDPI.
    The topics approached in this collection of papers are: neutrosophic sets; neutrosophic logic; generalized neutrosophic set; neutrosophic rough set; multigranulation neutrosophic rough set (MNRS); neutrosophic cubic sets; triangular fuzzy neutrosophic sets (TFNSs); probabilistic single-valued (interval) neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set; neutro-homomorphism; neutrosophic computation; quantum computation; neutrosophic association rule; data mining; big data; oracle Turing machines; recursive enumerability; oracle computation; interval number; dependent degree; possibility degree; power aggregation operators; multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM); expert set; soft sets; LA-semihypergroups; single valued trapezoidal neutrosophic number; (...)
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  10. Algebraic aspects and coherence conditions for conjoined and disjoined conditionals.Angelo Gilio & Giuseppe Sanfilippo - 2020 - International Journal of Approximate Reasoning 126:98-123.
    We deepen the study of conjoined and disjoined conditional events in the setting of coherence. These objects, differently from other approaches, are defined in the framework of conditional random quantities. We show that some well known properties, valid in the case of unconditional events, still hold in our approach to logical operations among conditional events. In particular we prove a decomposition formula and a related additive property. Then, we introduce the set of conditional constituents generated by $n$ conditional events and (...)
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  11. ‘Chasing’ the diagram—the use of visualizations in algebraic reasoning.Silvia de Toffoli - 2017 - Review of Symbolic Logic 10 (1):158-186.
    The aim of this article is to investigate the roles of commutative diagrams (CDs) in a specific mathematical domain, and to unveil the reasons underlying their effectiveness as a mathematical notation; this will be done through a case study. It will be shown that CDs do not depict spatial relations, but represent mathematical structures. CDs will be interpreted as a hybrid notation that goes beyond the traditional bipartition of mathematical representations into diagrammatic and linguistic. It will be argued that one (...)
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  12. Deontic Logics based on Boolean Algebra.Pablo F. Castro & Piotr Kulicki - 2013 - In Robert Trypuz (ed.), Krister Segerberg on Logic of Actions. Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer Verlag.
    Deontic logic is devoted to the study of logical properties of normative predicates such as permission, obligation and prohibition. Since it is usual to apply these predicates to actions, many deontic logicians have proposed formalisms where actions and action combinators are present. Some standard action combinators are action conjunction, choice between actions and not doing a given action. These combinators resemble boolean operators, and therefore the theory of boolean algebra offers a well-known athematical framework to study the properties of the (...)
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  13. Revisiting Constructive Mingle: Algebraic and Operational Semantics.Yale Weiss - 2022 - In Katalin Bimbo (ed.), Essays in Honor of J. Michael Dunn. College Publications. pp. 435-455.
    Among Dunn’s many important contributions to relevance logic was his work on the system RM (R-mingle). Although RM is an interesting system in its own right, it is widely considered to be too strong. In this chapter, I revisit a closely related system, RM0 (sometimes known as ‘constructive mingle’), which includes the mingle axiom while not degenerating in the way that RM itself does. My main interest will be in examining this logic from two related semantical perspectives. First, I give (...)
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  14. O papel da abstração na instanciação da álgebra nas Regulae ad Directionem Ingenii.Érico Andrade - 2011 - Analytica (Rio) 15 (1):145-172.
    In this essay I will defend three points, the first being that Descartes- unlike the aristotelian traditon- maintained that abstraction is not a operation in which the intellect builds the mathematical object resorting to sensible ob- jects. Secondly I will demonstrate that, according to cartesian philosophy, the faculty of understanding has the ability to instatiate- within the process of abstraction- mathematical symbols that represent the relation between quantities, whether magnitude or multitude.And finally I will advocate that the lack of (...)
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  15. An Investigation on the Basic Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Mechanics by Using the Clifford Algebra.Elio Conte - 2011 - Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics 5 (11):485-544.
