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  1. The Causal Closure of Physics in Real World Contexts.George F. R. Ellis - 2020 - Foundations of Physics 50 (10):1057-1097.
    The causal closure of physics is usually discussed in a context free way. Here I discuss it in the context of engineering systems and biology, where strong emergence takes place due to a combination of upwards emergence and downwards causation. Firstly, I show that causal closure is strictly limited in terms of spatial interactions because these are cases that are of necessity strongly interacting with the environment. Effective Spatial Closure holds ceteris parabus, and can be violated by Black Swan Events. (...)
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  • Appearance of Thermal Time.Shigenori Tanaka - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (2):1-12.
    In this paper a viewpoint that time is an informational and thermal entity is presented. We consider a model for a simple relaxation process for which a relationship among event, time and temperature is mathematically formulated. It is then explicitly illustrated that temperature and time are statistically inferred through measurement of events. The probability distribution of the events thus provides an intrinsic correlation between temperature and time, which can relevantly be expressed in terms of the Fisher information metric. The two-dimensional (...)
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