Results for 'methods for welfare assessment'

996 found
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  1.  41
    The Greenhouse: A Welfare Assessment and Some Morals.Christoph Lumer - 2002 - Lanham, MD; New York; Oxford: University Press of America.
    In this book some options concerning the greenhouse effect are assessed from a welfarist point of view: business as usual, stabilization of greenhouse gas emissions and reduction by 25% and by 60%. Up to today only economic analyses of such options are available, which monetize welfare losses. Because this is found to be wanting from a moral point of view, the present study welfarizes (among others) monetary losses on the basis of a hedonistic utilitarianism and other, justice incorporating, (...) ethics. For these welfarist evaluations information about the social consequences of the four options are collected from the literature and eventually corrected; then the consequences for individual well-being are assessed based on psychological research about well-being dependent on the social situation of the individual; finally the aggregation formulas of the respective welfare ethics are applied to these data. Assessments by other types of ethics, e.g. Kantian ethic, are included. The strongest abatement option is found to be optimum with great unanimity. - In addition a cost-welfare analysis of greenhouse gas abatement is undertaken revealing efficient cost-welfare ratios for these measures and the most efficient ratio for the strongest option. - A final, more theoretical part discusses the moral obligations following from such evaluations. The notion of 'moral obligation' is explained in a way that, apart from moral goodness of the required act, reinforcement by formal or informal sanctions is another necessary condition for moral obligations. This leads to a conception of a historical morality according to which the demands of morality rise in the long run. Applying this conception to the greenhouse effect implies that presently we have the moral duty to raise the standards of greenhouse gas abatement as much as is politically feasible. (shrink)
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  2. Assessing Measures of Animal Welfare.Heather Browning - manuscript
    When making decisions about action to improve animal lives, it is important that we have accurate estimates of how much animals are suffering under different conditions. The current frameworks for making comparative estimates of suffering all fall along the lines of multiplying numbers of animals used by length of life and amount of suffering experienced. However, the numbers used to quantify suffering are usually generated through unreliable and subjective processes which make them unlikely to be correct. In this paper, I (...)
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  3. Methods for Measuring Breadth and Depth of Knowledge.Doris J. F. McIllwain & John Sutton - 2015 - In Damion Farrow & Joe Baker (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Sport Expertise.
    In elite sport, the advantages demonstrated by expert performers over novices are sometimes due in part to their superior physical fitness or to their greater technical precision in executing specialist motor skills. However at the very highest levels, all competitors typically share extraordinary physical capacities and have supremely well-honed techniques. Among the extra factors which can differentiate between the best performers, psychological skills are paramount. These range from the capacities to cope under pressure and to bounce back from setbacks, to (...)
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  4.  11
    Methodical approaches to assessing the military and economic capacity of the country.Mykola Tkach, Ivan Tkach, Serhii Yasenko, Igor Britchenko & Peter Lošonczi - 2022 - Journal of Scientific Papers «Social Development and Security» 12 (3):81-97.
    The aim of the article is to develop the existing methodological approaches to assessing the military and economic capabilities of the country in conditions of war and peace. To achieve the purpose of the study, its decomposition was carried out and the following were investigated: existing approaches to assessing the military and economic potential of the country, the country's power and national power; the concept of critical load of the national economy is revealed; the generally accepted norms on financing of (...)
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  5. Arguing for Wisdom in the University: An Intellectual Autobiography.Nicholas Maxwell - 2012 - Philosophia 40 (4):663-704.
    For forty years I have argued that we urgently need to bring about a revolution in academia so that the basic task becomes to seek and promote wisdom. How did I come to argue for such a preposterously gigantic intellectual revolution? It goes back to my childhood. From an early age, I desired passionately to understand the physical universe. Then, around adolescence, my passion became to understand the heart and soul of people via the novel. But I never discovered how (...)
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  6. Leading Methods for Promoting Finished Product Quality.Igor Britchenko, Serhii Tkachenko & Maksym Bezpartochnyi - 2019 - Atlantis Press 318:99-106.
