Results for 'light speed'

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  1. Clock synchronization, a universal light speed, and the terrestrial redshift experiment.Alan Macdonald - 1983 - American Journal of Pyysics 51:795-797.
    This paper (i) gives necessary and sufficient conditions that clocks in an inertial lattice can be synchronized, (ii) shows that these conditions do not imply a universal light speed, and (iii) shows that the terrestrial redshift experiment provides evidence that clocks in a small inertial lattice in a gravitational field can be synchronized.
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  2. Universal one-way light speed from a universal light speed over closed paths.Ettore Minguzzi & Alan Macdonald - 2003 - Foundations Of Physics Letters 16:593-604.
    This paper gives two complete and elementary proofs that if the speed of light over closed paths has a universal value c, then it is possible to synchronize clocks in such a way that the one-way speed of light is c. The first proof is an elementary version of a recent proof. The second provides high precision experimental evidence that it is possible to synchronize clocks in such a way that the one-way speed of (...) has a universal value. We also discuss an old incomplete proof by Weyl which is important from an historical perspective. (shrink)
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  3. is the speed of light knowable a priori.Ilhan Inan - 2017 - In Suster Danilo (ed.), Thought Experiments between Nature and Society. A Festschrift for Nenad Miščević. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 204-215.
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  4.  49
    Swarm of particles moving at the speed of light in quantum entanglement: The Origin of conscious World.Zheng Huang - manuscript
    This paper primarily investigates the following questions: The first question:What is the basic structure of consciousness? I proposed that objects moving at the speed of light form the fundamental structure of consciousness. The second question:How is the unified field of the conscious self formed? The study suggests that countless particles moving at the speed of light, through quantum entanglement, form the unified field of each individual's consciousness. Each individual's unified field consists of countless particles originating from (...)
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  5.  75
    Light and Mass. Relativity and Absoluteness as Intrinsically Connected Moments.Dieter Wandschneider - 2008 - In W. Neuser & J. Kohne (eds.), Neuser, W. / Kohne, J. (ed. 2008), Hegels Licht-Konzepte. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann. pp. 79–92. Translated by E. Kummert.
    Our starting point is the question ‘What is mass’, what in particular enables mass to constitute duration: so that mass can be regarded as moving as well as at rest (the kinematic principle of relativity). In a thought experiment, this question is attacked here not from the perspective of mass itself, but from that of a standing light wave. In this model, mass-analogous structures can be re- constructed that can be in relative motion to each other. The (empirically known) (...)
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  6. The Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying the Concept of ‫سرعة‬ (Speed) in Arabic.Hicham Lahlou - 2023 - Awej 7 (1):21-32.
    Despite the wide range of studies on how students’ past knowledge influences their understanding of scientific terminology, few studies were conducted to compare non-scientific language with scientific language, or rather everyday language with scientific language, from a cognitive linguistic perspective. The present paper aims to determine the cognitive mechanisms, i.e., image schemas, conceptual metaphor, and conceptual metonymy, which underpin the conceptualisation of the Arabic term سرعة (speed), using a conceptual metaphor theory framework. Thus, the research question guiding this study (...)
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  7. On the Uncertainty Principle.Mesut Kavak - 2016 - American Journal of Physics 4 (4):90-123.
    Analysis of the laws which form, direct universe and of the interacting elements in the interactions emerging by these laws. Forming the theoretical, philosophical infrastructure of the some physical concepts and phenomena such as kinetic energy, uncertainty, length contraction, relative energy transformations, gravity, time and light speed to understand universe better manner as well as possible. Almost any physical subject takes us easily to the same point by visiting the other subjects because of the creation type of matter (...)
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  8. Death, Faster Than Light Travel, and Einstein.Mark Walker - 2015 - In Charles Tandy (ed.), Death And Anti-Death, Volume 13: Sixty Years After Albert Einstein (1879-1955). Ria University Press. pp. 1-24.
