Results for 'Turkish numismatic, symbols, philosophical thought,'

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  1. XIII asr Konya numismatiği ve felsefesinin seciyyevi cehetleri.Aladdin Malikov - unknown
    The article highlights Turkish numismatic, symbols and philosophical thought on the basis of Konya dirhams, minted in the second half of the 13th century, preserved in the Numismatical Fund of the National Museum of History of Azerbaijan of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan and the thoughts of Sheykh Sadr al-Din Muhammad al-Qunawi (1210 - 1274). There are also Konya silver dirhams, along with silver coins, minted in the name of Seljuk rulers, found in various regions of (...)
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  2. The Fourth Dimension of the World of Nature in Mulla Sadra’s Philosophy and Relativity Theory of Einstein.Religious Thought, Sepideh Razi, Jaafar Shanazari & Afshin Shafiee - 2020 - JOURNAL OF RELIGIOUS THOUGHT 20 (77):99-126.
    One of the challenges faced by philosophers throughout history of philosophical thoughts, has always been and is to find an adequate answer to the question of quiddity and existence of time and space. Thus, the present study aims to elaborate on the question of space and time in Mulla Sadra’s philosophy and its relationship with outcomes of modern physics. The study also intends to conduct an analytical comparison between these two views and clarify newer aspects of this complicated and (...)
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  3. Happiness and its transformation in Islamic Philosophy from Al- Kendi to Al- Tusi.Religious Thought & Alireza Aram - 2020 - Journal of Religiouw Thought 20 (77):1-28.
    Seeking for Happiness in Islamic Philosophy and its goal, it can be seen a literal and unanimous answer in philosopher words which reflects combination of worldly(secular) and otherworldly(sacred) happiness that it can prepare temporal and eschatological happiness. But in a deeper investigation we can ask: what is the main purpose? mortal or final dimension of happiness? As a result of the text, it seems that from Al- Kendi to Al- Rāzī the otherworldly happiness is considered as a result of worldly (...)
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  4. The Comparative Studying of the Relations between Science and Religion in Ian Barbour and Mesbah's Perspective.Religious Thought, Mohammad Esmaeeli, Mohammad Sadegh Jamshidi Rad, Mohammad Reza Zamiri & Seyyed Hasan Bathayi Golpayegani - 2020 - JOURNAL OF RELIGIOUS THOUGHT 20 (77):51-78.
    The relation between science and religion has been one of the most important disturbance of scientists in recent centuries. Expressing thus issue was started in west countries since renaissance seriously and it expanded to all countries even Islamic countries. Mesbah as a philosopher and an Islamic scientist chooses completion idea which is based on his basis; e.g. philosophical foundations with reasonable relativity, paradigm acceptance which means thought basis, experience acceptance which means revelation and inspiration by innocent, monopoly on legitimacy (...)
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  5. The Transformation of the Concept of Eudemonia in Islamic Philosophy; Development and Restoration in Al- Tusi's Heritage.Religious Thought - 2021 - JOURNAL OF RELIGIOUS THOUGHT 21 (78):25-52.
    After Al-Tusi and his effective work- which is called Nasirian Ethics- Islamic Philosophical Ethics emerges a fixed perspective that tips the balance (scale) in favor of otherworldly Eudemonia and considers worldly Eudemonia as rental land which can be abandoned. Ibn Khaldun tries to present a communicative theory; but his work has limited under the main discourse of Islamic Ethics which is fixed in the space and effect of the mentioned balance. As a consequence, after Mulla Sadra and in Esfahan (...)
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  6. Reliability of Cognitive Faculties: A Critic on Plantinga’s View on Atheist Naturalism.Religious Thought, Ahmad Ebadi & Maryam Salehi - 2020 - JOURNAL OF RELIGIOUS THOUGHT 20 (77):127-150.
    In the naturalism and evolutionism context, the ultimate objective and function of cognitive faculties is adaptation, survival and reproduction. Our cognitive faculties are not developed to generate true beliefs, therefore, but to have adapt behavior. Alvin Planatinga is not at ease with naturalism idea. To him, the problem with naturalism is the non-existence of proper understanding on the manner by which the belief and behavior are interrelated, thus, he concludes that the reliability of cognitive faculties are founded on low naturalistic (...)
