Results for 'social inequality'

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  1. Reducing social inequality: the capabilities on the maintenance of human security / Reduzindo as desigualdades sociais: as capacidades na manutenção da segurança humana.Rodrigo Cid - 2010 - Páginas de Filosofía 2 (2):107-137.
    This text is the result of academic research aimed at achieve the goal of finding viable ways to reduce social inequalities in the Brazilian context through the education. Our main focus was the pursuit of reducing violence through education and the ways in which education can promote development and security human in general. In order to achieve this goal with clarity and consistency, I address theoretical and practical issues. The part theory clarifies the essential concepts and establishes the background (...)
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  2.  62
    Pandemic justice: fairness, social inequality and COVID-19 healthcare priority-setting.Lasse Nielsen & Andreas Albertsen - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (4):283-287.
    A comprehensive understanding of the ethics of the COVID-19 pandemic priorities must be sensitive to the influence of social inequality. We distinguish between ex-ante and ex-post relevance of social inequality for COVID-19 disadvantage. Ex-ante relevance refers to the distribution of risks of exposure. Ex-post relevance refers to the effect of inequality on how patients respond to infection. In the case of COVID-19, both ex-ante and ex-post effects suggest a distribution which is sensitive to the prevalence (...)
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  3. Relational Egalitarianism and Emergent Social Inequalities.Dan Threet - 2021 - Res Publica 28 (1):49-67.
    This paper identifies a challenge for liberal relational egalitarians—namely, how to respond to the prospect of emergent inequalities of power, status, and influence arising unintentionally through the free exercise of fundamental individual liberties over time. I argue that these emergent social inequalities can be produced through patterns of nonmalicious choices, that they can in fact impede the full realization of relational equality, and that it is possible they cannot be eliminated entirely without abandoning fundamental liberal commitments to leave individuals (...)
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  4. Biological Explanations of Social Inequalities.Dan Lowe - 2022 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 103 (4):694-719.
    Inequalities of social goods between gender, racial, or other groups call out for explanation. Such inequalities might be explained by socialization and discrimination. But historically some have attributed these inequalities to biological differences between social groups. Such explanations are highly controversial: on the one hand, they have a very troubling racist and sexist history, but on the other hand, they are empirical claims, and so it seems inappropriate to rule them out a priori. I propose that the appropriate (...)
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  5. Cognitive Disability and Social Inequality.Linda Barclay - 2023 - Social Theory and Practice 49 (4):605-628.
    Individuals with ‘severe’ cognitive disabilities are primarily discussed in philosophy and bioethics to determine their moral status. In this paper it is argued that theories of moral status have limited relevance to the unjust ways in which people with cognitive disabilities are routinely treated in the actual world, which largely concerns their relegation to an inferior social status. I discuss three possible relationships between moral and social status, demonstrating that determinate answers about the moral status of individuals with (...)
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  6. Unequal Worlds: Discrimination and Social Inequality in Modern India.Vidhu Verma - 2015 - New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Edited by Vidhu Verma.
    The essays study from different perspectives, the much discussed and crucial topic of social discrimination, and particularly Dalit exploitation. The work is highly interdisciplinary in nature-relevant for several subjects and disciplines such as political science, sociology, Dalit studies, minority studies, women's studies, anthropology, law, economics This work specifically sets out to explore contemporary manifestations of discrimination that persist in our society through institutions and through norms and practices that define the terms on which certain social groups continue to (...)
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  7. Nierówności społeczne w kontekście badania kapitału społecznego ludzi starych. Przykład Domu Pomocy Społecznej i Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Białymstoku (Social inequality in the context of social capital of the elderly from Białystok. Based on example.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2011 - In Artur Fabiś & Marcin Muszyński (eds.), Społeczne Wymiary Starzenia Siȩ. Wyższa Szkoła Administracji, Uniwersytet Łódzki. pp. 101--117.
    Complexity of the changes taking place in modern societies makes it is necessary to deepen the analysis of the impact of social inequality on the activity of old people. Dissemination of new technologies and organizational forms allows solving many social problems and improving the quality of human life. At the same time broadens the range of areas in which old people are losing their authority and differ in expertise required for the achievement of socially valued goods. Article (...)