    We review our approach to quantum mechanics adding also some new interesting results. We start by giving proof of two important theorems on the existence of the A(Si) and i,±1 N Clifford algebras. This last algebra gives proof of the von Neumann basic postulates on the quantum measurement explaining thus in an algebraic manner the wave function collapse postulated in standard quantum theory. In this manner we reach the objective to expose a self-consistent version of quantum mechanics. In detail (...)
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  16. Discovering Empirical Theories of Modular Software Systems. An Algebraic Approach.Nicola Angius & Petros Stefaneas - 2016 - In Vincent C. Müller (ed.), Computing and philosophy: Selected papers from IACAP 2014. Cham: Springer. pp. 99-115.
    This paper is concerned with the construction of theories of software systems yielding adequate predictions of their target systems’ computations. It is first argued that mathematical theories of programs are not able to provide predictions that are consistent with observed executions. Empirical theories of software systems are here introduced semantically, in terms of a hierarchy of computational models that are supplied by formal methods and testing techniques in computer science. Both deductive top-down and inductive bottom-up approaches in the discovery of (...)
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  17. Mathematics embodied: Merleau-Ponty on geometry and algebra as fields of motor enaction.Jan Halák - 2022 - Synthese 200 (1):1-28.
    This paper aims to clarify Merleau-Ponty’s contribution to an embodied-enactive account of mathematical cognition. I first identify the main points of interest in the current discussions of embodied higher cognition and explain how they relate to Merleau-Ponty and his sources, in particular Husserl’s late works. Subsequently, I explain these convergences in greater detail by more specifically discussing the domains of geometry and algebra and by clarifying the role of gestalt psychology in Merleau-Ponty’s account. Beyond that, I explain how, for Merleau-Ponty, (...)
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  18. Further results on -neutrosophic subalgebras and ideals in BCK/BCI-algebras.G. Muhiuddin, Hashem Bordbar, Florentin Smarandache & Young Bae Jun - 2018 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 20:36-43.
    Characterizations of an (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal are considered. Any ideal in a BCK/BCI-algebra will be realized as level neutrosophic ideals of some (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal. The relation between (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal and (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic subalgebra in a BCK-algebra is discussed. Conditions for an (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic subalgebra to be a (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal are provided. Using a collection of ideals in a BCK/BCI-algebra, an (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal is established. Equivalence relations on the family of all (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideals are introduced, (...)
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  19. New Development of Neutrosophic Probability, Neutrosophic Statistics, Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures, and Neutrosophic Plithogenic Optimizations.Florentin Smarandache & Yanhui Guo - 2022 - Basel, Switzerland: MDPI.
    This volume presents state-of-the-art papers on new topics related to neutrosophic theories, such as neutrosophic algebraic structures, neutrosophic triplet algebraic structures, neutrosophic extended triplet algebraic structures, neutrosophic algebraic hyperstructures, neutrosophic triplet algebraic hyperstructures, neutrosophic n-ary algebraic structures, neutrosophic n-ary algebraic hyperstructures, refined neutrosophic algebraic structures, refined neutrosophic algebraic hyperstructures, quadruple neutrosophic algebraic structures, refined quadruple neutrosophic algebraic structures, neutrosophic image processing, neutrosophic image classification, neutrosophic computer vision, neutrosophic machine learning, neutrosophic artificial intelligence, neutrosophic data analytics, neutrosophic deep learning, and neutrosophic (...)
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  20. Theories of properties, relations, and propositions.George Bealer - 1979 - Journal of Philosophy 76 (11):634-648.
    This is the only complete logic for properties, relations, and propositions (PRPS) that has been formulated to date. First, an intensional abstraction operation is adjoined to first-order quantifier logic, Then, a new algebraic semantic method is developed. The heuristic used is not that of possible worlds but rather that of PRPS taken at face value. Unlike the possible worlds approach to intensional logic, this approach yields a logic for intentional (psychological) matters, as well as modal matters. At the close of (...)