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  7. The Rule of Divine Attributes in History from the Perspective of Nahj al-Balaghah.Religious Thought, Masoumeh Haji Maghsoudi & Mohsen Alviri - 2020 - JOURNAL OF RELIGIOUS THOUGHT 20 (77):79-98.
    Divine Attributes and their reflection in the flowing of history and its stages is one of the most important issues in the theoretical philosophy of history that has attracted the attention of philosophers of history. This issue has become doubly important because it relates to human free will and the extent and manner of his role in history. This article has tried to examine the three attributes: "Lordship", "Knowledge" and "Will" along with a description of the concept of "Fate and (...)
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  8. Absolute Infinity, Knowledge, and Divinity in the Thought of Cusanus and Cantor (ABSTRACT ONLY).Anne Newstead - 2024 - In Mirosław Szatkowski (ed.), Ontology of Divinity. De Gruyter. pp. 561-580.
    Renaissance philosopher, mathematician, and theologian Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464) said that there is no proportion between the finite mind and the infinite. He is fond of saying reason cannot fully comprehend the infinite. That our best hope for attaining a vision and understanding of infinite things is by mathematics and by the use of contemplating symbols, which help us grasp "the absolute infinite". By the late 19th century, there is a decisive intervention in mathematics and its philosophy: the philosophical (...)
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  9. A Thought Experiment in Life Prolongation: The Tortoise Transformation.Timothy F. Murphy - 2013 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):645–649.
    The value of extending the human lifespan remains a key philosophical debate in bioethics. In building a case against the extension of the species-typical human life, Nicolas Agar considers the prospect of transforming human beings near the end of their lives into Galapagos tortoises, which would then live on decades longer. A central question at stake in this transformation is the persistence of human consciousness as a condition of the value of the transformation. Agar entertains the idea that consciousness (...)
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  10.  74
    Sanat Felsefesi Açısından Doğan Kuban: Mimarlık Tarihinden Türk Sanatının İlkelerine / Doğan Kuban In Terms of Philosophy of Art: From The History of Architecture to The Principles of Turkish Art.Ömür Karslı - 2023 - Tasarım+Kuram 19 (140. Yıl):20-37.
    In this article the possibilities of expanding the boundaries of the knowledge and tradition of art philosophy in Turkey through the works of names outside the discipline of philosophy are investigated. For this purpose the production of architectural historian Doğan Kuban is discussed. Kuban’s works are evaluated from a philosophical perspective and it is tried to justify that they should be included in the philosophy of art literature. It has been accepted by the researchers that aesthetics/philosophy of art in (...)
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  11. Formal operations and simulated thought.John-Michael Kuczynski - 2006 - Philosophical Explorations 9 (2):221-234.
    A series of representations must be semantics-driven if the members of that series are to combine into a single thought: where semantics is not operative, there is at most a series of disjoint representations that add up to nothing true or false, and therefore do not constitute a thought at all. A consequence is that there is necessarily a gulf between simulating thought, on the one hand, and actually thinking, on the other. A related point is that a popular doctrine (...)
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  12. Mamardashvili, an Observer of the Totality. About “Symbol and Consciousness”, and the cross between East and West, infinity and finiteness. . .Vasil Penchev - 2018 - Labor and Social Relations 29 (2):189-199.
    The paper discusses a few tensions “crucifying” the works and even personality of the great Georgian philosopher Merab Mamardashvili: East and West; human being and thought, symbol and consciousness, infinity and finiteness, similarity and differences. The observer can be involved as the correlative counterpart of the totality: An observer opposed to the totality externalizes an internal part outside. Thus the phenomena of an observer and the totality turn out to converge to each other or to be one and the same. (...)
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  13. Philosophical thought experiments as heuristics for theory discovery.Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen & Sara Kier Praëm - 2015 - Synthese 192 (9):2827-2842.
    The growing literature on philosophical thought experiments has so far focused almost exclusively on the role of thought experiments in confirming or refuting philosophical hypotheses or theories. In this paper we draw attention to an additional and largely ignored role that thought experiments frequently play in our philosophical practice: some thought experiments do not merely serve as means for testing various philosophical hypotheses or theories, but also serve as facilitators for conceiving and articulating new ones. As (...)
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  14. The paradoxes and Russell's theory of incomplete symbols.Kevin C. Klement - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 169 (2):183-207.