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  8. Categorized priority systems: a new tool for fairly allocating scarce medical resources in the face of profound social inequities.Tayfun Sönmez, Parag A. Pathak, M. Utku Ünver, Govind Persad, Robert D. Truog & Douglas B. White - 2021 - Chest 153 (3):1294-1299.
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has motivated medical ethicists and several task forces to revisit or issue new guidelines on allocating scarce medical resources. Such guidelines are relevant for the allocation of scarce therapeutics and vaccines and for allocation of ICU beds, ventilators, and other life-sustaining treatments or potentially scarce interventions. Principles underlying these guidelines, like saving the most lives, mitigating disparities, reciprocity to those who assume additional risk (eg, essential workers and clinical trial participants), and equal access may (...)
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  9. Social Equality and Wrongful Discrimination: Introduction to the Special Issue on Moreau's Faces of Inequality.Hugo Cossette-Lefebvre - 2024 - Dialogue 63 (1):1-7.
    In this introduction, I briefly summarize Sophia Moreau's Faces of Inequality. I situate her monograph within two highly contemporary bodies of literature — relational egalitarianism and discrimination theory — to show how it provides important insights for understanding both what it means to treat others as equals in society and how to define wrongful discrimination. Moreau's work on discrimination is of great relevance for philosophers and socio-legal theorists alike as the commentaries from the symposium contributors demonstrate, including Dale Smith, (...)
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  10. Educational inequality and state-sponsored elite education: the case of the Dutch gymnasium.Michael Merry & Willem Boterman - 2020 - Comparative Education 56 (4):522-546.
    In this paper we examine the role the Dutch gymnasium continues to play in the institutional maintenance of educational inequality. To that end we examine the relational and spatial features of state-sponsored elite education in the Dutch system: the unique identity the gymnasium seeks to cultivate; its value to its consumers; its geographic significance; and its market position amidst a growing array of other selective forms of schooling. We argue that there is a strong correlation between a higher (...) class background and the concern to transmit one’s cultural habitus. We further speculate on the moral implications of state-sponsored elite education, both as it concerns the specific role of the gymnasium in the reproduction of social inequality as well as the curious tendency among its supporters to rationalise the necessity of its existence. (shrink)
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  11. Social Welfare: An approach to the concept from a multidimensional perspective.Carlos Medel-Ramírez & Hilario Medel-López - manuscript
    Winds of change, from the political perspective in Mexico, invite us to reformulate the methodological vision for the direction of public policy in the field of social development, directing their actions towards the construction of a methodological proposal that allows us to direct ourselves towards achieving higher levels of Well-being Social in our country, as a desirable objective of public policy and which is expected to be inclusive, participatory and democratic. -/- In this sense, it is important to (...)
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  12. Rawls on Inequality, Social Segregation and Democracy.Mark Navin - 2013 - In Ann E. Cudd & Sally J. Scholz (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Democracy in the 21st Century. Cham: Springer. pp. 133-145.
    Latent in John Rawls’s discussion of envy, resentment and voluntary social segregation is a plausible (partial) explanation of two striking features of contemporary American life: (1) widespread complacency about inequality and (2) decreased political participation, especially by the least advantaged members of society.
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  13.  57
    Stratified social norms.Han van Wietmarschen - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy.
    This article explains how social norms can help to distinguish and understand a range of different kinds of social inequality and social hierarchy. My aim is to show how the literature on social norms can provide crucial resources to relational egalitarianism, which has made social equality and inequality into a central topic of contemporary normative political theorizing. The hope is that a more discriminating and detailed picture of different kinds of social (...) will help relational egalitarians move beyond a discussion of the justice or injustice of social equality as a single general category. (shrink)
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  14. The scientific limits of understanding the (potential) relationship between complex social phenomena: the case of democracy and inequality.Alexander Krauss - 2016 - Journal of Economic Methodology 23 (1):97-109.
    This paper outlines the methodological and empirical limitations of analysing the potential relationship between complex social phenomena such as democracy and inequality. It shows that the means to assess how they may be related is much more limited than recognised in the existing literature that is laden with contradictory hypotheses and findings. Better understanding our scientific limitations in studying this potential relationship is important for research and policy because many leading economists and other social scientists such as (...)