    Modern promising theoretical and methodological studies have reasonably shown that the issue of bonuses significance in the production and economic mechanism is not controversial. Currently, an order has been established where economic incentive funds are formed according to fixed standards, approved in differentiated amounts by year of economic development cycle; the main fund-forming indicators are performance to the supply plan of finished products under the concluded contracts, increase in labour productivity, improvement of finished product quality and volume growth net profit. (...)
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  7.  63
    Development of a Method for Selected Financing of Scientific and Educational Institutions Through Targeted Capital Investment in the Development of Innovative Technologies.Iaroslava Levchenko, Oksana Dmytriieva, Inna Shevchenko, Igor Britchenko, Vitalii Kruhlov, Nina Avanesova, Oksana Kudriavtseva & Olesia Solodovnik - 2021 - Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies 3 (13 (111)):55 - 62.
    The problem of supporting scientific and educational institutions is considered. A method of selective financing of scientific and educational institutions that create innovative technologies taking into account their investment in innovative developments is proposed. On the basis of statistical data on the indicators for assessing the activities of scientific and educational institutions and the indicator of the innovative potential of a scientific and educational institution from the production of innovations (PNn), their rating was calculated. The essence of PNn is to (...)
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  8. Recipes for Science: An Introduction to Scientific Methods and Reasoning.Angela Potochnik, Matteo Colombo & Cory Wright - 2018 - New York: Routledge.
    There is widespread recognition at universities that a proper understanding of science is needed for all undergraduates. Good jobs are increasingly found in fields related to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Medicine, and science now enters almost all aspects of our daily lives. For these reasons, scientific literacy and an understanding of scientific methodology are a foundational part of any undergraduate education. Recipes for Science provides an accessible introduction to the main concepts and methods of scientific reasoning. With the help (...)
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  9.  62
    Selection and Application of Appropriate Analytical Methods Needed to Assess the Risks Reducing the Security of the Protected System.Josef Reitšpís, Martin Mašľan & Igor Britchenko - 2021 - Baltic Journal of Economic Studies 7 (3):1 – 8.
    Risk assessment is one of the prerequisites for understanding its causes and possible consequences. We base our risk assessment on the principles described in the European standard EN 31000 - Risk Management Process. This standard comprehensively describes the continuous activities that are necessary in managing risks and minimizing their possible adverse effects on the operation of the system under investigation. In this activity, it is necessary to first identify the existing risks, then analyze and evaluate the identified risks. (...)
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  10. The Urgent Need for an Academic Revolution: The Rational Pursuit of Wisdom.Nicholas Maxwell - 2010 - In Charles Tandy (ed.), Death And Anti-Death, Volume 7: Nine Hundred Years After St. Anselm (1033-1109. Ria University Press.
    We are in a state of impending crisis. And the fault lies in part with academia. For two centuries or so, academia has been devoted to the pursuit of knowledge and technological know-how. This has enormously increased our power to act which has, in turn, brought us both all the great benefits of the modern world and the crises we now face. Modern science and technology have made possible modern industry and agriculture, the explosive growth of the world’s population, global (...)
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  11. Sonopelvimetry: An Innovative Method for Early Prediction of Obstructed Labour.Yinon Gilboa - 2014 - Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 4:757-765.
    To evaluate an innovative sonopelvimetry method for early prediction of obstructed labour. Methods: A prospective study was conducted in two centers.GPS-based sonopelvimetry, laborProTM (Trig Medical Inc., Yoqneam Ilit, Israel) devise, was used prior to labour in nulliparous women at 39 - 42 weeks gestation remote from labor. Maternal pelvic parameters, including inter-iliac transverse diameter, obstetric conjugate and interspinous diameter were evaluated. Fetal parameters included head station, biparietal diameter and occipitofrontal diameter. Data on delivery and outcome were collected from the (...)
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  12.  36
    Perspectival Pluralism for Animal Welfare.Walter Veit & Heather Browning - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (1):1-14.