    Russell claims in his autobiography and elsewhere that he discovered his 1905 theory of descriptions while attempting to solve the logical and semantic paradoxes plaguing his work on the foundations of mathematics. In this paper, I hope to make the connection between his work on the paradoxes and the theory of descriptions and his theory of incomplete symbols generally clearer. In particular, I argue that the theory of descriptions arose from the realization that not only can a class not be (...)
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  15. Pratityasamutpada in Eastern and Western Modes of Thought.Christian Thomas Kohl - 2012 - International Association of Buddhist Universities 4 (2012):68-80.
    Nagarjuna and Quantum physics. Eastern and Western Modes of Thought. Summary. The key terms. 1. Key term: ‘Emptiness’. The Indian philosopher Nagarjuna is known in the history of Buddhism mainly by his keyword ‘sunyata’. This word is translated into English by the word ‘emptiness’. The translation and the traditional interpretations create the impression that Nagarjuna declares the objects as empty or illusionary or not real or not existing. What is the assertion and concrete statement made by this interpretation? That nothing (...)
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  16. "Infinity, Knowledge, and Divinity in the Thought of Cusanus and Cantor" (Manuscript draft of first page of forthcoming book chapter ).Anne Newstead (ed.) - forthcoming - Berlin: De Gruyter.
    Renaissance philosopher, mathematician, and theologian Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464) said that there is no proportion between the finite mind and the infinite. He is fond of saying reason cannot fully comprehend the infinite. That our best hope for attaining a vision and understanding of infinite things is by mathematics and by the use of contemplating symbols, which help us grasp "the absolute infinite". By the late 19th century, there is a decisive intervention in mathematics and its philosophy: the philosophical (...)
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  17. Nagarjuna and Quantum Physics. Eastern and Western Modes of Thought.Christian Thomas Kohl - 2014 - Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia.
    1.Summary The key terms. 1. Key term: ‘Sunyata’. Nagarjuna (Kumarajiva) is known in the history of Buddhism mainly by his keyword ‘sunyata’. This word is translated into English by the word ‘emptiness’. The translation and the traditional interpretations create the impression that Nagarjuna (Kumarajiva) declares the objects as empty or illusionary or not real or not existing. What is the assertion and concrete statement made by this interpretation? That nothing can be found, that there is nothing, that nothing exists? Was (...)
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  18.  36
    Avenarius: appearance in the philosophical thought in Russia.N. Gaidabrus - 2021 - In Восьмой Российский Философский Конгресс - «Философия в полицентричном мире». Дополнения и Стендовые доклады (том V: Дополнения (А-Я) & Addenda). Сборник научных статей М.: РФО - ИФРАН - МГУ. Издательство “Логос”,ООО «Новые печатные технологии» (Москва), 2.
    The philosophical point of view of Richard Heinrich Ludwig Avenarius (Habermann) (19.11.1843-18.08.1896) is still little mastered and represented in philosophical thought in modern Russia. However, at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, it inspired many minds of that period. The views of Avenarius were studied by Lesevich V.V., Tronin V.V., Gurevich A.V., Chelpanov G.I., Filippov M.M., Viktorov D.V. and others. Due to historical circumstances, the time for an unbiased understanding of the concept of Richard Avenarius has (...)
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  19. Tanzimat'tan Günümüze Türkiye'de Felsefe.Mehmet Vural - 2018 - Ankara: Elis Yayınları.
    PREFACE WORD The Tanzimat period, which was the starting point of reform movements in many areas such as social, political, economic, military, etc., in which steps were taken towards Westernization, is considered to be an important milestone in drawing the fate of the Ottoman Empire. In this longest century of the empire, when many things were rushed, education partially received its share of change and reform. However, since the field of education was under the control of religious institutions such as (...)
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  20. Image of Averroes in Contemporary Moroccan Thought(Book Review). [REVIEW]Abduljaleel Alwali - 2016 - Arab Journal for the Humanities, University of Kuwait, No135 135.
    To start with, we should say that the book is a thesis for obtaining a PhD in philosophy from Mohamed Al-Khamis University in Rabat, Morocco, Arab Cultural Center published in its first edition in 2015 with a number of 368 pages. The book deserves to be read, beginning with the title “The Image of Ibn Rushd in Contemporary Moroccan Thought”. It is an attractive title for two main reasons: Ibn Rushd is one of the most prominent symbols of intellectual rationality (...)
