Results for 'Socratic Irony'

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  1. Socratic Irony, Plato's Apology, and Kierkegaard's On the Concept of Irony.Paul Muench - 2009 - In Niels Jørgen Cappelørn, Hermann Deuser & K. Brian Söderquist (eds.), Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook. de Gruyter. pp. 71-125.
    In this paper I argue that Plato's Apology is the principal text on which Kierkegaard relies in arguing for the idea that Socrates is fundamentally an ironist. After providing an overview of the structure of this argument, I then consider Kierkegaard's more general discussion of irony, unpacking the distinction he draws between irony as a figure of speech and irony as a standpoint. I conclude by examining Kierkegaard's claim that the Apology itself is “splendidly suited for obtaining (...)
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  2. Socratic Irony.Gregory Vlastos - 1987 - Classical Quarterly 37 (01):79-96.
    Irony,’ says Quintilian, is that figure of speech or trope ‘in which something contrary to what is said is to be understood’ . His formula has stood the test of time. It passes intact into Dr Johnson's dictionary . It survives virtually intact in ours:Irony is the use of words to express something other than, and especially the opposite of, [their] literal meaning.
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  3. Einstein's Quandary, Socrates' Irony, and Jesus' Laughter: A 'Post-Modern' Meditation on Faith, Reason, Love, and the Paradox of the One and the Many.Richard Oxenberg - manuscript
    The paradox of 'the One and the Many' might, more generally, be understood as the paradox of relationship. In order for there to be relationship there must be at least two parties in relation. The relation must, at once, hold the parties apart (otherwise they would collapse into unity) while holding them together (otherwise relationship itself would cease). It must do so, further, without itself becoming a third party which would then, itself, need to be related. This paper considers this (...)
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  4. Socrates' Life of Irony (1998).Paul Muench - manuscript
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  5. Kierkegaard's Socratic Task.Paul Muench - 2006 - Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
    The Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) conceived of himself as the Socrates of nineteenth century Copenhagen. Having devoted the bulk of his first major work, *The Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates*, to the problem of the historical Socrates, Kierkegaard maintained at the end of his life that it is to Socrates that we must turn if we are to understand his own philosophical undertaking: "The only analogy I have before me is Socrates; my task is a (...)
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  6. The Problem of Kierkegaard's Socrates.Daniel Watts - 2017 - Res Philosophica (4):555-579.
    This essay re-examines Kierkegaard's view of Socrates. I consider the problem that arises from Kierkegaard's appeal to Socrates as an exemplar for irony. The problem is that he also appears to think that, as an exemplar for irony, Socrates cannot be represented. And part of the problem is the paradox of self-reference that immediately arises from trying to represent x as unrepresentable. On the solution I propose, Kierkegaard does not hold that, as an exemplar for irony, Socrates (...)
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  7. Laughing to Learn: Irony in the Republic as Pedagogy.Jonathan Fine - 2011 - Polis 28 (2):235-49.
    Recent commentators have attended to dramatic and ironic aspects of Plato’s Republic. But a more sustained examination of the relation between irony and the exchanges of Socrates and Glaucon is required because a crucial purpose and presentation of the irony have largely gone unnoticed. I argue that Socrates employs irony in part to parody Glaucon’s extremism and that he does so to exhort Glaucon to think critically. I examine how Socrates uses the term makaria (blessedness) primarily ironically (...)
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  8.  49
    Motherhood in Ferrante's The Lost Daughter: A Case Study of Irony as Extraordinary Reflection.Melissa Mcbay Merritt - 2017 - Philosophy and Literature 41 (1):185-200.
    In A Case for Irony, Jonathan Lear aims to advance “a distinguished philosophical tradition that conceives of humanity as a task” by returning this tradition to the ironic figure at its origin — Socrates. But he is hampered by his reliance on well-worn philosophical examples. I suggest that Elena Ferrante’s The Lost Daughter illustrates the mode of ironic experience that interests Lear, and helps us to think through his relation to Christine Korsgaard, arguably the greatest contemporary proponent of the (...)
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  9. Subjective Thinking: Kierkegaard on Hegel's Socrates.Daniel Watts - 2010 - Hegel Bulletin of Great Britain 61 (Spring / Summer):23-44.