    Animal welfare has a long history of disregard. While in recent decades the study of animal welfare has become a scientific discipline of its own, the difficulty of measuring animal welfare can still be vastly underestimated. There are three primary theories, or perspectives, on animal welfare - biological functioning, natural living and affective state. These come with their own diverse methods of measurement, each providing a limited perspective on an aspect of welfare. This paper (...)
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  13. The Reality of Modern Methods Applied in Process of Performance Assessments of Employees in the Municipalities in Gaza Strip.Mazen J. Al Shobaki & Samy S. Abu Naser - 2016 - International Journal of Advanced Scientific Research 1 (7):14-23.
    The research aims to identify the reality of modern methods applied in the process of performance assessments of employees in the municipalities of Gaza-strip, Complete Census method of community study was used, (571) questionnaires were distributed to all members of the community study, (524) questionnaires were recovery with rate of (91.76%). The most important findings of the study: There were statistically significant relationship differences between the applications of modern methods in the performance assessments of employees in the municipalities (...)
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  14. Integrated DPSIR-ANP-SD Framework for Sustainability Assessment of Water Resources System in Egypt.M. Siwailam, H. Abdelsalam & M. Saleh - 2019 - Ijamsr 3 (3):1-9.
    Abstract: Nowadays fresh water severe scarcity is a global concern and it is alarming for the future. In order to fully understand the progress of the water system and its impacts, a sustainability assessment of water resources is needed. This accelerates the achievement of sustainability and management of water resources. This work aims to assess the sustainability of the water resources system by applying the integration approach proposed by (Xu, 2011). This integration approach is based on integrating the DPSIR-ANP (...)
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  15. What is It for a Life to Go Well (or Badly)?: Some Critical Comment of Waynes Sumner's Theory of Welfare.Thomas S. Petersen - 2009 - Journal of Happiness Studies 10:449-458.
    In an effort to construct a plausible theory of experience-based welfare, Wayne Sumner imposes two requirements on the relevant kind of experience: the information requirement and the autonomy requirement. I argue that both requirements are problematic.First, I argue (very briefly) that a well-know case like ‘the deceived businessman’ need not support the information requirement as Sumner believes. Second, I introduce a case designed to cast further doubt on the information requirement. Third, I attend to a shortcoming in Sumner’s theory (...)
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  16.  99
    A Tool for Assessing Globalisation Affinity Among Groups of Specific Cultural Backgrounds.Arnold Groh - 2018 - Journal of Globalization Studies 1 (9):38-47.
    To investigate cultural lifestyle preferences in different cultural contexts, a forced-choice questionnaire was constructed, based on Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement, an almost forgotten statistical method of 1927, which is a useful tool for assessing groups. This study's questionnaire items targeted job and living conditions in the spectrum from traditional to globalised lifestyles. Subjects were indigenous representatives at the UNO in Geneva, and students in Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa and Germany. The preferences ascertained reflect attitudes on a scale ranging from (...)
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  17. New Issues for New Methods: Ethical and Editorial Challenges for an Experimental Philosophy.Andrea Polonioli - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics.
    This paper examines a constellation of ethical and editorial issues that have arisen since philosophers started to conduct, submit and publish empirical research. These issues encompass concerns over responsible authorship, fair treatment of human subjects, ethicality of experimental procedures, availability of data, unselective reporting and publishability of research findings. This study aims to assess whether the philosophical community has as yet successfully addressed such issues. To do so, the instructions for authors, submission process and published research papers of 29 main (...)
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  18. If I Could Talk to the Animals: Measuring Subjective Animal Welfare.Heather Browning - 2019 - Dissertation, Australian National University
    Animal welfare is a concept that plays a role within both our moral deliberations and the relevant areas of science. The study of animal welfare has impacts on decisions made by legislators, producers and consumers with regards to housing and treatment of animals. Our ethical deliberations in these domains need to consider our impact on animals, and the study of animal welfare provides the information that allows us to make informed decisions. This thesis focusses on taking a (...)
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  19.  88
    Eithics and Ontology: Present Rights of Future Individuals and Property Instantiation.Aleksandar Jokic - 1999 - Journal of Philosophical Research 24:473-486.