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  15. The Social Contract and the Discourse on the Origin of Inequality of Jean-Jacques Rousseau.Raphael Descartes M. Roldan - manuscript
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  16. Three Distributive Problems of the Twenty Fist Century: Inequality, Social Scarcity, and Environmental Decay.Justin P. Holt - 2016 - Critique 4 (44):479-494.
    This paper will examine the three distributive problems of inequality, social scarcity, and environmental decay. All three of these problems are the result of economic growth that is not properly structured by institutions. It will be argued that each one of these distributive problems exacerbates the other two. Any solution to one of these problems must address the other two as well. This paper will show that these three distributive problems can be minimized through a combination of tax (...)
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  17. Why Health-Related Inequalities Matter and Which Ones Do.Alex Voorhoeve - 2019 - In Ole F. Norheim, Ezekiel J. Emanuel & Joseph Millum (eds.), Global Health Priority-Setting: Beyond Cost-Effectiveness. Oxford University Press. pp. 145-62.
    I outline and defend two egalitarian theories, which yield distinctive and, I argue, complementary answers to why health-related inequalities matter: a brute luck egalitarian view, according to which inequalities due to unchosen, differential luck are bad because unfair, and a social egalitarian view, according to which inequalities are bad when and because they undermine people’s status as equal citizens. These views identify different objects of egalitarian concern: the brute luck egalitarian view directs attention to health-related well-being, while social (...)
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  18. Social Epigenetics and Equality of Opportunity.Michele Loi, Lorenzo Del Savio & Elia Stupka - 2013 - Public Health Ethics 6 (2):142-153.
    Recent epidemiological reports of associations between socioeconomic status and epigenetic markers that predict vulnerability to diseases are bringing to light substantial biological effects of social inequalities. Here, we start the discussion of the moral consequences of these findings. We firstly highlight their explanatory importance in the context of the research program on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) and the social determinants of health. In the second section, we review some theories of the moral status of (...)
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  19. Health Inequalities and Relational Egalitarianism.J. Paul Kelleher - 2016 - In Mara Buchbinder, Michele R. Rivkin-Fish & Rebecca L. Walker (eds.), Understanding Health Inequalities and Justice: New Conversations across the Disciplines. University of North Carolina Press.
    Much of the philosophical literature on health inequalities seeks to establish the superiority of one or another conception of luck egalitarianism. In recent years, however, an increasing number of self-avowed egalitarian philosophers have proposed replacing luck egalitarianism with alternatives that stress the moral relevance of distinct relationships, rather than the moral relevance of good or bad luck. After briefly explaining why I am not attracted to luck egalitarianism, I seek in this chapter to distinguish and clarify three views that have (...)
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  20. Environmental Inequalities and Democratic Citizenship: Linking Normative Theory with Empirical Research.Fabian Schuppert & Ivo Https://Orcidorg Wallimann-Helmer - 2014 - Analyse & Kritik 36 (2):345–366.
    The aim of this paper is to link empirical findings concerning environmental inequalities with different normative yard-sticks for assessing whether these inequalities should be deemed unjust, or not. We argue that such an inquiry must necessarily take into account some caveats regarding both empirical research and normative theory. We suggest that empirical results must be contextualised by establishing geographies of risk. As a normative yard-stick we propose a moderately demanding social-egalitarian account of justice and democratic citizenship, which we take (...)
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  21. Bleeding Heart Libertarianism and the Social Justice or Injustice of Economic Inequality.Andrew Jason Cohen - 2019 - In Christopher J. Coyne, Michael C. Munger & Robert M. Whaples (eds.), Is social justice just? Oakland, California: Independent Institute.
    We live in a market system with much economic inequality. This may not be an essential characteristic of market systems but seems historically inevitable. How we should evaluate it, on the other hand, is contentious. I propose that bleeding heart libertarianism provides the best diagnosis and prescription.
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  22. Inequalities in the Universal Right to Health.Maurizio Bonati, Gianni Tognoni & Fabio Sereni - manuscript
    Child health inequalities violate children’s rights to optimal wellbeing. Different issues worldwide affect children’s physical and mental health as well as their development, influencing their future as adults. Inequities are avoidable inequalities. Despite improvements in the past two decades, the ambitious goals of global agendas have, for the most part, remained as expectations with regard to childhood rights, social justice, and health equity in practice. The concept of social determinants of health has become part of the common language (...)