    This paper describes a thought experiment that shows that people can travel faster than the speed of light: we are not bound by Einstein’s speed limit. Of course, any two-bit sci-fi story can describe faster-than-light travel. The difference is that the thought experiment proposed here is consistent with Einstein’s theory. The way to extricate ourselves from this seeming contradiction is to acknowledge that persons are not entirely physical. In other words, the explanation for why faster-than-light (...)
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  9. Scrutiny of Einstein’s Causality.Mohamed Elmansour Hassani - manuscript
    In the present paper, the so-called Einstein’s causality is scrutinized and proven to be an illusion, a sort of mathematical fiction, and the causality as a well-established universal principle would be absolutely valid for subluminal, luminal and superluminal signals under any natural and/or artificial circumstances. It is also shown that any attempt to apply special relativity theory to superluminality of physical phenomena would be a complete waste of time since this theory has the light speed in vacuum as (...)
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  10. Character, Corruption, and ‘Cultures of Speed’ in Higher Education.Ian Kidd - 2022 - In Ainé Mahon (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives on the Contemporary University: In Shadows and Light. Springer. pp. 17-28.
    This chapter offers a character-based criticism of ‘the culture of speed’ condemned by the Canadian literary scholars, Maggie Berg and Barbara Seeber in their influential polemic, The Slow Professor. Central to their criticisms of speed and praise of slowness are, I argue, substantive concerns about their effects on moral and intellectual character. I argue that a full reckoning of the wrongs of academic cultures of speed must include appreciation of the ways they promote a host of accelerative (...)
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  11. The Kochen - Specker theorem in quantum mechanics: a philosophical comment (part 1).Vasil Penchev - 2013 - Philosophical Alternatives 22 (1):67-77.
    Non-commuting quantities and hidden parameters – Wave-corpuscular dualism and hidden parameters – Local or nonlocal hidden parameters – Phase space in quantum mechanics – Weyl, Wigner, and Moyal – Von Neumann’s theorem about the absence of hidden parameters in quantum mechanics and Hermann – Bell’s objection – Quantum-mechanical and mathematical incommeasurability – Kochen – Specker’s idea about their equivalence – The notion of partial algebra – Embeddability of a qubit into a bit – Quantum computer is not Turing machine – (...)
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  12. Interstellar Transmitter Concept (King David’s Sling).Glen Monahan & Sarvraj Singh - 2013 - American Journal of Modern Physics 2 (3):138-143.
    A simple operating principle (similar to a combination of a pottery wheel and a catapult or, simply, the weapon used by David to slay Goliath) coupled with the success of some moderate engineering challenges may allow for the transmission of a carrier wave from Earth to Mars in less than one second! This paper also directly addresses the controversy of light speed variance/invariance (which has arisen from the “wave/particle nature of light” debate) by referencing Joseph A. Rybczyk’s (...)
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  13. Three possible implications of spacetime discreteness.Shan Gao - 2013
    We analyze the possible implications of spacetime discreteness for the special and general relativity and quantum theory. It is argued that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime may explain the invariance of the speed of light in special relativity and Einstein’s equivalence principle in general relativity. Moreover, the discreteness of spacetime may also result in the collapse of the wave function in quantum mechanics, which may provide a possible solution to the quantum measurement problem. These interesting (...)
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  14. Origin of Matter and Time.John Linus O'Sullivan - forthcoming - AuthorsDen.
    Abstract: Standing half wave particles at light speed twice in expansion-contraction comprise a static universe where two transverse fields 90° out of phase are the square of distance from each other. The universe has a static concept of time since the infinite universe is a static universe without a beginning or end. The square of distance is a point of reversal in expansion-contraction between the fields as a means to conserve energy. Photons on expansion in the electric field (...)
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  15. Is Time Misconception of the Transformations Possible?Mesut Kavak - manuscript
    Time is quite interesting phenomenon in physics, and it seems is relative; but what does it mean to be relative of time? What does to be fixed of light speed mean? Does to be fixed of light speed require observation at light speed? What if we can observe faster than light speed because of increased frame number? Is time effective for this imaginary effect or also time itself is dependent on another actual (...)
