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ABSTRACT Backwardslooking operators Saarinen, E. [1979. “BackwardsLooking Operators in Tense Logic and in Natural Language.” In Essays on Mathematical and Philosophical Logic, edited by J. Hintikka, I. Niiniluoto, and E. Saarinen, 341–367. Dordrecht: Reidel] that have the material in their scope depend on higher intensional operators, are known to increase the expressivity of some intensional languages and have thus played a central role in debates about approaches to intensionality in terms of implicit parameters vs. variables explicitly quantifying over them. The (...) 

While standard firstorder modal logic is quite powerful, it cannot express even very simple sentences like “I could have been taller than I actually am” or “Everyone could have been smarter than they actually are”. These are examples of crossworld predication, whereby objects in one world are related to objects in another world. Extending firstorder modal logic to allow for crossworld predication in a motivated way has proven to be notoriously difficult. In this paper, I argue that the standard accounts (...) 

Many authors have noted that there are types of English modal sentences cannot be formalized in the language of basic firstorder modal logic. Some widely discussed examples include “There could have been things other than there actually are” and “Everyone who is actually rich could have been poor.” In response to this lack of expressive power, many authors have discussed extensions of firstorder modal logic with twodimensional operators. But claims about the relative expressive power of these extensions are often justified (...) 

Reformulation strategies for solving Fitch’s paradox of knowability date back to Edgington. Their core assumption is that the formula \, from which the paradox originates, does not correctly express the intended meaning of the verification thesis, which should concern possible knowledge of actual truths, and therefore the contradiction does not represent a logical refutation of verificationism. Supporters of these solutions claim that can be reformulated in a way that blocks the derivation of the paradox. Unfortunately, these reformulation proposals come with (...) 