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  23. Income Inequality: What’s Wrong with It, and What’s Not.Filip Spagnoli - manuscript
    In this paper, I list a number of commonly cited negative effects of high or rising levels of income inequality and examine the literature in order to assess the statistical and empirical evidence in favor of or against the presence and/or strength of those negative effects. Given the prevalence of the topic of income inequality in contemporary political, economic and social discussions, it's important to have a good understanding of the effects of income inequality and to (...)
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  24. Social Categories are Natural Kinds, not Objective Types (and Why it Matters Politically).Theodore Bach - 2016 - Journal of Social Ontology 2 (2):177-201.
    There is growing support for the view that social categories like men and women refer to “objective types” (Haslanger 2000, 2006, 2012; Alcoff 2005). An objective type is a similarity class for which the axis of similarity is an objective rather than nominal or fictional property. Such types are independently real and causally relevant, yet their unity does not derive from an essential property. Given this tandem of features, it is not surprising why empirically-minded researchers interested in fighting oppression (...)
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  25. Patterned Inequality, Compounding Injustice, and Algorithmic Prediction.Benjamin Eidelson - 2021 - American Journal of Law and Equality 1 (1):252-276.
    If whatever counts as merit for some purpose is unevenly distributed, a decision procedure that accurately sorts people on that basis will “pick up” and reproduce the pre-existing pattern in ways that more random, less merit-tracking procedures would not. This dynamic is an important cause for concern about the use of predictive models to allocate goods and opportunities. In this article, I distinguish two different objections that give voice to that concern in different ways. First, decision procedures may contribute to (...)
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  26. Long COVID and Health Inequities: The Role of Primary Care.Zackary Berger, V. Altiery de Jesus, S. A. Assoumou & T. Greenhalgh - 2021 - Milbank Quarterly 99 (2):519-541.
    An estimated 700,000 people in the United States have "long COVID," that is, symptoms of COVID-19 persisting beyond three weeks. COVID-19 and its long-term sequelae are strongly influenced by social determinants such as poverty and by structural inequalities such as racism and discrimination. Primary care providers are in a unique position to provide and coordinate care for vulnerable patients with long COVID. Policy measures should include strengthening primary care, optimizing data quality, and addressing the multiple nested domains of inequity.
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  27. Inequality, Internet likes, and the rules of philosophy, by Ren*t* S*lecl.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    How can we explain why certain historically discriminated groups are under-represented in English-speaking analytic philosophy? I present a hypothesis which appeals to rules, rather than relying upon the social theories of Pierre Bourdieu. I do by means of an attempted pastiche of Renata Salecl, my third attempt.
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  28. Social structural explanation.Valerie Soon - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (10):e12782.
    Social problems such as racism, sexism, and inequality are often cited as structural rather than individual in nature. What does it mean to invoke a social structural explanation, and how do such explanations relate to individualistic ones? This article explores recent philosophical debates concerning the nature and usages of social structural explanation. I distinguish between two central kinds of social structural explanation: those that are autonomous from psychology, and those that are not. This distinction will (...)
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  29. Anatomies of inequality: considering the emotional cost of aiming higher for marginalised, mature, mothers re-entering education.Dawn Mannay & Melanie Morgan - 2013 - Journal of Adult and Continuing Education 19 (1):57-75.
    The Anatomy of Economic Inequality in Wales (2011) provides quantitative evidence for the pervasive nature of class-based inequalities in education, demonstrating that an individual in social housing is approximately 10 times less likely to be a graduate compared to those in other types of accommodation. This article moves beyond the baseline figures and argues that for marginalised, mature mothers re-entering education, the emotional cost is often one that they are unable to pay, and that practitioners and policy makers (...)
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  30.  91
    Merit and Inequality: Confucian and Communitarian Perspectives on Singapore’s Meritocracy.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2024 - Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 41:29-64.
    This paper compares criticisms of Singapore’s meritocracy, especially against its impact on income disparities and class divisions, with Michael Sandel’s critique of the meritocratic ethic in the United States. Despite significant differences in their history and politics, meritocracy has similar dysfunctions in both societies, allowing us to draw theoretical conclusions about meritocracy as an ideal of governance. It then contrasts Sandel’s communitarian critique of meritocracy with recent Confucian promotion of political meritocracy and meritocratic justice and argues that the Confucian principle (...)