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  16. Electromagnetic Field Waves.John Linus O'Sullivan - forthcoming - AuthorsDen.
    Abstract: Standing half wave particles at light speed twice in expansion-contraction comprise a static universe where two transverse fields 90° out of phase are the square of distance from each other. The universe has a static concept of time since the infinite universe is a static universe without a beginning or end. The square of distance is a point of reversal in expansion-contraction between the fields as a means to conserve energy. Photons on expansion in the electric field (...)
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  17. Special Relativity in a Universe of Flowing Time.Ted Dace - 2015 - International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences 5 (3).
    By eliminating the need for an absolute frame of reference or ether, Einstein resolved the problem of the constancy of light-speed in all inertial frames but created a new problem in our understanding of time. The resolution of this problem requires no experimentation but only a careful analysis of special relativity, in particular the relativity of simultaneity. This concept is insufficiently relativistic insofar as Einstein failed to recognize that any given set of events privileges the frame in which (...)
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  18. Unified Electromagnetic Fields.John Linus O'Sullivan - forthcoming - AuthorsDen.
    Abstract: Standing half wave particles at light speed twice in expansion-contraction comprise a static universe where two transverse fields 90° out of phase are the square of distance from each other. The universe has a static concept of time since the infinite universe is a static universe without a beginning or end. The square of distance is a point of reversal in expansion-contraction between the fields as a means to conserve energy. Photons on expansion in the electric field (...)
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  19. Global Catastrophic Risks Connected with Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence.Alexey Turchin - manuscript
    In this article, a classification of the global catastrophic risks connected with the possible existence (or non-existence) of extraterrestrial intelligence is presented. If there are no extra-terrestrial intelligences (ETIs) in our light cone, it either means that the Great Filter is behind us, and thus some kind of periodic sterilizing natural catastrophe, like a gamma-ray burst, should be given a higher probability estimate, or that the Great Filter is ahead of us, and thus a future global catastrophe is high (...)
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  20. God and Science are Infinite.John Linus O'Sullivan - forthcoming - AuthorsDen.
    Abstract: Standing half wave particles at light speed twice in expansion-contraction comprise a static universe where two transverse fields 90° out of phase are the square of distance from each other. The universe has a static concept of time since the infinite universe is a static universe without a beginning or end. The square of distance is a point of reversal in expansion-contraction between the fields as a means to conserve energy. Photons on expansion in the electric field (...)
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  21. The twin paradox and Einstein mistake.Victor Orsini - manuscript
    Time contraction is not a property of the moving body. Permanent contraction is against the constancy of the speed of light. Einstein uses wrong units of measurement and comes to wrong conclusions. We use the translation of the article "On the electrodynamics of moving bodies".
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  22. Hilbert Mathematics versus Gödel Mathematics. III. Hilbert Mathematics by Itself, and Gödel Mathematics versus the Physical World within It: both as Its Particular Cases.Vasil Penchev - 2023 - Philosophy of Science eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 16 (47):1-46.
    The paper discusses Hilbert mathematics, a kind of Pythagorean mathematics, to which the physical world is a particular case. The parameter of the “distance between finiteness and infinity” is crucial. Any nonzero finite value of it features the particular case in the frameworks of Hilbert mathematics where the physical world appears “ex nihilo” by virtue of an only mathematical necessity or quantum information conservation physically. One does not need the mythical Big Bang which serves to concentrate all the violations of (...)