    This essay considers the critical response to Hegel's view of Socrates we find in Kierkegaard's dissertation, The Concept of Irony. I argue that this dispute turns on the question whether or not the examination of particular thinkers enters into Socrates’ most basic aims and interests. I go on to show how Kierkegaard's account, which relies on an affirmative answer to this question, enables him to provide a cogent defence of Socrates' philosophical practice against Hegel's criticisms.
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  10. Kierkegaard's Socratic Pseudonym: A Profile of Johannes Climacus.Paul Muench - 2010 - In Rick Anthony Furtak (ed.), Kierkegaard's 'Concluding Unscientific Postscript': A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
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  11. A Forma Do Paradoxo: Friedrich Schlegel E a Ironia Romântica.Constantino Luz de Medeiros - 2014 - Trans/Form/Ação 37 (1):51-70.
    Definida como beleza lógica e forma do paradoxo, a ironia romântica de Friedrich Schlegel (1772-1829) assimila a antiga ironia socrática e a reinterpreta, inserindo-a como elemento central de sua teorização crítico-literária. O presente artigo analisa a ironia romântica, buscando situar sua alteração e abrangência no final do século XVIII, quando o conceito passa a significar metacrítica, reflexão filosófica, ruptura ficcional, distância estética e forma de exposição da arte literária. Defined as logical beauty and form of paradox, Friedrich Schlegel's (1772-1829) romantic (...)
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  12. Plato's Parmenides: The Conversion of the Soul.Mitchell H. Miller - 1986 - Princeton NJ, University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
    The Parmenides is arguably the pivotal text for understanding the Platonic corpus as a whole. I offer a critical analysis that takes as its key the closely constructed dramatic context and mimetic irony of the dialogue. Read with these in view, the contradictory characterizations of the "one" in the hypotheses dissolve and reform as stages in a systematic response to the objections that Parmenides earlier posed to the young Socrates' notions of forms and participation, potentially liberating Socrates from his (...)
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  13.  64
    El Comienzo de la Existencia en Hegel y Kierkegaard.Gabriel Leiva Rubio - 2018 - Eikasia. Revista de Filosofía 83:265-280.
    This text aims to contrast the metaphysical beginnings of the philosophies of Hegel and Kierkegaard. For this task, the notion of Being Pure of the Hegel of Logic will be used in relation with the concept of Irony that Kierkegaard expresses in his Concept of irony. The need for this "contrast of beginnings" seeks to clarify, from a “metaphysical awakening”, the evident theoretical courtship that has so far distanced by the dominant historiographical traditions of continental philosophy.
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  14. What the Dialectician Discerns: A New Reading of Sophist 253d-E.Mitchell Miller - 2016 - Ancient Philosophy 36 (2):321-352.
    At Sophist 253d-e the Eleatic Visitor offers a notoriously obscure description of the fields of one-and-many that the dialectician “adequately discerns.” Against the readings of Stenzel, Cornford, Sayre, and Gomez-Lobo, I propose an interpretation of that passage that takes into account the trilogy of Theaetetus-Sophist-Statesman as its context. The key steps are to respond to the irony of Socrates’ refutations at the end of the Theaetetus by reinterpreting the last two senses of logos as directed to forms and to (...)
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  15.  23
    Kierkegaard E a transformação do sujeito em si mesmo: Entre a vertigem da liberdade E o paradoxo absoluto da fé.Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa - 2018 - REVELETEO – Revista Eletrônica Espaço Teológico 12 (21):68-86.
    Atribuindo à ironia a possibilidade de exercício e desenvolvimento da liberdade subjetiva, Kierkegaard sublinha a negatividade absoluta como característica do referido processo em Sócrates, convergindo para assinalar o absoluto e irredutível valor do indivíduo em um movimento que implica o início absoluto da vida pessoal entre criar-se e deixar-se criar. Dessa forma, contrapondo-se à dissolução da existência humana nas fronteiras da pura conceituação intelectual, Kierkegaard assinala a tensão inaplacável entre existência e transcendência em um movimento que implica a interioridade e (...)
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  16. Platonic Mimesis.Mitchell Miller - 1999 - In Thomas Falkner, Nancy Felson & David Konstan (eds.), Contextualizing Classics: Ideology, Performance, Dialogue. pp. 253-266.