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  31. Commodification, Inequality, and Kidney Markets.Vida Panitch & L. Chad Horne - 2018 - Social Theory and Practice 44 (1):121-143.
    People tend to be repulsed by the idea of cash markets in kidneys, but support the trading of kidneys through paired exchanges or chains. We reject anti-commodification accounts of this reaction and offer an egalitarian one. We argue that the morally significant difference between cash markets and kidney chains is that the former allow the wealthy greater access to kidneys, while the latter do not. The only problem with kidney chains is that they do not go far enough in addressing (...)
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  32. Public Health and Safety: The Social Determinants of Health and Criminal Behavior.Gregg D. Caruso - 2017 - London, UK: ResearchLinks Books.
    There are a number of important links and similarities between public health and safety. In this extended essay, Gregg D. Caruso defends and expands his public health-quarantine model, which is a non-retributive alternative for addressing criminal behavior that draws on the public health framework and prioritizes prevention and social justice. In developing his account, he explores the relationship between public health and safety, focusing on how social inequalities and systemic injustices affect health outcomes and crime rates, how poverty (...)
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  33. Fostering Inclusivity through Social Justice Education: An Interdisciplinary Approach.Paul E. Carron & Charles McDaniel - 2020 - In Paul E. Carron & Charles McDaniel (eds.), Breaking Down Silos: Innovation, Collaboration, and EDI Across Disciplines. pp. 51-60.
    Teaching at a private, conservative religious institution poses unique challenges for equality, diversity, and inclusivity education (EDI). Given the realities of the student population in the Honors College of a private, religious institution, it is necessary to first introduce students to the contemporary realities of inequality and oppression and thus the need for EDI. This chapter proposes a conceptual framework and pedagogical suggestions for teaching basic concepts of social justice in a team-taught, interdisciplinary social science course. The (...)
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  34. Discrimination, emotion, and health inequities.Carina Fourie - 2018 - Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 13 (3):123-149.
    In this paper I argue that certain ways in which the relationship among discrimination, emotions and health is presented can undermine equity. I identify a model of this relationship the discrimination-emotion-health model - and claim that while the model is important for understanding the detrimental impact that discrimination and oppression can have on emotions and health, certain implications of the model are troubling. I identify six critiques of the model, and show that equity could be undermined, for example, when stereotypes (...)
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  35. How we got stuck: The origins of hierarchy and inequality[REVIEW]Jonathan Birch & Andrew Buskell - 2022 - Mind and Language 37 (4):751-759.
    Kim Sterelny's book The Pleistocene social contract provides an exceptionally well-informed and credible narrative explanation of the origins of inequality and hierarchy. In this essay review, we reflect on the role of rational choice theory in Sterelny's project, before turning to Sterelny's reasons for doubting the importance of cultural group selection. In the final section, we compare Sterelny's big picture with an alternative from David Wengrow and David Graeber.
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  36. Is Ecoturism Environmentally and Socially Acceptable in the Climate, Demographic, and Political Regime of the Anthropocene?Richard Sťahel - 2023 - In João Carlos Ribeiro Cardoso Mendes, Isabel Ponce de Leão, Maria do Carmo Mendes & Rui Paes Mendes (eds.), GREEN MARBLE 2023. Estudos sobre o Antropoceno e Ecocrítica / Studies on the Anthropocene and Ecocriticism. INfAST - Institute for Anthropocene Studies. pp. 73-88.
    Tourism is one of the socio-economic trends that significantly contributes to the shift of the planetary system into the Anthropocene regime. At the same time, it is also a socio-cultural practice characteristic of the imperial mode of living, or consumerism. Thus, it is a form of commodification of nature, also a way of deepening social inequalities between a privileged minority of the global population and an exploited majority providing services to those whose socio-economic status allows them to travel for (...)
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  37. Sustainable Development Goals and energy transition in Latin America and the Caribbean: The quest to reduce social and economic inequalities.Daniel Francisco Nagao Menezes & Luís Renato Vedovato - 2023 - Artículo de Investigación.