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  21. PHILOSOPHERS - Encyclopedia of philosophical thought from the five continents.Víctor Andrés Montero Cam - 2022
    PHILOSOPHERS - Encyclopedia of philosophical thought from the five continents .
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  22. Modal skepticism: Philosophical thought experiments and modal epistemology.Daniel Cohnitz - 2003 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 10:281--296.
    One of the most basic methods of philosophy is, and has always been, the consideration of counterfactual cases and imaginary scenarios. One purpose of doing so obviously is to test our theories against such counterfactual cases. Although this method is widespread, it is far from being commonly accepted. Especially during the last two decades it has been confronted with criticism ranging from complete dismissal to denying only its critical powers to a cautious defense of the use of thought experiments as (...)
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  23. Models of Philosophical Thought Experimentation.Jonathan Andy Tapsell - 2014 - Dissertation, Australian National University
    The practice of thought experimentation plays a central role in contemporary philosophical methodology. Many philosophers rely on thought experimentation as their primary and even sole procedure for testing theories about the natures of properties and relations. This test procedure involves entertaining hypothetical cases in imaginative thought and then undergoing intuitions about the distribution of properties and relations in them. A theory’s comporting with an intuition is treated as evidence in favour of it; but a clash is treated as evidence (...)
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  24. On the type of philosophical thought of John Smith: a lecture on "excellence of true religion · nobility.三上 章 - unknown - Humanities and Social Sciences 31:1 - 28.
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  25. Rationalization in Philosophical and Moral Thought.Eric Schwitzgebel & Jonathan Ellis - 2017 - In Jean-François Bonnefon & Bastien Trémolière (eds.), Moral Inferences. New York, NY: Routledge.
    Rationalization, in our intended sense of the term, occurs when a person favors a particular conclusion as a result of some factor (such as self-interest) that is of little justificatory epistemic relevance, if that factor then biases the person’s subsequent search for, and assessment of, potential justifications for the conclusion. Empirical evidence suggests that rationalization is common in people’s moral and philosophical thought. We argue that it is likely that the moral and philosophical thought of philosophers and moral (...)
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  26. A mixed bag: Political change in central and eastern europe and its impact on philosophical thought.John T. Sanders - 1998 - In Dane R. Gordon (ed.), Philosophy in Post-Communist Europe. Rodopi.
    The most important voices concerning the changes now occurring in Central and Eastem Europe are those that come from within, for those voices are informed not only by indifferent data and objective reports, but by personal hopes, fears, desires and needs. Without careful consideration of what such voices say, judgment can only be sterile. Furthermore, policy decisions made without the benefit of the intemal perspective are likely to be flawed, and ineffectual. Policies won’t work if they do not take into (...)
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  27. WOMEN PHILOSOPHERS - Female voices in the world of philosophical thought.Víctor Andrés Montero Cam - 2022
    WOMEN PHILOSOPHERS - Female voices in the world of philosophical thought (From the Ancient World to the Present Day).
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  28. Hilmi Ziya Ülken.Mehmet Vural - 2019 - Ankara: Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı.
    PREFACE WORD -/- Hilmi Ziya Ülken was born in Istanbul during the last period of the Ottoman Empire, was educated during this period and worked in many areas of the intellectual life of the newly established Republic. Although he was interested in many fields of social sciences, he gained fame in philosophy, sociology, history of thought and literature. Again, he undertook important tasks in revealing and introducing medieval Islamic thinkers and post-Tanzimat Turkish thought, and due to his deep knowledge (...)
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  29. Korijeni pojmova oblika i tvari: začetci filozofije u praslavenskom mitu i hrvatskoj predaji [The roots of the concepts of form and matter: The beginnings of philosophy in the Proto-Slavic myth and in the Croatian tradition].Srećko Kovač - 2023 - In Medhótá śrávaḥ II: Misao i slovo. Zbornik u čast Mislava Ježića povodom sedamdesetoga rođendana. Zagreb: Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti. pp. 339-355.
    The paper aims to show that by abstracting from a specific mythical historical- stylistic context and “ideation” of the notion of the Proto-Slavic deities Perun and Veles, especially in Croatian tradition, symbolic archetypes and abstract notions of form and primordial matter (materia prima) can be extracted from mythical content. We refer to mythical texts and contents according to the reconstructions and materials brought by Radoslav Katičić, and comparative analysis by Mislav Ježić. We distinguish form (1) as that in which identity (...)