    A two-fold study, on the one hand of the thought-provoking mimesis by which Plato gives his hearer an occasion for self-knowledge and self-transcendence and of the typical sequential structure, an appropriation of the trajectory of the poem of Parmenides, by which Plato orders the drama of inquiry, and on the other hand a commentary on the Crito that aims to show concretely how these elements — mimesis and Parmenidean structure — work together to give the dialogues their exceptional elicitative power.
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  17. Kierkegaard's Phenomenology of Spirit.Ulrika Carlsson - 2016 - European Journal of Philosophy 24 (3):629-650.
    Kierkegaard's preoccupation with a separation between the ‘inner’ and the ‘outer’ runs through his work and is widely thought to belong to his rejection of Hegel's idealist monism. Focusing on The Concept of Irony and Either/Or, I argue that although Kierkegaard believes in various metaphysical distinctions between inside and outside, he nonetheless understands the task of the philosopher as that of making outside and inside converge in a representation. Drawing on Hegel's philosophy of art, I show that Kierkegaard's project (...)
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  18. The Tropes of Rorty: The Ironist. (A Re- Description).Francesco Tampoia - manuscript
    After a discussion of the fundamental tropes of Rorty’s philosophy, in and beyond Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, and after describing an imaginary conversation between Rorty, Heidegger, Derrida, and Dewey, the paper- a sort of monography in a nutshell- aims to shed new light on the strategic figure of the ironist as developed by Rorty in Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity. Who really is the Rortyan ironist? A comparison between the ironist and the Platonic character of Callicles clearly shows (...)
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  19. Embedding Irony and the Semantics/Pragmatics Distinction.Mihaela Popa-Wyatt - 2019 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 62 (6):674-699.
    This paper argues that we need to re-think the semantics/pragmatics distinction in the light of new evidence from embedding of irony. This raises a new version of the old problem of ‘embedded implicatures’. I argue that embedded irony isn’t fully explained by solutions proposed for other embedded implicatures. I first consider two strategies: weak pragmatics and strong pragmatics. These explain embedded irony as truth-conditional content. However, by trying to shoehorn irony into said-content, they raise problems of (...)
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  20. Irony and the Dogma of Force and Sense.Stephen J. Barker & Mihaela Popa-Wyatt - 2015 - Analysis 75 (1):9-16.
    Frege’s distinction between force and sense is a central pillar of modern thinking about meaning. This is the idea that a self-standing utterance of a sentence S can be divided into two components. One is the proposition P that S’s linguistic meaning and context associates with it. The other is S’s illocutionary force. The force/sense distinction is associated with another thesis, the embedding principle, that implies that the only content that embeds in compound sentences is propositional content. We argue that (...)
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  21. Verbal Irony in the Wild.Gregory A. Bryant - 2011 - Pragmatics and Cognition 19 (2):291-309.
    Verbal irony constitutes a rough class of indirect intentional communication involving a complex interaction of language-specific and communication-general phenomena. Conversationalists use verbal irony in conjunction with paralinguistic signals such as speech prosody. Researchers examining acoustic features of speech communication usually focus on how prosodic information relates to the surface structure of utterances, and often ignore prosodic phenomena associated with implied meaning. In the case of verbal irony, there exists some debate concerning how these prosodic features manifest themselves (...)
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  22.  88
    Socrates.George Rudebusch - 2009 - Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Socrates_ presents a compelling case for some life-changing conclusions that follow from a close reading of Socrates' arguments. Offers a highly original study of Socrates and his thought, accessible to contemporary readers Argues that through studying Socrates we can learn practical wisdom to apply to our lives Lovingly crafted with humour, thought-experiments and literary references, and with close reading sof key Socratic arguments Aids readers with diagrams to make clear complex arguments.
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  23.  93
    Suspending the World: Romantic Irony and Idealist System.Kirill Chepurin - 2020 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 53 (2):111-133.
    This paper revisits the rhetorics of system and irony in Fichte and Friedrich Schlegel in order to theorize the utopic operation and standpoint that, I argue, system and irony share. Both system and irony transport the speculative speaker to the impossible zero point preceding and suspending the construction of any binary terms or the world itself—an immanent nonplace (of the in-itself, nothingness, or chaos) that cannot be inscribed into the world's regime of comprehensibility and possibility. It is (...)