    El estudio evalúa los vínculos entre la transición energética existentes en América Latina y el Caribe y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) relacionados con la innovación (ODS 9), la igualdad (ODS 10) y las instituciones (ODS 16). El estudio sostiene que si las opciones de tecnología energética en la región continúan siendo impulsadas por la racionalidad tecnoeconómica, muchas demandas impuestas a la transición energética seguirán sin satisfacerse, es decir, no se resuelven los desafíos preexistentes (ODS 9, 10 y 16). (...)
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  38. Kant, coercion, and the legitimation of inequality.Benjamin L. McKean - 2022 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 25 (4):528-550.
    Immanuel Kant’s political philosophy has enjoyed renewed attention as an egalitarian alternative to contemporary inequality since it seems to uncompromisingly reassert the primacy of the state over the economy, enabling it to defend the modern welfare state against encroaching neoliberal markets. However, I argue that, when understood as a free-standing approach to politics, Kant’s doctrine of right shares essential features with the prevailing theories that legitimate really existing economic inequality. Like Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman, Kant understands the (...)
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  39. A Critique of the Incentives Argument for Inequalities.Max Seeger - 2011 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 25 (1):40-52.
    According to the incentives argument, inequalities in material goods are justifiable if they are to the benefit of the worst off members of society. In this paper, I point out what is easily overlooked, namely that inequalities are justifiable only if they are to the overall benefit of the worst off, that is, in terms of both material and social goods. I then address the question how gains in material goods can be weighed against probable losses in social (...)
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  40. SOCIAL EVILS RELATED TO CASTE DISCRIMINATION AND HUMAN RIGHTS CONCERNS.Desh Raj Sirswal - 2011 - In S. M. Atik-Ur-Rahaman & Parveenkumar Kumbargudar (eds.), Developments in Social Sciences. pp. 148-155.
    In this paper an attempt is made to draw out an outline of present social evils generated from Caste-Discrimination and this system is the misinterpreted conception of Varynavyavastha where the four varnas are divided on the basis of division of labour and since history it converted to caste system. With these Human Rights issues are directly related and human rights are an important concept in civilized and democratic society. But from the part of Government and judiciary the above said (...)
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  41. Increasing polarization: enumerating the consequences of increasing inequality.Syed Danish Ali - manuscript
    “Remember your humanity. Forget the rest”. (Bertrand Russell in Russell-Einstein Manifesto) In a nutshell, this review is not trying to propagate rocket science or eureka moment that scientifically finds the cure for all the ills of economic inequality like penicillin does for infections. This review is a basic but effective exploration into the true nature of social realities. This review holistically elaborates how economic inequality is leading to increasing polarization in our societies. Two important drivers of increasing (...)
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  42. Citizenship, Structural Inequality and the Political Elite.Michael Merry - 2018 - On Education 1 (1).
    Whatever the merits idealized liberal accounts of citizenship education may have in the seminar room, in this essay I argue that they are both unpersuasive and ineffectual. This is the case, because they are insufficiently attentive to the empirical realities, first (a) with respect to how real – versus imaginary – school systems function; and second, (b) with respect to the broader political context in which citizenship education policies are implemented. Because so much is already known about the former, I (...)
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  43. A Needs-Based Partial Theory of Human Injustice: Oppression, Dehumanization, Exploitation, and Systematic Inequality in Opportunities to Address Human Needs.Michael Alan Dover - 2019 - Humanity and Society 43 (4):442-483.
    The article presents an original needs-based partial theory of human injustice and shows its relationship to existing theories of human need and human liberation. The theory is based on an original typology of three social structural sources of human injustice, a partial theorization of the mechanisms of human injustice, and a needs-based theorization of the nature of human injustice, as experienced by individuals. The article makes a sociological contribution to normative social theory by clarifying the relationship of human (...)
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  44. Konfuçyüs Öğretisinde Nepotizm Sorunu.İlknur Sertdemir - 2022 - Felsefe Dünyasi 1 (75):364-383.