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  21. An Overview of Plithogenic Set and Symbolic Plithogenic Algebraic Structures.Florentin Smarandache - 2023 - Journal of Fuzzy Extension and Applications 4 (1):48–55.
    This paper is devoted to Plithogeny, Plithogenic Set, and its extensions. These concepts are branches of uncertainty and indeterminacy instruments of practical and theoretical interest. Starting with some examples, we proceed towards general structures. Then we present definitions and applications of the principal concepts derived from plithogeny, and relate them to complex problems.
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  22. A Preliminary Experimental Verification of Violation of Bell Inequality in a Quantum Model of Jung Theory of Personality Formulated with Clifford Algebra.Elio Conte - 2010 - Journal of Consciousness Exploration and Research 1 (7):831-849.
    We comment some recent results obtained by using a Clifford bare bone skeleton of quantum mechanics in order to formulate the conclusion that quantum mechanics has its origin in the logic, and relates conceptual entities. Such results touch directly the basic problem about the structure of our cognitive and conceptual dynamics and thus of our mind. The problem of exploring consciousness results consequently to be strongly linked. This is the reason because studies on quantum mechanics applied to this matter are (...)
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  23. Diagrammatic Modelling of Causality and Causal Relations.Sabah Al-Fedaghi - manuscript
    It has been stated that the notion of cause and effect is one object of study that sciences and engineering revolve around. Lately, in software engineering, diagrammatic causal inference methods (e.g., Pearl’s model) have gained popularity (e.g., analyzing causes and effects of change in software requirement development). This paper concerns diagrammatical (graphic) models of causal relationships. Specifically, we experiment with using the conceptual language of thinging machines (TMs) as a tool in this context. This would benefit works on causal relationships (...)
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  24. Commutative falling neutrosophic ideals in BCK-algebras.Young Bae Jun, Florentin Smarandache & Mehmat Ali Ozturk - 2018 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 20:44-53.
    The notions of a commutative (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal and a commutative falling neutrosophic ideal are introduced, and several properties are investigated. Characterizations of a commutative (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal are obtained. Relations between commutative (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal and (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal are discussed. Conditions for an (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal to be a commutative (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal are established. Relations between commutative (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal, falling neutrosophic ideal and commutative falling neutrosophic ideal are considered. Conditions for a falling neutrosophic ideal to be (...)
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  25. Completeness in the theory of properties, relations, and propositions.George Bealer - 1983 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 48 (2):415-426.
    Higher-order theories of properties, relations, and propositions are known to be essentially incomplete relative to their standard notions of validity. It turns out that the first-order theory of PRPs that results when first-order logic is supplemented with a generalized intensional abstraction operation is complete. The construction involves the development of an intensional algebraic semantic method that does not appeal to possible worlds, but rather takes PRPs as primitive entities. This allows for a satisfactory treatment of both the modalities and the (...)
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  26.  71
    Functional completeness and primitive positive decomposition of relations on finite domains.Sergiy Koshkin - 2024 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 32.
    We give a new and elementary construction of primitive positive decomposition of higher arity relations into binary relations on finite domains. Such decompositions come up in applications to constraint satisfaction problems, clone theory and relational databases. The construction exploits functional completeness of 2-input functions in many-valued logic by interpreting relations as graphs of partially defined multivalued ‘functions’. The ‘functions’ are then composed from ordinary functions in the usual sense. The construction is computationally effective and relies on well-developed methods of functional (...)
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  27. Priestley Duality for Bilattices.A. Jung & U. Rivieccio - 2012 - Studia Logica 100 (1-2):223-252.
    We develop a Priestley-style duality theory for different classes of algebras having a bilattice reduct. A similar investigation has already been realized by B. Mobasher, D. Pigozzi, G. Slutzki and G. Voutsadakis, but only from an abstract category-theoretic point of view. In the present work we are instead interested in a concrete study of the topological spaces that correspond to bilattices and some related algebras that are obtained through expansions of the algebraic language.
