Are There Ultimately Founded Propositions?

Universitas Philosophica 27 (54):163-177 (2010)
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Can we find propositions that cannot rationally be denied in any possible world without assuming the existence of that same proposition, and so involving ourselves in a contradiction? In other words, can we find transworld propositions needing no further foundation or justification? Basically, three differing positions can be imagined: firstly, a relativist position, according to which ultimately founded propositions are impossible; secondly, a meta-relativist position, according to which ultimately founded propositions are possible but unnecessary; and thirdly, an absolute position, according to which such propositions are necessary. In this short essay I show that under the premise of modal logic S5 with constant domain there are ultimately founded propositions and that their existence is even necessary, and I will give some reasons for the superiority of S5 over other logics.
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Naming and Necessity.Kripke, Saul A.
The Nature of Necessity.Plantinga, Alvin
A New Introduction to Modal Logic.Cresswell, M. J. & Hughes, G. E.

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