A Pre-formal Proof of Why No Planar Map Needs More Than Four Colours


Although the Four Colour Theorem is passe, we give an elementary pre-formal proof that transparently illustrates why four colours suffice to chromatically differentiate any set of contiguous, simply connected and bounded, planar spaces; by showing that there is no minimal 4-coloured planar map M. We note that such a pre-formal proof of the Four Colour Theorem highlights the significance of differentiating between: (a) Plato's knowledge as justified true belief, which seeks a formal proof in a first-order mathematical language in order to justify a belief as true; and (b) Piccinini's knowledge as factually grounded belief, which seeks a pre-formal proof, in Pantsar's sense, in order to justify the axioms and rules of inference of a first-order mathematical language which can, then, formally prove the belief as justifiably true under a well-defined interpretation of the language.

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