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  1. Thinking in 3 dimensions: philosophies of the microenvironment in organoids and organs-on-chip.Silvia Caianiello, Marta Bertolaso & Guglielmo Militello - 2023 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 45 (2):1-35.
    Organoids and organs-on-a-chip are currently the two major families of 3D advanced organotypic in vitro culture systems, aimed at reconstituting miniaturized models of physiological and pathological states of human organs. Both share the tenets of the so-called “three-dimensional thinking”, a Systems Physiology approach focused on recapitulating the dynamic interactions between cells and their microenvironment. We first review the arguments underlying the “paradigm shift” toward three-dimensional thinking in the in vitro culture community. Then, through a historically informed account of the technical (...)
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