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  28. Hilbert mathematics versus (or rather “without”) Gödel mathematics: V. Ontomathematics!Vasil Penchev - 2024 - Metaphysics eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 17 (10):1-57.
    The paper is the final, fifth part of a series of studies introducing the new conceptions of “Hilbert mathematics” and “ontomathematics”. The specific subject of the present investigation is the proper philosophical sense of both, including philosophy of mathematics and philosophy of physics not less than the traditional “first philosophy” (as far as ontomathematics is a conservative generalization of ontology as well as of Heidegger’s “fundamental ontology” though in a sense) and history of philosophy (deepening Heidegger’s destruction of it from (...)
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  29. Marriages of Mathematics and Physics: A Challenge for Biology.Arezoo Islami & Giuseppe Longo - 2017 - Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 131:179-192.
    The human attempts to access, measure and organize physical phenomena have led to a manifold construction of mathematical and physical spaces. We will survey the evolution of geometries from Euclid to the Algebraic Geometry of the 20th century. The role of Persian/Arabic Algebra in this transition and its Western symbolic development is emphasized. In this relation, we will also discuss changes in the ontological attitudes toward mathematics and its applications. Historically, the encounter of geometric and algebraic perspectives enriched the (...)
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  30. Lineales.Martin Hyland & Valeria de Paiva - 1991 - O Que Nos Faz Pensar:107-123.
    The first aim of this note is to describe an algebraic structure, more primitive than lattices and quantales, which corresponds to the intuitionistic flavour of Linear Logic we prefer. This part of the note is a total trivialisation of ideas from category theory and we play with a toy-structure a not distant cousin of a toy-language. The second goal of the note is to show a generic categorical construction, which builds models for Linear Logic, similar to categorical models GC of (...)
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  31. Completeness and Doxastic Plurality for Topological Operators of Knowledge and Belief.Thomas Mormann - 2023 - Erkenntnis: 1 - 34, ONLINE.
    The first aim of this paper is to prove a topological completeness theorem for a weak version of Stalnaker’s logic KB of knowledge and belief. The weak version of KB is characterized by the assumption that the axioms and rules of KB have to be satisfied with the exception of the axiom (NI) of negative introspection. The proof of a topological completeness theorem for weak KB is based on the fact that nuclei (as defined in the framework of point-free topology) (...)
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  32. Forms of Luminosity: Epistemic Modality and Hyperintensionality in Mathematics.David Elohim - 2017 - Dissertation, Arché, University of St Andrews
    This book concerns the foundations of epistemic modality and hyperintensionality and their applications to the philosophy of mathematics. I examine the nature of epistemic modality, when the modal operator is interpreted as concerning both apriority and conceivability, as well as states of knowledge and belief. The book demonstrates how epistemic modality and hyperintensionality relate to the computational theory of mind; metaphysical modality and hyperintensionality; the types of mathematical modality and hyperintensionality; to the epistemic status of large cardinal axioms, undecidable propositions, (...)
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  33. Heyting Mereology as a Framework for Spatial Reasoning.Thomas Mormann - 2013 - Axiomathes 23 (1):137- 164.
    In this paper it is shown that Heyting and Co-Heyting mereological systems provide a convenient conceptual framework for spatial reasoning, in which spatial concepts such as connectedness, interior parts, (exterior) contact, and boundary can be defined in a natural and intuitively appealing way. This fact refutes the wide-spread contention that mereology cannot deal with the more advanced aspects of spatial reasoning and therefore has to be enhanced by further non-mereological concepts to overcome its congenital limitations. The allegedly unmereological concept of (...)
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  34. On the mathematical expression of the interpretative exercise.David E. Bustamante Segovia - manuscript
    ● Any given placement (e.g. Sun in Taurus; Mars in Capricorn; Mercury in the third house) is necessarily common to tens of thousands of people. Saturn in the ninth house, for example, will not behave the same or produce the same effects in the twenty or one hundred charts in which we find it there. In each case Saturn will behave in accordance with the rest of the astrographic/chart composition (as if we stayed in the same hotel in different epochs (...)