    In this century technology, production, and their consequent environmental impact have advanced to the point where unrectifiable and uncontroIlable global imbalances may emerge. Hence, decisions made by existing human beings are capable of dramaticaIly affecting the welfare of future generations. Current controversy about environmental protection involves the question of whether our present obligations to future generations can be grounded in their present rights. Many philosophers would question the very intelligibility of the idea that future individuals might have present rights. (...)
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  20.  41
    The Problem of Interspecies Welfare Comparisons (Preprint).Heather Browning - manuscript
    One of the biggest problems in applications of animal welfare science is our ability to make comparisons between different individuals, particularly different species. Although welfare science provides methods for measuring the welfare of individual animals, there’s no established method for comparing measures between individuals. This problem occurs because of the underdetermination of the conclusions given the data, arising from two sources of variation that we cannot distinguish – variation in the underlying target variable (welfare experience) (...)
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  21. Quality Assessment of Open High School Program Among Secondary Schools in Quezon Province: Basis for Improvement Plan.Dr Mark Anthony Malonzo - 2017 - Dissertation, Polytechnic University of the Philippines
    Main Objective of the Study -/- This study aims at describing the quality of Open High School Program based on the evaluation criteria popularized by Stufflebeam and Shinkfield (2014). It was contextualized to suit the needs of the researcher to investigate further on how well is OHSP doing so far. Brief Description of the Research Method -/- This study used quantitative method. The research design was descriptive-evaluative. Analyses of significant differences among the responses were done. There were 257 respondents who (...)
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  22. The Libertarian Case for a Basic Income Guarantee: An Assessment of the Direct Proviso-Based Route.Lamont Rodgers & Travis J. Rodgers - 2016 - Libertarian Papers 8:242-253.
    Matt Zwolinski argues that libertarians “should see the Basic Income Guarantee (BIG)—a guarantee that all members will receive income regardless of why they need it—as an essential part of an ideally just libertarian system.” He regards the satisfaction of a Lockean proviso—a stipulation that individuals may not be rendered relevantly worse off by the uses and appropriations of private property—as a necessary condition for a private property system’s being just. BIG is to be justified precisely because it prevents proviso violations. (...)
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  23.  78
    Diagnosing Misattribution of Commitments: A Normative and Pragmatic Model of for Assessing Straw Man.Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas Walton - 2019 - In Alessandro Capone, Marco Carapezza & Franco Lo Piparo (eds.), Further Advances in Pragmatics and Philosophy: Part 2 Theories and Applications. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 111-136.
    This paper builds a nine-step method for determining whether a straw man fallacy has been committed in a given case or not, by starting with some relatively easy textbook cases and moving to more realistic and harder cases. The paper shows how the type of argument associated with the fallacy can be proved to be a fallacy in a normative argumentation model, and then moves on to the practical task of building a hands-on method for applying the model to real (...)
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  24.  21
    Impact Assessment and Clients’ Feedback Towards MATHEMATICS Project Implementation.Jupeth Pentang - 2021 - International Journal of Educational Management and Development Studies 2 (2):90-103.
    The Western Philippines University – College of Education’s Project MATHEMATICS (Mathematics Enhanced Mentoring, Assistance, and Training to In-need and Challenged Students) was implemented as part of the Adopt-a-School Program to address the mathematical needs of Laura Vicuña Center – Palawan youths. To evaluate the extent of the project implementation, the study assessed its impact through the feedback gathered from the clients served. It specifically described the quality of project implementation, determined the attainment of project objectives, and enumerated client feedback. A (...)
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  25. Philosophers’ Views on the Use of Non-Essay Assessment Methods: Discussion of an E-Mail Survey.Stephen Palmquist - 1998 - Teaching Philosophy 21 (4):373-391.
    This paper presents and discusses the results of an email survey which asked participants to share their views on the efficacy of multiple choice, fill-in-the-blank, or matching questions as evaluation methods in philosophy courses. First, the structure of the survey and its contents are explained. Next, responses are broken down along the lines of student responses and teacher responses. In both cases, there was significant disagreement among respondents, though there were notable patterns emerged. Student arguments in favor of non-essay (...)