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  30. Formal thought disorder and logical form: A symbolic computational model of terminological knowledge.Luis M. Augusto & Farshad Badie - 2022 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 3 (4):1-37.
    Although formal thought disorder (FTD) has been for long a clinical label in the assessment of some psychiatric disorders, in particular of schizophrenia, it remains a source of controversy, mostly because it is hard to say what exactly the “formal” in FTD refers to. We see anomalous processing of terminological knowledge, a core construct of human knowledge in general, behind FTD symptoms and we approach this anomaly from a strictly formal perspective. More specifically, we present here a symbolic computational model (...)
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  31.  50
    Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Sri Aurobindo.Desh Raj Sirswal (ed.) - 2023 - New Delhi: Kalamkaar Publishers Pvt Ltd.
    In this book we included 10 papers from academicians, teachers and research scholars on the philosophy of Sri Aurobindo that touches various aspects of his thoughts. The year-long celebrations to commemorate the 150th birth anniversary of Sri Aurobindo began from 15th August, 2021 in India and all over the world. This volume is also a part of this celebration. Before that we published a special volume of Milestone Education Review (The Journal of Ideas on Educational & Social Transformation) (ISSN: 2278-2168), (...)
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  32. Sceptical Thoughts on Philosophical Expertise.Jimmy Alfonso Licon - 2012 - Logos and Episteme 3 (3):449-458.
    My topic is two-fold: a reductive account of expertise as an epistemic phenomenon, and applying the reductive account to the question of whether or not philosophers enjoy expertise. I conclude, on the basis of the reductive account, that even though philosophers enjoy something akin to second-order expertise (i.e. they are often experts on the positions of other philosophers, current trends in the philosophical literature, the history of philosophy, conceptual analysis and so on), they nevertheless lack first-order philosophical expertise (...)
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  33. The Symbolic Scenarios of Islamism: A Study in Islamic Political Thought.Andrea Mura - 2015 - Routledge.
    The Symbolic Scenarios of Islamism initiates a dialogue between the discourse of three of the most discussed figures in the history of the Sunni Islamic movement—Hasan al-Banna, Sayyid Qutb, and Osama bin Laden—and contemporary debates across religion and political theory, providing a crucial foundation upon which to situate current developments in world politics. Redressing the inefficiency of the terms in which the debate on Islam and Islamism is generally conducted, the book examines the role played by tradition, modernity, and transmodernity (...)
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  34. Harmony in Chinese Thought: A Philosophical Introduction.Chenyang Li, Sai Hang Kwok & Dascha Düring (eds.) - 2021 - Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    He (和), or harmony, has traditionally been a central concept in Chinese thought, and to this day continues to shape the way in which people in China and East Asia think about ethics and politics. Yet, there is no systematic and comprehensive introduction of harmony as has been variously articulated in different Chinese schools. This edited volume aims to fill this gap. The individual contributions elaborate the conceptions of harmony as these were exemplified in central Chinese schools of thought, including (...)
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  35. The concept of a symbol and the vacuousness of the symbolic conception of thought.John-Michael Kuczynski - 2005 - Semiotica 2005 (154 - 1/4):243-264.
    Linguistic expressions must be decrypted if they are to transmit information. Thoughts need not be decrypted if they are to transmit information. Therefore thought-processes do not consist of linguistic expressions: thought is not linguistic. A consequence is that thought is not computational, given that a computation is the operationalization of a function that assigns one expression to some other expression (or sequence of expressions).
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  36. Philosophical Puzzles Evade Empirical Evidence: Some Thoughts and Clarifications Regarding the Relation Between Brain Sciences and Philosophy of Mind.Işık Sarıhan - 2017 - In Jon Leefmann & Elisabeth Hildt (eds.), The Human Sciences after the Decade of the Brain. London, Vereinigtes Königreich: Elsevier Academic Press. pp. 14-23.
    This chapter analyzes the relation between brain sciences and philosophy of mind, in order to clarify in what ways philosophy can contribute to neuroscience and neuroscience can contribute to philosophy. Especially since the 1980s and the emergence of “neurophilosophy”, more and more philosophers have been bringing home morals from neuroscience to settle philosophical issues. I mention examples from the problem of consciousness, philosophy of perception and the problem of free will, and I argue that such attempts are not successful (...)