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  24. The Irony of Chance: On Aristotle’s Physics B, 4-6.Pascal Massie - 2003 - International Philosophical Quarterly 43 (1):15-28.
    The diversity of interpretations of Aristotle’s treatment of chance and luck springs from an apparent contradiction between the claims that “chance events are for the sake of something” and that “chance events are not for the sake of their outcome.” Chance seems to entail the denial of an end. Yet Aristotle systematically refers it to what is for the sake of an end. This paper suggests that, in order to give an account of chance, a reference to “per accidens causes” (...)
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  25. Socrates and the True Political Craft.J. Clerk Shaw - 2011 - Classical Philology 106:187-207.
    This paper argues that Socrates does not claim to be a political expert at Gorgias 521d6-8, as many scholars say. Still, Socrates does claim a special grasp of true politics. His special grasp (i) results from divine dispensation; (ii) is coherent true belief about politics; and (iii) also is Socratic wisdom about his own epistemic shortcomings. This condition falls short of expertise in two ways: Socrates sometimes lacks fully determinate answers to political questions, and he does not grasp the (...)
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  26. Socrates' Refutation of Thrasymachus.Rachel Barney - 2006 - In Gerasimos Xenophon Santas (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Plato's Republic. Blackwell.
    Socrates’ refutations of Thrasymachus in Republic I are unsatisfactory on a number of levels which need to be carefully distinguished. At the same time several of his arguments are more powerful than they initially appear. Of particular interest are those which turn on the idea of a craft, which represents a shared norm of practical rationality here contested by Socrates and Thrasymachus.
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  27.  92
    Socratic Elenchus in the Sophist.Nicolas Zaks - 2018 - Apeiron 51 (4):371-390.
    This paper demonstrates the central role of the Socratic elenchus in the Sophist. In the first part, I defend the position that the Stranger describes the Socratic elenchus in the sixth division of the Sophist. In the second part, I show that the Socratic elenchus is actually used when the Stranger scrutinizes the accounts of being put forward by his predecessors. In the final part, I explain the function of the Socratic elenchus in the argument of (...)
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  28. Socrates as Hoplite.Mark Anderson - 2005 - Ancient Philosophy 25 (2):273-289.
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  29. Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity.Alasdair Macintyre - 1990 - Journal of Philosophy 87 (12):708-711.
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  30. Socrates on Why We Should Inquire.David Ebrey - 2017 - Ancient Philosophy 37 (1):1-17.
    This paper examines whether Socrates provides his interlocutors with good reasons to seek knowledge of what virtue is, reasons that they are in a position to appreciate. I argue that in the Laches he does provide such reasons, but they are not the reasons that are most commonly identified as Socratic. Socrates thinks his interlocutors should be motivated not by the idea that virtue is knowledge nor by the idea that knowledge is good for its own sake, but rather (...)
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  31. Socrates and Callicles on Pleasure.Scott Berman - 1991 - Phronesis 36 (2):117-140.
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  32. Socratic Wisdom: The Model of Knowledge in Plato’s Early Dialogues.Alexander Nehamas - 2001 - Mind 110 (439):717-721.
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  33. Socrates in the Stoa.Eric Brown - 2006 - In Sara Ahbel-Rappe & Rachana Kamtekar (eds.), A Companion to Socrates. Oxford, UK: pp. 275-284.
    I show how the familiar Stoic paradoxes were developed by reflecting on Socrates.
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  34.  96
    Socrates, Wisdom and Pedagogy.George Rudebusch - 2009 - Philosophical Inquiry 31 (1-2):153-173.
    Intellectualism about human virtue is the thesis that virtue is knowledge. Virtue intellectualists may be eliminative or reductive. If eliminative, they will eliminate our conventional vocabulary of virtue words-'virtue', 'piety', 'courage', etc.-and speak only of knowledge or wisdom. If reductive, they will continue to use the conventional virtue words but understand each of them as denoting nothing but a kind of knowledge (as opposed to, say, a capacity of some other part of the soul than the intellect, such as the (...)
