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  1. Epistemic Interests and the Objectivity of Inquiry.Torsten Wilholt - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 91:86-93.
    This paper advocates for making epistemic interests a central object of philosophical analysis in epistemology and philosophy of science. It is argued that the importance of epistemic interests derives from their fundamental importance for the notion of objectivity. Epistemic interests are defined as individuated by a set of objectives, each of which represents a dimension of the search for truth. Among these dimensions, specificity, sensitivity, and productivity are discussed in detail. It is argued that the relevance of productivity is often (...)
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  • Improving the Quality of Medical Care: The Normativity of Evidence-Based Performance Standards.Sandra J. Tanenbaum - 2012 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (4):263-277.
    Poor quality medical care is sometimes attributed to physicians’ unwillingness to act on evidence about what works best. Evidence-based performance standards (EBPSs) are one response to this problem, and they are increasingly employed by health care regulators and payers. Evidence in this instance is judged according to the precepts of evidence-based medicine (EBM); it is probabilistic, and the randomized controlled trial (RCT) is the gold standard. This means that EBPSs suffer all the infirmities of EBM generally—well rehearsed problems with the (...)
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  • Seriously Foolish and Foolishly Serious: The Art and Practice of Clowning in Children’s Rehabilitation.Julia Gray, Helen Donnelly & Barbara E. Gibson - 2019 - Journal of Medical Humanities 42 (3):453-469.
    This paper interrogates and reclaims clown practices in children’s rehabilitation as ‘foolish.’ Attempts to legitimize and ‘take seriously’ clown practices in the health sciences frame the work of clowns as secondary to the ‘real’ work of medical professionals and diminish the ways clowns support emotional vulnerability and bravery with a willingness to fail and be ridiculous as fundamental to their work. Narrow conceptualizations of clown practices in hospitals as only happy and funny overlook the ways clowns also routinely engage with (...)
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  • Innovating Medical Knowledge: Undestanding Evidence-Based Medicine as a Socio-Medical Phenomenon.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2012 - In Nikolaos Sitaras (ed.), Evidence-Based Medicine: Closer to Patients or Scientists? InTech Open Science.
    Because few would object to evidence-based medicine’s (EBM) principal task of basing medical decisionmaking on the most judicious and up-to-date evidence, the debate over this prolific movement may seem puzzling. Who, one may ask, could be against evidence (Carr-Hill, 2006)? Yet this question belies the sophistication of the evidence-based movement. This chapter presents the evidence-based approach as a socio-medical phenomenon and seeks to explain and negotiate the points of disagreement between supporters and detractors. This is done by casting EBM as (...)
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  • Teaching by (Bad) Example: What a Confused Attempt to “Advance” EBM Reveals About its Underlying Problems: Commentary on Jenicek, M. (2015) Do We Need Another Discipline in Medicine? From Epidemiology and Evidence Based Medicine to Cognitive Medicine and Medical Thinking.Michael Loughlin, Peter Wyer & Sandra Tanenbaum - 2016 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 22 (4):628-633.
    Professor Jenicek's paper is confused, in that his proposal to “integrate” what he means by “evidence-based scientific theory and cognitive approaches to medical thinking” actually embodies a contradiction. But, although confused, he succeeds in teaching us more about the EBM debate than those who seem keen to forge ahead without addressing the underlying epistemological problems that Jenicek brings to our attention. Fundamental questions about the relationship between evidence, knowledge and reason still require resolution if we are to see a genuine (...)
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  • A Politics of Objectivity: Biomedicine’s Attempts to Grapple with “Non-Financial” Conflicts of Interest.Quinn Grundy - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (3):1-18.
    Increasingly, policymakers within biomedicine argue that “non-financial” interests should be given equal scrutiny to individuals’ financial relationships with industry. Problematized as “non-financial conflicts of interest,” interests, ranging from intellectual commitments to personal beliefs, are managed through disclosure, restrictions on participation, and recusal where necessary. “Non-financial” interests, though vaguely and variably defined, are characterized as important influences on judgment and thus, are considered risks to scientific objectivity. This article explores the ways that “non-financial interests” have been constructed as an ethical problem (...)
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  • Can Nursing Epistemology Embrace P -Values?Christine H. K. Ou, Wendy A. Hall & Sally E. Thorne - 2017 - Nursing Philosophy 18 (4):e12173.
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  • Evidence-Based Medicine and Acupuncture: Old Bias for New Perspectives in Clinical Context.Mariateresa Tassinari & Paolo Roberti di Sarsina - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (6):1035-1037.