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  26. Assessing Capability Instead of Achieved Functionings in Risk Analysis.Colleen Murphy & Paolo Gardoni - 2010 - Journal of Risk Research 13 (2):137-147.
    A capability approach has been proposed to risk analysis, where risk is conceptualized as the probability that capabilities are reduced. Capabilities refer to the genuine opportunities of individuals to achieve valuable doings and beings, such as being adequately nourished. Such doings and beings are called functionings. A current debate in risk analysis and other fields where a capability approach has been developed concerns whether capabilities or actual achieved functionings should be used. This paper argues that in risk analysis the consequences (...)
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  27. Virtues, Ecological Momentary Assessment/Intervention and Smartphone Technology.Jason D. Runyan & Ellen G. Steinke - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology:1-24.
    Virtues, broadly understood as stable and robust dispositions for certain responses across morally relevant situations, have been a growing topic of interest in psychology. A central topic of discussion has been whether studies showing that situations can strongly influence our responses provide evidence against the existence of virtues (as a kind of stable and robust disposition). In this review, we examine reasons for thinking that the prevailing methods for examining situational influences are limited in their ability to test dispositional (...)
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  28. Assessment of Students’ Attitude Towards Test-Taking in Secondary Schools in Afikpo Education Zone Ebonyi State, Nigeria.Valentine Joseph Owan, Bassey Asuquo Bassey & Mercy Bassey Ekpe - 2020 - American Journal of Creative Education 3 (1):1-9.
    Assessment of students’ attitudes towards test-taking in secondary schools in Afikpo Education Zone of Ebonyi State, Nigeria was the main thrust of this study. The study was guided by four null hypotheses in line with the ex-post facto research design. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was employed in selecting a sample 1,276 respondents from a population of 12,763 students distributed across 43 public and 71 private secondary schools in the study area. Students’ Attitudes Towards Test-Taking Questionnaire (SATTQ) with Cronbach's (...)
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  29. Conceptual Space Modeling for Space Event Characterization.Jeremy R. Chapman, David Kasmier, David Limbaugh, Stephen R. Gagnon, John L. Crassidis, James Llinas, Barry Smith & Alexander P. Cox - 2020 - IEEE 23rd International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION).
    This paper provides a method for characterizing space events using the framework of conceptual spaces. We focus specifically on estimating and ranking the likelihood of collisions between space objects. The objective is to design an approach for anticipatory decision support for space operators who can take preventive actions on the basis of assessments of relative risk. To make this possible our approach draws on the fusion of both hard and soft data within a single decision support framework. Contextual data is (...)
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  30. Designing the Structures of Discrete Solid-Alloy Elements for Broaching the Holes of Significant Diameter Based on the Assessment of Their Strength.Ya Nemyrovskyi, I. Shepelenko, E. Posviatenko, Yu Tsekhanov, S. Polotnyak, Sergii Sardak, V. Bandura & Yu Paladiichuk - 2020 - Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies 3 (7):57-65.
    This paper addresses the issues related to designing and estimating the strength of solid-alloy elements in the deforming broaches of significant diameter (exceeding 150 mm) for the developed process of discrete broaching. The tool limit condition was assessed based on two strength criteria: the specific potential energy of shape change and the maximum tangent stresses. Numerical modeling using the finite element method has made it possible to derive the distribution of equivalent stresses in the tool elements and the contact stresses (...)
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  31.  96
    Which Concept of Concept for Conceptual Engineering?Manuel Gustavo Isaac - 2021 - Erkenntnis: An International Journal of Scientific Philosophy:1–25.
    Conceptual engineering is the method for assessing and improving our concepts. However, little has been written about how best to conceive of concepts for the purposes of conceptual engineering. In this paper, I aim to fill this foundational gap, proceeding in three main steps: First, I propose a methodological framework for evaluating the conduciveness of a given concept of concept for conceptual engineering. Then, I develop a typology that contrasts two competing concepts of concept that can be used in conceptual (...)