    The teaching of Confucius, one of the doctrines built Chinese philosophy, is the movement of thought that has penetrated politics, education, manners and customs in East Asia for centuries. Reading the principles that advise wisdom and virtue through classical texts, we can find out normative moral knowledge. This teaching, in which ethical standards guiding human relations are regulative, promotes hierarchy as required by patriarchal and patrimonial regime. Social structure is grounded on discrimination between nobles and commons. Since the rights (...)
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  45. Rights of inequality: Rawlsian justice, equal opportunity, and the status of the family.Justin Schwartz - 2001 - Legal Theory 7 (1):83-117.
    Is the family subject to principles of justice? In "A Theory of Justice", John Rawls includes the (monogamous) family along with the market and the government as among the, "basic institutions of society", to which principles of justice apply. Justice, he famously insists, is primary in politics as truth is in science: the only excuse for tolerating injustice is that no lesser injustice is possible. The point of the present paper is that Rawls doesn't actually mean this. When it comes (...)
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  46. RAWLS’ DIFFERENCE PRINCIPLE: ABSOLUTE vs. RELATIVE INEQUALITY.Geoffrey Briggs - manuscript
    In the book “A Theory of Justice”, John Rawls examines the notion of a just society. More specifically, he develops a conception of justice—Justice as Fairness—derived from his novel interpretation of the social contract. Central to his account are two lexically-ordered principles of justice by which primary social institutions, or the basic structure of society, are ideally to be organized and regulated. Broadly speaking, the second of Rawls’ two principles pertains to “the distribution of income and wealth”, and (...)
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  47. State of the Art on Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues Linked to Audio- and Video-Based AAL Solutions.Alin Ake-Kob, Aurelija Blazeviciene, Liane Colonna, Anto Cartolovni, Carina Dantas, Anton Fedosov, Francisco Florez-Revuelta, Eduard Fosch-Villaronga, Zhicheng He, Andrzej Klimczuk, Maksymilian Kuźmicz, Adrienn Lukacs, Christoph Lutz, Renata Mekovec, Cristina Miguel, Emilio Mordini, Zada Pajalic, Barbara Krystyna Pierscionek, Maria Jose Santofimia Romero, Albert AliSalah, Andrzej Sobecki, Agusti Solanas & Aurelia Tamo-Larrieux - 2021 - Alicante: University of Alicante.
    Ambient assisted living technologies are increasingly presented and sold as essential smart additions to daily life and home environments that will radically transform the healthcare and wellness markets of the future. An ethical approach and a thorough understanding of all ethics in surveillance/monitoring architectures are therefore pressing. AAL poses many ethical challenges raising questions that will affect immediate acceptance and long-term usage. Furthermore, ethical issues emerge from social inequalities and their potential exacerbation by AAL, accentuating the existing access gap (...)
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  48. Representative Democracy and Social Equality.Sean Ingham - 2021 - American Political Science Review:1-13.
    When are inequalities in political power undemocratic, and why? While some writers condemn any inequalities in political power as a deviation from the ideal of democracy, this view is vulnerable to the simple objection that representative democracies concentrate political power in the hands of elected officials rather than distributing it equally among citizens, but they are no less democratic for it. Building on recent literature that interprets democracy as part of a broader vision of social equality, I argue that (...)
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  49.  39
    Utilitarianism, Social Justice, and the Trolley Problem: An Ethical Theory without Egalitarian Morality.Saad Malook - 2024 - Journal of Social and Organizational Matters 3 (2):124-143.
    This article examines the implications of utilitarianism for social justice, considering different cases of the trolley problems. Utilitarianism comprises a cluster of ethical theses, which have political and legal implications. In general, utilitarianism is assumed to augment the common good, such as pleasure, happiness, satisfaction, and utility, or to reduce pain, suffering, dissatisfaction, and disutility. The article investigates a key problem whether utilitarianism brings about social justice as a moral theory. In recent literature, many moral philosophers have developed (...)
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  50. Non-discrimination and equality in India: Contesting boundaries of Social Justice.Vidhu Verma - 2012 - London: Routledge.
    Social Justice is a concept familiar to most Indians but one whose meaning is not always understood as it signifies a variety of government strategies designed to enhance opportunities for underprivileged groups. By tracing the trajectory of social justice from the colonial period to the present, this book examines how it informs ideas, practices and debates on discrimination and disadvantage today. After outlining the historical context for reservations for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes that began under British colonial (...)
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