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  23. The Law of Conservation of Time and Its Applications.Ninh Khac Son - manuscript
    Time is a complex category not only in philosophy but also in mathematics and physics. In one thought about time, the author accidentally discovered a new way to explain and solve problems related to time dilation, such as solving the problem of Muon particle when moving from a height of 10 km to the earth’s surface, while the Muon’s lifespan is only 2.2 microseconds, or explaining Michelson-Morley experiment using the new method. In addition, the author also prove that the (...) of light in vacuum is the maximum speed in the universe, and discovered the red shift effect while there is no increase in distance between objects. To do this, the author has built two axioms based on the discontinuity in the motion of the object and draw two consequences along with the law of conservation of time. (shrink)
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  24. Restricted Diachronic Composition and Special Relativity.Stephan Torre - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (2):235-255.
    When do objects at different times compose a further object? This is the question of diachronic composition. The universalist answers, ‘under any conditions whatsoever’. Others argue for restrictions on diachronic composition: composition occurs only when certain conditions are met. Recently, some philosophers have argued that restrictions on diachronic compositions are motivated by our best physical theories. In Persistence and Spacetime and elsewhere, Yuri Balashov argues that diachronic compositions are restricted in terms of causal connections between object stages. In a recent (...)
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  25. Précis of Brentano's Philosophical System.Uriah Kriegel - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy 31 (2):455-457.
    Here is a rather difficult two-part question: How may we grasp (a) the nature of reality and (b) the nature of value? As I understand the man, answering this question was the principal, overarching aim of Franz Brentano’s philosophical work. More specifically, he wanted to provide an answer that respected a self-imposed theoretical constraint, namely, that our grasp of a thing’s status as real or as valuable be ultimately grounded in direct encounter with certain aspects of our conscious experience. The (...)
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  26. Perspectivism and Special Relativity.Mahdi Khalili - 2021 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 43 (2):191-217.
    The special theory of relativity holds significant interest for scientific perspectivists. In this paper, I distinguish between two related meanings of “perspectival,” and argue that reference frames are perspectives, provided that perspectival means “being conditional” rather than “being partial.” Frame-dependent properties such as length, time duration, and simultaneity, are not partially measured in a reference frame, but their measurements are conditional on the choice of frame. I also discuss whether the constancy of the speed of light depends on (...)
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  27. Reality in Perspectives.Mahdi Khalili - 2022 - Dissertation, Vu University Amsterdam
    This dissertation is about human knowledge of reality. In particular, it argues that scientific knowledge is bounded by historically available instruments and theories; nevertheless, the use of several independent instruments and theories can provide access to the persistent potentialities of reality. The replicability of scientific observations and experiments allows us to obtain explorable evidence of robust entities and properties. The dissertation includes seven chapters. It also studies three cases – namely, Higgs bosons and hypothetical Ϝ-particles (section 2.4), the Ptolemaic and (...)
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  28. Embodied Cognition and Sport.Lawrence Shapiro & Shannon Spaulding - 2019 - In Massimiliano L. Cappuccio (ed.), Handbook of Embodied Cognition and Sport Psychology. MIT Press. pp. 3-22.
    Successful athletic performance requires precision in many respects. A batter stands behind home plate awaiting the arrival of a ball that is less than three inches in diameter and moving close to 100 mph. His goal is to hit it with a ba­­t that is also less than three inches in diameter. This impressive feat requires extraordinary temporal and spatial coordination. The sweet spot of the bat must be at the same place, at the same time, as the ball. A (...)
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  29.  89
    Identification of highlights in early vision.Ronald A. Rensink - 1994 - Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 35:1623.
    Purpose. To determine whether highlights are rapidly identified at early levels of vision. -/- Methods. Visual search experiments were carried out using simple black and white figures corresponding to shiny objects lit from various directions. These included, for example, depictions of cylinders with highlights positioned at various heights (see figure). Targets and distractors differed only in the arrangement of their constituent regions, allowing them to be distinguished by the position of the highlights on the corresponding objects. -/- Results. Three observers (...)