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  • Making Reasonable Decisions: A Qualitative Study of Medical Decision Making in the Care of Patients with a Clinically Significant Haemoglobin Disorder.Helen J. Crowther & Ian Kerridge - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (5):802-807.
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  • Historical Thinking in Clinical Medicine: Lessons From R.G. Collingwood's Philosophy of History.Benjamin H. Chin-Yee & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (3):448-454.
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  • Borrowed Philosophy: Bedside Physicalism and the Need for a Sui Generis Metaphysic of Medicine.Shawn D. Whatley - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):961-964.
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  • Evidence-Based Medicine Use in Pharmacy Practice: A Cross-Sectional Survey.Rana Abu Farha, Eman Alefishat, Maysa Suyagh, Eman Elayeh & Amal Mayyas - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):786-792.
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  • Does Evidence-Based Medicine Apply to Psychiatry?Mona Gupta - 2007 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (2):103.
    Evidence-based psychiatry (EBP) has arisen through the application of evidence-based medicine (EBM) to psychiatry. However, there may be aspects of psychiatric disorders and treatments that do not conform well to the assumptions of EBM. This paper reviews the ongoing debate about evidence-based psychiatry and investigates the applicability, to psychiatry, of two basic methodological features of EBM: prognostic homogeneity of clinical trial groups and quantification of trial outcomes. This paper argues that EBM may not be the best way to pursue psychiatric (...)
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  • Philosophical Aspects of Evidence and Methodology in Medicine.Jesper Jerkert - 2021 - Dissertation, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm
    The thesis consists of an introduction and five papers. The introduction gives a brief historical survey of empirical investigations into the effectiveness of medicinal interventions, as well as surveys of the concept of evidence and of the history and philosophy of experiments. The main ideas of the EBM movement are also presented. Paper I: Concerns have been raised that clinical trials do not offer reliable evidence for some types of treatment, in particular for highly individualised treatments, for example traditional homeopathy. (...)
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  • Knowing Times: Temporalities of Evidence for Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators.Teun Zuiderent-Jerak & Morten Sager - 2021 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 46 (3):628-654.
    Evidence-based medicine has been studied as a rich and diverse set of epistemic and infrastructural practices that relate imperfect medical knowledges to complex clinical practices. We examine instances of medical decision-making where medical professionals relate recommendations from clinical practice guidelines to individual patient characteristics when deciding to prescribe implantable cardioverter defibrillators to treat heart failure. When connecting evidence-based recommendations to decisions about individual patients, we find that clinical deliberations invoke different times, such as linear, chronological time, and biological aging, as (...)
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  • Evidence-Based Medicine: Requiescat in Pace? A Commentary on Djulbegovic, B., Guyatt, G. H. & Ashcroft, R. E. (2009)Cancer Control, 16, 158-168. [REVIEW]Andrew Miles - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):924-929.
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  • Where is the Wisdom? II - Evidence-Based Medicine and the Epistemological Crisis in Clinical Medicine. Exposition and Commentary on Djulbegovic, B., Guyatt, G. H. & Ashcroft, R. E. (2009)Cancer Control, 16, 158-168. [REVIEW]Suzana A. Silva & Peter C. Wyer - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):899-906.
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  • The “EBM Movement”: Where Did It Come From, Where is It Going, and Why Does It Matter?Ian Kerridge, Stacy M. Carter & Wendy Lipworth - 2008 - Social Epistemology 22 (4):425-431.
    Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) has now been part of the dominant medical paradigm for 15 years, and has been frequently debated and progressively modified. One question about EBM that has not yet been considered systematically, and is now particularly timely, is the question of the novelty, or otherwise, of the principles and practices of EBM. We argue that answering this question, and the related question of whether EBM-type principles and practices are unique to medicine, sheds new light on EBM and has (...)
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  • Hierarchies of Evidence in Evidence-Based Medicine.Christopher Blunt - 2015 - Dissertation, London School of Economics
    Hierarchies of evidence are an important and influential tool for appraising evidence in medicine. In recent years, hierarchies have been formally adopted by organizations including the Cochrane Collaboration [1], NICE [2,3], the WHO [4], the US Preventive Services Task Force [5], and the Australian NHMRC [6,7]. The development of such hierarchies has been regarded as a central part of Evidence-Based Medicine, a movement within healthcare which prioritises the use of epidemiological evidence such as that provided by Randomised Controlled Trials. Philosophical (...)
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  • Ethnography of Texts: A Literature Review of Health and Female Homosexuality in Brazil.Carolina Rau Steuernagel, Eivind Engebretsen, Hans Wiggo Kristiansen & Kåre Moen - 2020 - Medical Humanities 46 (3):204-213.