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  35. A Simpler and More Realistic Subjective Decision Theory.Haim Gaifman & Yang Liu - 2018 - Synthese 195 (10):4205--4241.
    In his classic book “the Foundations of Statistics” Savage developed a formal system of rational decision making. The system is based on (i) a set of possible states of the world, (ii) a set of consequences, (iii) a set of acts, which are functions from states to consequences, and (iv) a preference relation over the acts, which represents the preferences of an idealized rational agent. The goal and the culmination of the enterprise is a representation theorem: Any preference (...) that satisfies certain arguably acceptable postulates determines a (finitely additive) probability distribution over the states and a utility assignment to the consequences, such that the preferences among acts are determined by their expected utilities. Additional problematic assumptions are however required in Savage's proofs. First, there is a Boolean algebra of events (sets of states) which determines the richness of the set of acts. The probabilities are assigned to members of this algebra. Savage's proof requires that this be a σ-algebra (i.e., closed under infinite countable unions and intersections), which makes for an extremely rich preference relation. On Savage's view we should not require subjective probabilities to be σ-additive. He therefore finds the insistence on a σ-algebra peculiar and is unhappy with it. But he sees no way of avoiding it. Second, the assignment of utilities requires the constant act assumption: for every consequence there is a constant act, which produces that consequence in every state. This assumption is known to be highly counterintuitive. The present work contains two mathematical results. The first, and the more difficult one, shows that the σ-algebra assumption can be dropped. The second states that, as long as utilities are assigned to finite gambles only, the constant act assumption can be replaced by the more plausible and much weaker assumption that there are at least two non-equivalent constant acts. The second result also employs a novel way of deriving utilities in Savage-style systems -- without appealing to von Neumann-Morgenstern lotteries. The paper discusses the notion of “idealized agent" that underlies Savage's approach, and argues that the simplified system, which is adequate for all the actual purposes for which the system is designed, involves a more realistic notion of an idealized agent. (shrink)
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  36. Gödel Mathematics Versus Hilbert Mathematics. II Logicism and Hilbert Mathematics, the Identification of Logic and Set Theory, and Gödel’s 'Completeness Paper' (1930).Vasil Penchev - 2023 - Logic and Philosophy of Mathematics eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 15 (1):1-61.
    The previous Part I of the paper discusses the option of the Gödel incompleteness statement (1931: whether “Satz VI” or “Satz X”) to be an axiom due to the pair of the axiom of induction in arithmetic and the axiom of infinity in set theory after interpreting them as logical negations to each other. The present Part II considers the previous Gödel’s paper (1930) (and more precisely, the negation of “Satz VII”, or “the completeness theorem”) as a necessary condition for (...)
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  37. Another Side of Categorical Propositions: The Keynes–Johnson Octagon of Oppositions.Amirouche Moktefi & Fabien Schang - 2023 - History and Philosophy of Logic 44 (4):459-475.
    The aim of this paper is to make sense of the Keynes–Johnson octagon of oppositions. We will discuss Keynes' logical theory, and examine how his view is reflected on this octagon. Then we will show how this structure is to be handled by means of a semantics of partition, thus computing logical relations between matching formulas with a semantic method that combines model theory and Boolean algebra.
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  38. george boole.John Corcoran - 2006 - In Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2nd edition. macmillan.
    2006. George Boole. Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2nd edition. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. -/- George Boole (1815-1864), whose name lives among modern computer-related sciences in Boolean Algebra, Boolean Logic, Boolean Operations, and the like, is one of the most celebrated logicians of all time. Ironically, his actual writings often go unread and his actual contributions to logic are virtually unknown—despite the fact that he was one of the clearest writers in the field. Working with various students including Susan Wood and Sriram (...)