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  30. Recent Experimental Findings supporting Smarandache’s Hypothesis and Quantum Sorites Paradoxes and SubQuantum Kinetic Model of Electron.Victor Christianto, Robert N. Boyd & Florentin Smarandache - manuscript
    Smarandache Hypothesis states that there is no speed limit of anything, including light and particles. While the idea is quite simple and based on known hypothesis of quantum mechanics, called Einstein-Podolski-Rosen paradox, in reality such a superluminal physics seems still hard to accept by majority of physicists. Here we review some experiments to support superluminal physics and also findings to explain Smarandache Quantum Paradoxes and Quantum Sorites Paradox. We also touch briefly on new experiment on magneton, supporting SubQuantum (...)
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  31. Theory of erasing (dropping) the Present.Jalal Khawaldeh - 2023 - Https://Papers.Ssrn.Com/Sol3/Papers.Cfm?Abstract_Id=4568243.
    Time has puzzled scientists. Some see it as just a tool and a unit of measurement, while others consider time to be a real thing and needs to be measured. There are also those who believe that time is an ancient thing that arose with the creation of the universe and the Earth, running parallel to life in them, and counting every movement, event, or speed in them. While some see it as an essential part and a major component (...)
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  32. The influence of cast shadows on visual search.Ronald A. Rensink & Patrick Cavanagh - 2004 - Perception 33:1339-1358.
    We show that cast shadows can have a significant influence on the speed of visual search. In particular, we find that search based on the shape of a region is affected when the region is darker than the background and corresponds to a shadow formed by lighting from above. Results support the proposal that an early-level system rapidly identifies regions as shadows and then discounts them, making their shapes more difficult to access. Several constraints used by this system are (...)
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  33. On a new mathematical framework for fundamental theoretical physics.Robert E. Var - 1975 - Foundations of Physics 5 (3):407-431.
    It is shown by means of general principles and specific examples that, contrary to a long-standing misconception, the modern mathematical physics of compressible fluid dynamics provides a generally consistent and efficient language for describing many seemingly fundamental physical phenomena. It is shown to be appropriate for describing electric and gravitational force fields, the quantized structure of charged elementary particles, the speed of light propagation, relativistic phenomena, the inertia of matter, the expansion of the universe, and the physical nature (...)
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  34. All God Has to Do.Tim Crane - 1991 - Analysis 51 (4):235-44.
    In the beginning God created the elementary particles. Bosons, electrons, protons, quarks and the rest he created them. And they were without form and void, so God created the fundamental laws of physics - the laws of mechanics, electromagnetism, thermodynamics and the rest - and assigned values to the fundamental physical constants: the gravitational constant, the speed of light, Planck's constant and the rest. God then set the Universe in motion. And God looked at what he had done, (...)
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  35. Change blindness: Implications for the nature of visual attention.Ronald A. Rensink - 2005 - In Laurent Itti, Geraint Rees & John K. Tsotsos (eds.), Neurobiology of Attention. Academic Press. pp. 16-20.
    In the not-too-distant past, vision was often said to involve three levels of processing: a low level concerned with descriptions of the geometric and photometric properties of the image, a high level concerned with abstract knowledge of the physical and semantic properties of the world, and a middle level concerned with anything not handled by the other two. The negative definition of mid-level vision contained in this description reflected a rather large gap in our understanding of visual processing: How could (...)
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  36. What is the upper limit of value?David Manheim & Anders Sandberg - manuscript
    How much value can our decisions create? We argue that unless our current understanding of physics is wrong in fairly fundamental ways, there exists an upper limit of value relevant to our decisions. First, due to the speed of light and the definition and conception of economic growth, the limit to economic growth is a restrictive one. Additionally, a related far larger but still finite limit exists for value in a much broader sense due to the physics of (...)
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  37. On the concept of (quantum) fields.Sydney Ernest Grimm - manuscript
    The main concept of quantum field theory is the conviction that all the phenomena in the universe are created by the underlying structure of the quantum fields. Fields represent dynamical spatial properties that can be described with the help of geometrical concepts. Therefore it is possible to describe the mathematical origin of the structure of the creating fields and show the mathematical origin of the law of conservation of energy, Planck’s constant and the constant speed of light within (...)