    This paper reviews the literature on health and female homosexuality in Brazil and, along the way, outlines an alternative approach to reviewing academic literature. Rather than summarising the contents of previously published papers, we relate to these publications primarily as partakers in the creation of knowledge. Inspired by Actor-Network Theory, we apply ethnographic methods to understand the papers as study participants endowed with action. We also draw on the notions of inscription and intertextuality to trace the complex relationship between the (...)
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  • What is Nature Capable Of? Evidence, Ontology and Speculative Medical Humanities.Martin Savransky & Marsha Rosengarten - 2016 - Medical Humanities 42 (3):166-172.
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  • The Glue Ear 'Epidemic': A Historical Perspective.D. Alderson - 2011 - Medical Humanities 37 (2):110-114.
    This paper explores the historical context of the dramatic rise in surgery for glue ear in the mid-20th century, and questions the published assertion that this represented a manufactured ‘epidemic’. In examining historical sources, the reader's theoretical viewpoint greatly influences their conclusions: the sustained rise in treatment for glue ear may be seen as the advance of science in a golden age or the resistance of insular professionals to reason in the light of new scientific study methods. Current views on (...)
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  • Whose Social Values? Evaluating Canada’s ‘Death of Evidence’ Controversy.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2015 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 45 (3):404-424.
    With twentieth- and twenty-first-century philosophy of science’s unfolding acceptance of the nature of scientific inquiry being value-laden, the persistent worry has been that there are no means for legitimate negotiation of the social or non-epistemic values that enter into science. The rejection of the value-free ideal in science has thereby been coupled with the spectres of indiscriminate relativism and bias in scientific inquiry. I challenge this view in the context of recently expressed concerns regarding Canada's death of evidence controversy. The (...)
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  • Place of Birth: Ethics and Evidence.Leah McClimans - 2017 - Topoi 36 (3):531-538.
    In the US and UK Births in obstetric units vastly outnumber births that take place outside of an obstetric unit. Still non-obstetric births are increasing in both countries. Is it professionally responsible to support a non-obstetric birth? It is morally responsible to choose to give birth at home? This debate has become heated with those on both sides finding empirical support for their positions. Indeed this moral debate is often carried out in terms of empirical evidence. While to some this (...)
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  • A Framework for Understanding Medical Epistemologies.George Khushf - 2013 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (5):461-486.
    What clinicians, biomedical scientists, and other health care professionals know as individuals or as groups and how they come to know and use knowledge are central concerns of medical epistemology. Activities associated with knowledge production and use are called epistemic practices. Such practices are considered in biomedical and clinical literatures, social sciences of medicine, philosophy of science and philosophy of medicine, and also in other nonmedical literatures. A host of different kinds of knowledge claims have been identified, each with different (...)
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  • Values‐Based Medicine and Modest Foundationalism.Miles Little, Wendy Lipworth, Jill Gordon, Pippa Markham & Ian Kerridge - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):1020-1026.
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  • Ethics and EBM: Acknowledging Bias, Accepting Difference and Embracing Politics.Ian Kerridge - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):365-373.
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  • Clinical Evidence and the Absent Body in Medical Phenomenology: On the Need for a New Phenomenology of Medicine.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2010 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 3 (1):43-71.
    The once animated efforts in medical phenomenology to integrate the art and science of medicine (or to humanize scientific medicine) have fallen out of philosophical fashion. Yet the current competing medical discourses of evidencebased medicine and patient-centered care suggest that this theoretical endeavor requires renewed attention. In this paper, I attempt to enliven the debate by discussing theoretical weaknesses in the way the “lived body” has operated in the medical phenomenology literature—the problem of the absent body—and highlight how evidence-based medicine (...)
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  • How Can Feminist Theories of Evidence Assist Clinical Reasoning and Decision-Making?Maya J. Goldenberg - 2013 - Social Epistemology (TBA):1-28.
    While most of healthcare research and practice fully endorses evidence-based healthcare, a minority view borrows popular themes from philosophy of science like underdetermination and value-ladenness to question the legitimacy of the evidence-based movement’s philosophical underpinnings. While the feminist origins go unacknowledged, those critics adopt a feminist reading of the “gap argument” to challenge the perceived objectivism of evidence-based practice. From there, the critics seem to despair over the “subjective elements” that values introduce to clinical reasoning, demonstrating that they do not (...)
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  • Evidence-Based Ethics? On Evidence-Based Practice and the "Empirical Turn" From Normative Bioethics.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2005 - BMC Medical Ethics 6 (1):1-9.