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  32.  99
    Two Traditions of Cognitive Sociology: An Analysis and Assessment of Their Cognitive and Methodological Assumptions.Tuukka Kaidesoja, Mikko Hyyryläinen & Ronny Puustinen - 2022 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 52 (3):528-547.
    Cognitive sociology has been split into cultural and interdisciplinary traditions that position themselves differently in relation to the cognitive sciences and make incompatible assumptions about cognition. This article provides an analysis and assessment of the cognitive and methodological assumptions of these two traditions from the perspective of the mechanistic theory of explanation. We argue that, while the cultural tradition of cognitive sociology has provided important descriptions about how human cognition varies across cultural groups and historical periods, it has not (...)
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  33. Methods of Ethics and the Descent of Man: Darwin and Sidgwick on Ethics and Evolution.Hallvard Lillehammer - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (3):361-378.
    Darwin’s treatment of morality in The Descent of Man has generated a wide variety of responses among moral philosophers. Among these is the dismissal of evolution as irrelevant to ethics by Darwin’s contemporary Henry Sidgwick; the last, and arguably the greatest, of the Nineteenth Century British Utilitarians. This paper offers a re-examination of Sidgwick’s response to evolutionary considerations as irrelevant to ethics and the absence of any engagement with Darwin’s work in Sidgwick’s main ethical treatise, The Methods of Ethics (...)
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  34.  95
    Formalising Trade-Offs Beyond Algorithmic Fairness: Lessons From Ethical Philosophy and Welfare Economics.Michelle Seng Ah Lee, Luciano Floridi & Jatinder Singh - 2021 - AI and Ethics 3.
    There is growing concern that decision-making informed by machine learning (ML) algorithms may unfairly discriminate based on personal demographic attributes, such as race and gender. Scholars have responded by introducing numerous mathematical definitions of fairness to test the algorithm, many of which are in conflict with one another. However, these reductionist representations of fairness often bear little resemblance to real-life fairness considerations, which in practice are highly contextual. Moreover, fairness metrics tend to be implemented in narrow and targeted toolkits that (...)
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  35. Child (Bio)Welfare and Beyond : Intersecting Injustices in Childhoods and Swedish Child Welfare.Zlatana Knezevic - 2020 - Dissertation, Mälardalen University
    The current thesis discusses how tools for analysing power are developed predominately for adults, and thus remain underdeveloped in terms of understanding injustices related to age, ethnicity/race and gender in childhoods. The overall aim of this dissertation is to inscribe a discourse of intersecting social injustices as relevant for childhoods and child welfare, and by interlinking postcolonial, feminist, and critical childhood studies. The dissertation is set empirically within the policy and practice of Swedish child welfare, here exemplified by (...)
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  36. Grading (Anxious and Silent) Participation: Assessing Student Attendance and Engagement with Short Papers on a “Question For Consideration".Kathryn J. Norlock - 2016 - Teaching Philosophy 39 (4):483-505.
    The inclusion of attendance and participation in course grade calculations is ubiquitous in postsecondary syllabi, but can penalize the silent or anxious student unfairly. I outline the obstacles posed by social anxiety, then describe an assignment developed with the twin goals of assisting students with obstacles to participating in spoken class discussions, and rewarding methods of participation other than oral interaction. When homework assignments habituating practices of writing well-justified questions regarding well-documented passages in reading assignments are the explicit project (...)
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  37. Assessing the Wellbeing Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Three Policy Types: Suppression, Control, and Uncontrolled Spread.Matthew D. Adler, Richard Bradley, Maddalena Ferranna, Marc Fleurbaey, James Hammitt & Alex Voorhoeve - 2020 - Thinktank 20 Policy Briefs for the G20 Meeting in Saudi Arabia 2020.