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  38. On Special Relativity and Temporal Illusions.Dimitria Electra Gatzia & R. D. Ramsier - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (2):433-436.
    According to metaphysical tensism, there is an objective, albeit ever changing, present moment corresponding to our phenomenal experiences :635–642, 2013). One of the principle objections to metaphysical tensism has been Einstein’s argument from special relativity, which says that given that the speed of light is constant, there is no absolute simultaneity defined in terms of observations of light rays . In a recent paper, Brogaard and Marlow :635–642, 2013) argue that this objection fails. We argue that Brogaard (...)
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  39. Special Relativity in Superposition.Ted Dace - 2022 - Axiomathes 32 (2):199-213.
    By deriving the Lorentz transformation from the absolute speed of light, Einstein demonstrated the relativistic variability of space and time, enabling him to explain length contraction and time dilation without recourse to a "luminiferous ether" or preferred frame of reference. He also showed that clocks synchronized at a distance via light signals are not synchronized in a frame of reference differing from that of the clocks. However, by mislabeling the relativity of synchrony the "relativity of simultaneity," Einstein (...)
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  40. Einstein's Discourse Networks.Jimena Carnales - 2014 - Zeitschrift für Medien- Und Kulturforschung 2014 (1):11-39.
    This paper situates Einstein's theory of relativity within broader networks of communication. The speed of light, explained Einstein, was an unsurpassable velocity if , and only if , it was considered in terms of »arbitrary« and »voluntary« signals. Light signals in physics belong within a broader set of signs and symbols that include communication and military signals, understood by reference to Helmholtz, Saussure, media philosophies from WWII to '68 (Lavelle, Ong, McLuhan) and Derrida. Once light signals (...)
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  41. The Emergence of the Physical World from Information Processing.Brian Whitworth - 2010 - Quantum Biosystems 2 (1):221-249.
    This paper links the conjecture that the physical world is a virtual reality to the findings of modern physics. What is usually the subject of science fiction is here proposed as a scientific theory open to empirical evaluation. We know from physics how the world behaves, and from computing how information behaves, so whether the physical world arises from ongoing information processing is a question science can evaluate. A prima facie case for the virtual reality conjecture is presented. If a (...)
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  42. The Media of Relativity.Jimena Canales - 2015 - Technology and Culture 56 (3):610-645.
    How are fundamental constants, such as c for the speed of light, related to particular technological environments? Our understanding of the constant c and Einstein’s relativistic cosmology depended on key experiences and lessons learned in connection to new forms of telecommunications, first used by the military and later adapted for commercial purposes. Many of Einstein’s contemporaries understood his theory of relativity by reference to telecommunications, some referring to it as “signal-theory” and “message theory.” Prominent physicists who contributed to (...)
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  43. Philosophical dogmatism inhibiting the anti-Copernican interpretation of the Michelson Morley experiment.Spyridon Kakos - 2020 - Harmonia Philosophica 1.
    From the beginning of time, humans believed they were the center of the universe. Such important beings could be nowhere else than at the very epicenter of existence, with all the other things revolving around them. Was this an arrogant position? Only time will tell. What is certain is that as some people were so certain of their significance, aeons later some other people became too confident in their unimportance. In such a context, the Earth quickly lost its privileged position (...)
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  44. A mestizo cosmographer in the New Kingdom of Granada: astronomy and chronology in Sánchez de Cozar Guanientá’s Tratado (c.1696).Sergio H. Orozco-Echeverri & Sebastián Molina-Betancur - 2021 - Annals of Science 78 (3):295-333.
    ABSTRACT This article interprets a recently recovered manuscript, Tratado de astronomía y la reformaçión del tiempo, composed by Antonio Sánchez in New Granada c.1696, in the context of the Spanish and Renaissance cosmographies. Sánchez’s Tratado proposes a spherical astronomy, in which celestial bodies – including comets — move in orbs containing pyramidal knots that explain the changing speed observed in the motion of planets. From this astronomy and following the peninsular style of repertorios, Sánchez derives two major conclusions: the (...)