    Background The increase in empirical methods of research in bioethics over the last two decades is typically perceived as a welcomed broadening of the discipline, with increased integration of social and life scientists into the field and ethics consultants into the clinical setting, however it also represents a loss of confidence in the typical normative and analytic methods of bioethics. Discussion The recent incipiency of "Evidence-Based Ethics" attests to this phenomenon and should be rejected as a solution to the current (...)
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  • Schemata, CONSORT, and the Salk Polio Vaccine Trial.Charles J. Kowalski & Adam J. Mrdjenovich - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (1):64-82.
    In this essay, we defend the design of the Salk polio vaccine trial and try to put some limits on the role schemata should play in designing clinical research studies. Our presentation is structured as a response to de Freitas and Pietrobon who identified the CONSORT statement as a schema that would have, had it existed at the time, ruled out the design of the Salk polio vaccine trial of 1954 in favor of a completely randomized controlled clinical trial. We (...)
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  • Moral Expertise in the Clinic: Lessons Learned From Medicine and Science.Leah McClimans & Anne Slowther - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (4):401-415.
    Philosophers and others have questioned whether or not expertise in morality is possible. This debate is not only theoretical, but also affects the perceived legitimacy of clinical ethicists. One argument against moral expertise is that in a pluralistic society with competing moral theories no one can claim expertise regarding what another ought morally to do. There are simply too many reasonable moral values and intuitions that affect theory choice and its application; expertise is epistemically uniform. In this article, we discuss (...)
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  • Mechanisms: What Are They Evidence for in Evidence-Based Medicine?Holly Andersen - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):992-999.
    Even though the evidence‐based medicine movement (EBM) labels mechanisms a low quality form of evidence, consideration of the mechanisms on which medicine relies, and the distinct roles that mechanisms might play in clinical practice, offers a number of insights into EBM itself. In this paper, I examine the connections between EBM and mechanisms from several angles. I diagnose what went wrong in two examples where mechanistic reasoning failed to generate accurate predictions for how a dysfunctional mechanism would respond to intervention. (...)
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  • ‘We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident’: Deconstructing ‘Evidence-Based’ Medical Practice.Ignaas Devisch & Stuart J. Murray - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):950-964.
    Rationale, aims and objectives : Evidence-based medicine (EBM) claims to be based on 'evidence', rather than 'intuition'. However, EBM's fundamental distinction between quantitative 'evidence' and qualitative 'intuition' is not self-evident. The meaning of 'evidence' is unclear and no studies of quality exist to demonstrate the superiority of EBM in health care settings. This paper argues that, despite itself, EBM holds out only the illusion of conclusive scientific rigour for clinical decision making, and that EBM ultimately is unable to fulfil its (...)
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  • Evaluating the Impact of an Evidence‐Based Medicine Educational Intervention on Primary Care Doctors' Attitudes, Knowledge and Clinical Behaviour: A Controlled Trial and Before and After Study.Kerem Shuval, Eldar Berkovits, Doron Netzer, Igal Hekselman, Shai Linn, Mayer Brezis & Shmuel Reis - 2007 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (4):581-598.
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  • Medicine and Evidence: Knowledge and Action in Clinical Practice.Andrew Miles, Michael Loughlin & Andreas Polychronis - 2007 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (4):481-503.
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  • Challenging the Epistemological Foundations of EBM: What Kind of Knowledge Does Clinical Practice Require?Katrina J. Hutchison & Wendy A. Rogers - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):984-991.
    This paper raises questions about the epistemological foundations of evidence-based medicine . We argue that EBM is based upon reliabilist epistemological assumptions, and that this is appropriate - we should focus on identifying the most reliable processes for generating and collecting medical knowledge. However, we note that this should not be reduced to narrow questions about which research methodologies are the best for gathering evidence. Reliable processes for generating medical evidence might lie outside of formal research methods. We also question (...)
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  • Evidence‐Based Healthcare, Clinical Knowledge and the Rise of Personalised Medicine.Andrew Miles, Michael Loughlin & Andreas Polychronis - 2008 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):621-649.
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  • Challenges of Patient-Centred Care: Practice or Rhetoric.Catherine van Mossel, Maxine Alford & Heather Watson - 2011 - Nursing Inquiry 18 (4):278-289.
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  • No Exit? Intellectual Integrity Under the Regime of 'Evidence' and 'Best‐Practices'.Stuart J. Murray, Dave Holmes, Amélie Perron & Geneviève Rail - 2007 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (4):512-516.
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