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  39. Forms of Luminosity: Epistemic Modality and Hyperintensionality in Mathematics.David Elohim - 2017
    This book concerns the foundations of epistemic modality and hyperintensionality and their applications to the philosophy of mathematics. I examine the nature of epistemic modality, when the modal operator is interpreted as concerning both apriority and conceivability, as well as states of knowledge and belief. The book demonstrates how epistemic modality and hyperintensionality relate to the computational theory of mind; metaphysical modality and hyperintensionality; the types of mathematical modality and hyperintensionality; to the epistemic status of large cardinal axioms, undecidable propositions, (...)
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  40. Two Faces of Obligation.Piotr Kulicki & Robert Trypuz - 2013 - In Anna Brożek, Jacek Jadacki & Berislav Žarnić (eds.), Theory of Imperatives from Different Points of View (2). Wydawnictwo Naukowe Semper.
    In the paper we discuss different intuitions about the properties of obligatory actions in the framework of deontic action logic based on boolean algebra. Two notions of obligation are distinguished–abstract and processed obligation. We introduce them formally into the system of deontic logic of actions and investigate their properties and mutual relations.
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  41. From Cautious Enthusiasm to Profound Disenchantment - Ernest Nagel and Carnapian Logical Empiricism.Thomas Mormann - 2021 - In Matthias Neuber & Adam Tamas Tuboly (eds.), Ernest Nagel: Philosophy of Science and the Fight for Clarity. Springer. pp. 89 - 108.
    The global relation between logical empiricism and American pragmatism is one of the more difficult problems in history of philosophy. In this paper I’d like to take a local perspective and concentrate on the details that concern the vicissitudes of a philosopher who played an important role in the encounter of logical empiricism and American pragmatism, namely, Ernest Nagel. In this paper, I want to explore some aspects of Nagel’s changing attitude towards the then „new“ logical-empiricist philosophy. In the (...)
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  42. Vagueness and Roughness.Bonikowski Zbigniew & Wybranie-Skardowska Urszula - 2008 - In Bonikowski Zbigniew & Wybranie-Skardowska Urszula (eds.), Transactions on Rough Sets IX. Lectures Notes and Computer Science 5290. Berlin-Heidelberg: pp. 1-13.
    The paper proposes a new formal approach to vagueness and vague sets taking inspirations from Pawlak’s rough set theory. Following a brief introduction to the problem of vagueness, an approach to conceptualization and representation of vague knowledge is presented from a number of different perspectives: those of logic, set theory, algebra, and computer science. The central notion of the vague set, in relation to the rough set, is defined as a family of sets approximated by the so called lower (...)
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  43. Phenomenology is art, not psychological or neural science.David A. Booth - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):408-409.
    It is tough to relate visual perception or other achievements to physiological processing in the central nervous system. The diagrammatic, algebraic, and verbal pictures of how sights seem to Lehar do not advance understanding of how we manage to see what is in the world. There are well-known conceptual reasons why no such purely introspective approach can be productive.
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  44. Framework for formal ontology.Barry Smith & Kevin Mulligan - 1983 - Topoi 2 (1):73-85.
    The discussions which follow rest on a distinction, first expounded by Husserl, between formal logic and formal ontology. The former concerns itself with (formal) meaning-structures; the latter with formal structures amongst objects and their parts. The paper attempts to show how, when formal ontological considerations are brought into play, contemporary extensionalist theories of part and whole, and above all the mereology of Leniewski, can be generalised to embrace not only relations between concrete objects and object-pieces, but also relations between what (...)
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  45. Cassirer and Dirac on the Symbolic Method in Quantum Mechanics: A Confluence of Opposites.Thomas Ryckman - 2018 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 6 (3).