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  45. EFFECTIVENESS OF UTILIZING INDUCED MAGNETISM ON THE SEED GERMINATION OF RADISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS).Melanie Dawn C. Aquita, Blanch Byrel E. Fadera, Marie Antonette V. Biado, Caryl Faith B. Gonzales, Ajaye G. Uminga & Raffy S. Virtucio - 2023 - Get International Research Journal 1 (2).
    This study investigated the effectiveness of utilizing induced magnetism on the seed germination of radish (Raphanussativus) in terms of growth rate, growth speed, shoot growth, and overall development. This study utilized two groups that consisted of an experimental group where induced magnetism was present one control group where there was an absence of induced magnetism in the seed germination of Radish (Raphanus sativus). Moreover, this study aimed to determine the significant difference between the two in terms growth rate, growth (...)
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  46. Bullrich Lineal Park, Buenos Aires-Narrow strip surrounded by traffic as urban green space.Natalia Penacini - 2009 - Topos: European Landscape Magazine 67:66.
    Prior to this intervention the site used to be a degraded fiscal property, that functioned as a bus yard, a police legal deposit, and a restaurant parking lot. Underneath it runs the Maldonado stream culvert, covered by a concrete slab at a depth of only -20cm. Next to the site is a 5m high railroad embankment. The plot is strategically located at the end of Juan B. Justo avenue and works as a gateway to the Tres de Febrero park (also (...)
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  47. Time's Paradigm.Alan Graham & Alan R. Graham - 2020
    This wide ranging discourse covers many disciplines of science and the human condition in an attempt to fully understand the manifestation of time. Time's Paradigm is, at its inception, a philosophical debate between the theories of 'Presentism' and 'The Block Model', beginning with a pronounced psychological analysis of 'free will' in an environment where the past and the future already exist. It lays the foundation for the argument that time is a cyclical, contained progression, rather than a meandering voyage into (...)
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  48. Energy in the Universe and its Syntropic Forms of Existence According to the BSM - Superg ravitation Unified Theory.Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev - 2013 - Syntropy 2013 (2).
    According to the BSM- Supergravitation Unified Theory (BSM-SG), the energy is indispensable feature of matter, while the matter possesses hierarchical levels of organization from a simple to complex forms, with appearance of fields at some levels. Therefore, the energy also follows these levels. At the fundamental level, where the primary energy source exists, the matter is in its primordial form, where two super-dense fundamental particles (FP) exist in a classical pure empty space (not a physical vacuum). They are associated with (...)
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  49. The c-aplpha Non Exclusion Principle and the vastly different internal electron and muon center of charge vacuum fluctuation geometry.Jim Wilson - forthcoming - Physics Essays.
    The electronic and muonic hydrogen energy levels are calculated very accurately [1] in Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) by coupling the Dirac Equation four vector (c ,mc2) current covariantly with the external electromagnetic (EM) field four vector in QED’s Interactive Representation (IR). The c -Non Exclusion Principle(c -NEP) states that, if one accepts c as the electron/muon velocity operator because of the very accurate hydrogen energy levels calculated, the one must also accept the resulting electron/muon internal spatial and time coordinate operators (ISaTCO) (...)
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  50. Gauge Symmetry and Invariant Features of Particles and Photons: Insights into Duality, Time’s Arrow and Nonlocality.Paul Klevgard - manuscript
    Particles and photons appear to be total opposites; the former has rest mass which requires space to exist; the latter has kinetic energy which requires time to occur (oscillate). But they do share certain properties (e.g., quantization) that remain invariant when one is transformed (swapped) for the other. This gauge invariance is developed in some detail. The symmetry between particle and photon turns out to be one of inversion. It is the equalities of special relativity that support this inversion and (...)
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