    The COVID-19 crisis has forced a difficult trade-off between limiting the health impacts of the virus and maintaining economic activity. Welfare economics offers tools to conceptualize this trade-off so that policy-makers and the public can see clearly what is at stake. We review four such tools: the Value of Statistical Life (VSL); the Value of Statistical Life Years (VSLYs); Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs); and social welfare analysis, and argue that the latter are superior. We also discuss how to choose (...)
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  38.  85
    For the Common Good: Philosophical Foundations of Research Ethics.Alex John London - 2021 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    The foundations of research ethics are riven with fault lines emanating from a fear that if research is too closely connected to weighty social purposes an imperative to advance the common good through research will justify abrogating the rights and welfare of study participants. The result is an impoverished conception of the nature of research, an incomplete focus on actors who bear important moral responsibilities, and a system of ethics and oversight highly attuned to the dangers of research but (...)
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  39. Observation, Meaning and Theory: Review of For and Against Method by Imre Lakatos and Paul Feyerabend. [REVIEW]Nicholas Maxwell - 2000 - Times Higher Education Supplement 1:30-30.
    Imre Lakatos and Paul Feyerabend initially both accepted Popper's philosophy of science, but then reacted against it, and developed it in different directions. Lakatos sought to reconcile Kuhn and Popper by characterizing science as a process of competing research programmes, competing fragments of Kuhn's normal science. Feyerabend emphasized the need to develop rival theories to facilitate severe empirical testing of accepted theories, but then, as a result of a disastrous mistake, came to hold that theories that are incompatible with one (...)
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  40. Assessment of Microbiological Quality of Ready to Eat Food Served in Ships Along Warri, Koko and Port Harcourt Water Ways, Nigeria.Yusuf Babatunde Adiama, Olawale Henry Sawyerr, Opasola Afolabi Olaniyi, Alero Favour Fregene, Mubarakat Alabede & Morufu Olalekan Raimi - 2022 - Online Journal of Microbiological Research 1 (1):1-7.
    Background: Food-borne outbreaks have been associated with sourcing unsafe food. Therefore, the first preventative strategy should be to source safe food. Even if the sourced food is safe, measures need to be put in place to ensure that it remains safe during the transfer, storage, preparation and serving activities that follow. An understanding of the ship food supply and transfer chain will help to illustrate the points at which the food can become contaminated en route to the point of consumption. (...)
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  41. Objectivity and a Comparison of Methodological Scenario Approaches for Climate Change Research.Elisabeth A. Lloyd & Vanessa J. Schweizer - 2014 - Synthese 191 (10):2049-2088.
    Climate change assessments rely upon scenarios of socioeconomic developments to conceptualize alternative outcomes for global greenhouse gas emissions. These are used in conjunction with climate models to make projections of future climate. Specifically, the estimations of greenhouse gas emissions based on socioeconomic scenarios constrain climate models in their outcomes of temperatures, precipitation, etc. Traditionally, the fundamental logic of the socioeconomic scenarios—that is, the logic that makes them plausible—is developed and prioritized using methods that are very subjective. This introduces a (...)
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  42. The Dimensions of Argumentative Texts and Their Assessment.Fabrizio Macagno & Chrysi Rapanta - 2019 - Studia Paedagogica 24 (4):11-44.
    The definition and the assessment of the quality of argumentative texts has become an increasingly crucial issue in education, classroom discourse, and argumentation theory. The different methods developed and used in the literature are all characterized by specific perspectives that fail to capture the complexity of the subject matter, which remains ill-defined and not systematically investigated. This paper addresses this problem by building on the four main dimensions of argument quality resulting from the definition of argument and the (...)
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  43. Reckoning with Assessment: Can We Responsibly Innovate? [REVIEW]Steven Umbrello - 2021 - Metascience 30 (1):41-43.
    A new edited volume by Emad Yaghmaei and Ibo van de Poel, Assessment of Responsible Innovation: Methods and Practices, is reviewed. Responsible innovation (RI) is a project into the ethical and design issues that emerge during the engineering programs of new technologies. This volume is intended to determine how if at all, RI practices can be validated and assessed for success in context.