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  35. Contingency, Irony and Morality: A Critical Review of Rorty's. Notion of the Liberal Utopia.Wehan Murray Coombs - 2013 - Humanities 2 (2):313-327.
    This paper introduces Richard Rorty’s notion of the liberal ironist and his vision of a liberal utopia and explores the implications of these for philosophical questions concerning morality, as well as morality in general. Rorty’s assertions of the contingency of language, society and self are explored. Under the contingency of language, the figure of the ironist is defined, and Rorty’s conception of vocabularies is discussed. Under the contingency of society, Rorty’s definition of liberalism, his opposition of literary culture to materialist (...)
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  36. Socrates Agonistes: The Case of the Cratylus Etymologies.Rachel Barney - 1998 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 16:63-98.
    Are the long, wildly inventive etymologies in Plato’s Cratylus just some kind of joke, or does Plato himself accept them? This standard question misses the most important feature of the etymologies: they are a competitive performance, an agôn by Socrates in which he shows that he can play the game of etymologists like Cratylus better than they can themselves. Such show-off performances are a recurrent feature of Platonic dialogue: they include Socrates’ speeches on eros in the Phaedrus, his rhetorical discourse (...)
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  37. Irony and the Work of Art: Hegelian Legacies in Robert Smithson.Shannon Mussett - 2012 - Evental Aesthetics 1 (1):45-73.
    This paper utilizes Robert Smithson's philosophy as a kind of counterpoint, rather than refutation, to many of Hegel's convictions on the nature and function of art in world historical spirit.
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  38. Socrates Vs. Callicles: Examination & Ridicule in Plato’s Gorgias.David Levy - 2013 - Plato Journal 13:27-36.
    The Callicles colloquy of Plato’s Gorgias features both examination and ridicule. Insofar as Socrates’ examination of Callicles proceeds via the elenchus, the presence of ridicule requires explanation. This essay seeks to provide that explanation by placing the effort to ridicule within the effort to examine; that is, the judgment/pronouncement that something/ someone is worthy of ridicule is a proper part of the elenchic examination. Standard accounts of the Socratic elenchus do not include this component. Hence, the argument of this (...)
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  39. Socrates the Cosmopolitan.Eric Brown - 2000 - Stanford Agora: An Online Journal of Legal Perspectives 1 (1):74-87.
    I argue that the Stoics were right to portray Socrates as a cosmopolitan, because this portrait is fully consistent with the Socrates of Plato's Socratic dialogues. His rejection of ordinary political engagement in favor of an extraordinary way of doing the political work of improving others lives by examining them is also the rejection of locally engaged politics in favor of benefiting human beings as such. It is less clear whether his cosmopolitanism is moderate (admitting special obligations to benefit (...)
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  40. Socrates and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A Pathographic Diagnosis 2,400 Years Later.Osamu Muramoto - 2006 - Epilepsia 47 (3):652-654.
    Purpose: Some enigmatic remarks and behaviors of Socrates have been a subject of debate among scholars. We investigated the possibility of underlying epilepsy in Socrates by analyzing pathographic evidence in ancient literature from the viewpoint of the current understanding of seizure semiology. Methods: We performed a case study from a literature survey. Results: In 399 BCE, Socrates was tried and executed in Athens on the charge of “impiety.” His charges included the “introduction of new deities” and “not believing in the (...)
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  41. Cross-Examining Socrates: A Defense of the Interlocutors in Plato’s Early Dialogues.Jyl Gentzler - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (4):587-590.
    A review of John Beversluis' "Cross-Examining Socrates: A Defense of the Interlocutors in Plato's Early Dialogues".
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  42. Socrates and Superiority.Nathan Hanna - 2007 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 45 (2):251-268.
    I propose an alternative interpretation of the Crito. The arguments that are typically taken to be Socrates’ primary arguments against escape are actually supplementary arguments that rely on what I call the Superiority Thesis, the thesis that the state and its citizens are members of a moral hierarchy where those below are tied by bonds of obligation to those above. I provide evidence that Socrates holds this thesis, demonstrate how it resolves a number of apparent difficulties and show why my (...)
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  43. Socratic Piety.Gregory Vlastos - 1999 - In Gail Fine (ed.), Plato 2: Ethics, Politics, Religion, and the Soul. Oxford University Press. pp. 213-38.