    Determinismus und Indeterminismus in der modernen Physik is one of Cassirer’s least known and studied works, despite his own assessment as “one of his most important achievements”. A prominent theme locates quantum mechanics as a yet further step of the tendency within physical theory towards the purely functional theory of the concept and functional characterization of objectivity. In this respect DI can be considered an “update”, like the earlier monograph Zur Einsteinschen Relativitätstheorie: Erkenntnistheoretische Betrachtungen, to Substanzbegriff und Funktionsbegriff, a seminal (...)
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  46. Nelson’s logic ????Thiago Nascimento, Umberto Rivieccio, João Marcos & Matthew Spinks - 2020 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 28 (6):1182-1206.
    Besides the better-known Nelson logic and paraconsistent Nelson logic, in 1959 David Nelson introduced, with motivations of realizability and constructibility, a logic called $\mathcal{S}$. The logic $\mathcal{S}$ was originally presented by means of a calculus with infinitely many rule schemata and no semantics. We look here at the propositional fragment of $\mathcal{S}$, showing that it is algebraizable, in the sense of Blok and Pigozzi, with respect to a variety of three-potent involutive residuated lattices. We thus introduce the first known algebraic (...)
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  47.  40
    A limitation on ‎Neutro(‎Neutrosophic‎)‎‎ ‎Soft ‎Subrings and ‎S‎oft ‎Subideals‎‎.Rasuli Rasul & Mohammad Hamidi - manuscript
    In this study‎, ‎we introduce a‎ ‎type ‎of ‎neutrosophic ‎subset‎ concepts ‎such as‎ soft subrings‎, ‎soft subideals‎, ‎the residual quotient of soft subideals‎, ‎quotient rings of a ring by soft subideals‎, ‎soft subideals of soft subrings and investigate some of their properties and structured characteristics‎. ‎Also, we investigate them under homomorphisms and obtain some new ‎results. ‎Indeed, ‎the ‎relation ‎between ‎ ‎u‎ncertainty ‎and ‎semi-algebraic is presented and is analyzed ‎to ‎the ‎important ‎results ‎in ‎neutrosophic ‎subset ‎theory.‎‎‎.
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  48. Embodied higher cognition: insights from Merleau-Ponty’s interpretation of motor intentionality.Jan Halák - 2023 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 22 (2):369-397.
    This paper clarifies Merleau-Ponty’s original account of “higher-order” cognition as fundamentally embodied and enacted. Merleau-Ponty’s philosophy inspired theories that deemphasize overlaps between conceptual knowledge and motor intentionality or, on the contrary, focus exclusively on abstract thought. In contrast, this paper explores the link between Merleau-Ponty’s account of motor intentionality and his interpretations of our capacity to understand and interact productively with cultural symbolic systems. I develop my interpretation based on Merleau-Ponty’s analysis of two neuropathological modifications of motor intentionality, the case (...)
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  49. Epistemic Modality and Hyperintensionality in Mathematics.David Elohim - unknown
    This book concerns the foundations of epistemic modality and hyperintensionality and their applications to the philosophy of mathematics. I examine the nature of epistemic modality, when the modal operator is interpreted as concerning both apriority and conceivability, as well as states of knowledge and belief. The book demonstrates how epistemic modality and hyperintensionality relate to the computational theory of mind; metaphysical modality and hyperintensionality; the types of mathematical modality and hyperintensionality; to the epistemic status of large cardinal axioms, undecidable propositions, (...)
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  50. Logics Based on Linear Orders of Contaminating Values.Roberto Ciuni, Thomas Macaulay Ferguson & Damian Szmuc - 2019 - Journal of Logic and Computation 29 (5):631–663.
    A wide family of many-valued logics—for instance, those based on the weak Kleene algebra—includes a non-classical truth-value that is ‘contaminating’ in the sense that whenever the value is assigned to a formula φ⁠, any complex formula in which φ appears is assigned that value as well. In such systems, the contaminating value enjoys a wide range of interpretations, suggesting scenarios in which more than one of these interpretations are called for. This calls for an evaluation of systems with multiple contaminating (...)
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