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  37. American women philosophers: institutions, background and thought.Joel Katzav, Dorothy Rogers & Krist Vaesen - 2023 - In Joel Katzav, Dorothy Rogers & Krist Vaesen (eds.), Knowledge, Mind and Reality: An Introduction by Early Twentieth-Century American Women Philosophers. Cham: Springer. pp. 1-20.
    This chapter provides the background to the American women philosophers’ works that are introduced and collected in Knowledge, Mind and Reality: An Introduction by Early Twentieth-Century American Women Philosophers. We describe the institutional context which made these works possible and their methodological and theoretical background. We also provide biographies for their authors.
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  38. Heidegger's Philosophical Endeavor: A Journey through Plato, Comparative Thought, and Indic Contemplation.Wesley De Sena - manuscript
    In his essay, “The End of Philosophy and the Task of Thinking,” Heidegger proposes the existence of uncharted avenues for intellectual exploration that transcend the confines of metaphysical philosophy. He articulates a more contemplative form of thinking, distinct from the incessant rationalization that permeates traditional discourse, transcending the dichotomy of rational and irrational thought. 2 In typical Heideggerian fashion, this paper lacks a central thesis but embarks on a journey to delve into Heidegger's relentless pursuit of novel modes of thought. (...)
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  39. Thought Experiments as Tools of Theory Clarification.Grace Helton - 2023 - In Kevin McCain, Scott Stapleford & Matthias Steup (eds.), Seemings: New Arguments, New Angles. New York, NY: Routledge.
    It is widely presumed that intuitions about thought experiments can help overturn philosophical theories. It is also widely presumed, albeit implicitly, that if thought experiments play any epistemic role in overturning philosophical theories, it is via intuition. In this paper, I argue for a different, neglected epistemic role of philosophical thought experiments, that of improving some reasoner’s appreciation both of what a theory’s predictions consist in and of how those predictions tie to elements of the theory. I (...)
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  40. The Wrath of Thrasymachus: A Thought on the Politics of Philosophical Praxis based on a Counter-Phenomenological Reinvestigation of the Thrasymachus-Socrates Debate in Plato’s Republic. Yusuk - 2020 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 52 (3):203-222.
    ABSTRACT The phenomenological vision, particularly, Husserl’s idea of critique as an infinite vocational theoria and Patočka’s as an enduring programme, view Platonic logic and Socratic act as the paradigms for a normative justification of the idea of universal science and philosophy. In light of that, the Thrasymachus-Socrates debate is interpreted as a case to testify the critical power of philosophy successfully exercised over sophistic tyrannical non-philosophy. This paper criticizes the phenomenological idealization of the Socratic victory as an ethico-teleologically anticipated success (...)
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  41. Does thought require sensory grounding? From pure thinkers to large language models.David J. Chalmers - 2023 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 97:22-45.
    Does the capacity to think require the capacity to sense? A lively debate on this topic runs throughout the history of philosophy and now animates discussions of artificial intelligence. Many have argued that AI systems such as large language models cannot think and understand if they lack sensory grounding. I argue that thought does not require sensory grounding: there can be pure thinkers who can think without any sensory capacities. As a result, the absence of sensory grounding does not entail (...)
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  42. The central system as a computational engine.Susan Schneider - unknown
    The Language of Thought program has a suicidal edge. Jerry Fodor, of all people, has argued that although LOT will likely succeed in explaining modular processes, it will fail to explain the central system, a subsystem in the brain in which information from the different sense modalities is integrated, conscious deliberation occurs, and behavior is planned. A fundamental characteristic of the central system is that it is “informationally unencapsulated” -- its operations can draw from information from any cognitive domain. The (...)
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  43.  58
    The evolution of the symbolic sciences.Nathalie Gontier - 2024 - In Nathalie Gontier, Andy Lock & Chris Sinha (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Human Symbolic Evolution. OUP. pp. 27-70.
    Aspects of human symbolic evolution are studied by scholars active in a variety of fields and disciplines in the life and the behavioral sciences as well as the scientific-philosophical, sociological, anthropological, and linguistic sciences. These fields and disciplines all take on an evolutionary approach to the study of human symbolism, but scholars disagree in their theoretical and methodological attitudes. Theoretically, symbolism is defined differentially as knowledge, behavior, cognition, culture, language, or social group living. Methodologically, the diverse symbolic evolution sciences (...)