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  44. Pretence and Echo: Towards an Integrated Account of Verbal Irony.Mihaela Popa-Wyatt - 2014 - International Review of Pragmatics 6 (1):127–168.
    Two rival accounts of irony claim, respectively, that pretence and echo are independently sufficient to explain central cases. After highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of these accounts, I argue that an account in which both pretence and echo play an essential role better explains these cases and serves to explain peripheral cases as well. I distinguish between “weak” and “strong” hybrid theories, and advocate an “integrated strong hybrid” account in which elements of both pretence and echo are seen as (...)
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  45. Socrates on Love.Suzanne Obdrzalek - 2013 - In John Bussanich & Nicholas D. Smith (eds.), The Bloomsbury Companion to Socrates. Continuum. pp. 210-32.
    In this chapter, I offer an overview of current scholarly debates on Plato's Lysis. I also argue for my own interpretation of the dialogue. In the Lysis, Socrates argues that all love is motivated by the desire for one’s own good. This conclusion has struck many interpreters as unattractive, so much so that some attempt to reinterpret the dialogue, such that it either does not offer an account of interpersonal love, or that it offers an account on which love is, (...)
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  46. Love Among the Post-Socratics.Ulrika Carlsson - 2013 - Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook 2013 (1).
    Victor Eremita proposes that the reader understand parts I and II of Either/Or as parties in a dialogue; most readers in fact view II as a devastating reply to I. I suggest that part I be read as a reaction or follow-up to Kierkegaard’s dissertation. Much of part I presents reflective characters who are aware of their freedom but reluctant or unable to adopt the ethical life. The modern Antigone and the Silhouettes are sisters of Alcibiades—failed students of Socrates. I (...)
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  47. Systematicity Theory Meets Socratic Scientific Realism: The Systematic Quest for Truth.Timothy D. Lyons - 2019 - Synthese 196 (3):833-861.
    Systematicity theory—developed and articulated by Paul Hoyningen-Huene—and scientific realism constitute separate encompassing and empirical accounts of the nature of science. Standard scientific realism asserts the axiological thesis that science seeks truth and the epistemological thesis that we can justifiably believe our successful theories at least approximate that aim. By contrast, questions pertaining to truth are left “outside” systematicity theory’s “intended scope” ; the scientific realism debate is “simply not” its “focus”. However, given the continued centrality of that debate in the (...)
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  48. Is Socrates A Predicate?Richard Brian Davis - 2006 - Metaphysica 7 (2).
    In his Moderate Realism and Its Logic (Yale, 1996), Donald Mertz argues that the traditional ontology of nonpredicable substances and predicable universals is beset by “intractable problems,” “harbors an insidious error,” and constitutes a “stumbling block” for the ontologist. By contrast, a onecategory ontology consisting of relation instances (and combinations thereof) is sustainable, and indeed the only way of avoiding commitment to bare particulars. The success of the project turns on Mertz’s claim that every relation instance has a linking aspect, (...)
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  49. On the Socratic Injunction to Follow the Argument Where It Leads.Jason Marsh - 2017 - In Paul Draper & J. L. Schellenberg (eds.), Renewing Philosophy of Religion: Exploratory Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 187-207.
    This chapter examines a common objection to the philosophy of religion, namely, that it has not sufficiently embraced the injunction of Socrates to follow the argument where it leads. Although a general version of this charge is unfair, one emerging view in the field, which I call religious Mooreanism, nonetheless risks running contrary to the Socratic injunction. According to this view, many people can quickly, easily, and reasonably deflect all known philosophical challenges to their core religious outlooks, including arguments (...)
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  50. The Virtuous Ensemble: Socratic Harmony and Psychological Authenticity.Paul Carron & Anne-Marie Schultz - 2014 - Southwest Philosophy Review 30 (1):127-136.
    We discuss two models of virtue cultivation that are present throughout the Republic: the self-mastery model and the harmony model. Schultz (2013) discusses them at length in her recent book, Plato’s Socrates as Narrator: A Philosophical Muse. We bring this Socratic distinction into conversation with two modes of intentional regulation strategies articulated by James J. Gross. These strategies are expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal. We argue that that the Socratic distinction helps us see the value in cognitive reappraisal (...)
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