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  44. An Argument Against Drug Testing Welfare Recipients.Mary Jean Walker & James Franklin - 2018 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 28 (3):309-340.
    Programs of drug testing welfare recipients are increasingly common in US states and have been considered elsewhere. Though often intensely debated, such programs are complicated to evaluate because their aims are ambiguous – aims like saving money may be in tension with aims like referring people to treatment. We assess such programs using a proportionality approach, which requires that for ethical acceptability a practice must be: reasonably likely to meet its aims, sufficiently important in purpose as to outweigh harms (...)
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  45. A Probabilistic Framework for Analysing the Compositionality of Conceptual Combinations.Peter Bruza, Kirsty Kitto, Brentyn Ramm & Laurianne Sitbon - 2015 - Journal of Mathematical Psychology 67:26-38.
    Conceptual combination performs a fundamental role in creating the broad range of compound phrases utilised in everyday language. This article provides a novel probabilistic framework for assessing whether the semantics of conceptual combinations are compositional, and so can be considered as a function of the semantics of the constituent concepts, or not. While the systematicity and productivity of language provide a strong argument in favor of assuming compositionality, this very assumption is still regularly questioned in both cognitive science and philosophy. (...)
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  46. Fellow Citizenship and U.S. Welfare Policy.Steven Daskal - 2008 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 22 (2):281-301.
    This paper offers an assessment of current welfare policy in the United States. I argue that there is a genuine set of reciprocal obligations owed between fellow citizens that both justify and constrain U.S. welfare policy. In particular, I argue that there is both a widespread duty for potential welfare recipients to seek employment and a similarly robust obligation for other members of society to provide publicly funded jobs of last resort for those unable to find (...)
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  47. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE NEED FOR STRONG INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA - A PHILOSOPHICAL ASSESSMENT.Okon John Elijah & Dominic M. Akpakpan - 2018 - Ifiok: Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 4:37-63.
    Political development is basically a process that is concerned with the improvement of institutions, attitudes and values that form the political system of a society or nation. In Nigeria, a critical assessment has revealed that despite the nation’s abundant human and natural resources, her citizens are subjected to abject poverty. Thus, this paper sets study is to assess the level of political development in the country and give reasons for establishing strong institutions. This paper concludes that the nation’s political (...)
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  48.  62
    Ethical Funding for Trustworthy AI: Proposals to Address the Responsibilities of Funders to Ensure That Projects Adhere to Trustworthy AI Practice.Marie Oldfield - 2021 - AI and Ethics 1 (1):1.
    AI systems that demonstrate significant bias or lower than claimed accuracy, and resulting in individual and societal harms, continue to be reported. Such reports beg the question as to why such systems continue to be funded, developed and deployed despite the many published ethical AI principles. This paper focusses on the funding processes for AI research grants which we have identified as a gap in the current range of ethical AI solutions such as AI procurement guidelines, AI impact assessments and (...)
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  49. Beyond Categorical Definitions of Life: A Data-Driven Approach to Assessing Lifeness.Christophe Malaterre & Jean-François Chartier - 2019 - Synthese 198 (5):4543-4572.
    The concept of “life” certainly is of some use to distinguish birds and beavers from water and stones. This pragmatic usefulness has led to its construal as a categorical predicate that can sift out living entities from non-living ones depending on their possessing specific properties—reproduction, metabolism, evolvability etc. In this paper, we argue against this binary construal of life. Using text-mining methods across over 30,000 scientific articles, we defend instead a degrees-of-life view and show how these methods can (...)
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  50.  89
    Hierarchical Inconsistencies: A Critical Assessment of Justification.Juozas Kasputis - 2019 - Economic Thought 8 (2):1-12.
    The existential insecurity of human beings has induced them to create protective spheres of symbols: myths, religions, values, belief systems, theories, etc. Rationality is one of the key factors contributing to the construction of civilisation in technical and symbolic terms. As Hankiss has emphasised, protective spheres of symbols may collapse – thus causing a profound social crisis. Social and political transformations had a tremendous impact at the end of the 20th century. As a result, management theories have been revised in (...)
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