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  44. Boscovich’s “philosophical meditations” in the history of contemporary thought.Pietro Gori - 2012 - Memorie Della Societa' Astronomica Italiana Supplementi 75:282-292.
    The content of Boscovich’s Theoria philosophiae naturalis was well-known to his contemporaries, but both scientists and philosophers chiefly discussed it during the 19th century. The observations that Boscovich presented in this text, and that he himself defined as “philosophicas metitationes”, soon showed their being a good programme for the forthcoming atomic physics, and contributed to get rid of the mechanistic paradigm in science. In this paper I’ll go back to some meaningful moments of the history of Boscovich’s reception in the (...)
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  45.  65
    The MultiAlist System of Thought (philosophical essay).Florentin Smarandache - 2023 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 61:598-605.
    The goal of this short note is to expand the concepts of ‘pluralism’, ‘neutrosophy’, ‘refined neutrosophy’, ‘refined neutrosophic set’, ‘multineutrosophic set’, and ‘plithogeny’ (Smarandache 2002, 2013, 2017, 2019, 2021, 2023a, 2023b, 2023c), into a larger category that I will refer to as MultiAlism (or MultiPolar). As a straightforward generalization, I propose the conceptualization of a MultiPolar System (different from a PluriPolar System), which is formed not only by multiple elements that might be random, or contradictory, or adjuvant, but also by (...)
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  46.  58
    Thought Experiments Repositioned.Arnon Levy - forthcoming - In Adrian Currie & Sophie Veigl (eds.), Philosophy of Science: A User's Guide. MIT Press.
    Thought experiments play a role in science and in some central parts of contemporary philosophy. They used to play a larger role in philosophy of science, but have been largely abandoned as part of the field’s “practice turn”. This chapter discusses possible roles for thought experimentation within a practice-oriented philosophy of science. Some of these roles are uncontroversial, such as exemplification and aiding discovery. A more controversial role is the reliance on thought experiments to justify philosophical claims. It is (...)
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  47. How to Use Thought Experiments.Elijah Chudnoff - forthcoming - In Ernest Sosa, Matthias Steup, John Turri & Blake Roeber (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Epistemology, 3rd edition. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Thought experiments figure prominently in contemporary epistemology. Beyond that humdrum observation, controversy abounds. The aim of this paper is to make progress on two fronts. On the descriptive front, the aim is to illuminate what the practice of using thought experiments involves. On the normative front, the aim is to illuminate what the practice of using thought experiments should involve. Thought experiments result in judgments that are passed on to further philosophical reasoning. What are these judgments? What is the (...)
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  48. Alone With One's Thoughts: Wittgenstein on Philosophical Thinking in Isolation.Jack Manzi - 2021 - Brief Encounters 5 (5):17-28.
    This paper explores the relationship between isolation and philosophical thinking by exploring Wittgenstein’s own experiences of isolation and how they intersect with key themes in his philosophical work. In particular, I explore the relationship between isolation, honesty, and one of the central problems posed in Wittgenstein’s later work: the problem of dogmatism. I conclude with some observations about how Wittgenstein’s experiences of isolation might be considered to be a ‘liberatory’ experience.
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  49.  54
    An Existential Interpretation of Evil: A Critique of Ẹ̀bùn Odùwọlé and Kazeem Fáyẹmí on the Philosophical Problem of Evil in Yorùbá Thought.Abidemi Israel Ogunyomi - 2024 - Journal of Comparative Literature and Aesthetics 47 (1):87-101.
    The problem of evil is a perennial issue in metaphysics, philosophy of religion and theology. In Yorùbá thought, it has been approached, appraised, and conceptualised by scholars from different perspectives, usually in the form of thesis and antithesis. For instance, Ẹ̀bùn Odùwọlé and Kazeem Fáyẹmí disagree on whether or not the problem arises in Yorùbá thought and on its nature or formulation, if it does. Relying on the Western logical formulation of the problem, Odùwọlé maintains that the problem of evil (...)
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  50. Symbolic belief in social cognition.Evan Westra - 2023 - Philosophical Perspectives 37 (1):388-408.
    Keeping track of what others believe is a central part of human social cognition. However, the social relevance of those beliefs can vary a great deal. Some belief attributions mostly tell us about what a person is likely to do next. Other belief attributions tell us more about a person's social identity. In this paper, I argue that we cope with this challenge by employing two distinct concepts of belief in our everyday social interactions. The epistemic concept of belief is (...)
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